[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 play indispensable roles for the induction and maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Genome-wide mRNA expression studies have defined canonical signatures of T cell subsets. Changes in steady-state mRNA levels, however, often do not reflect those of corresponding proteins due to post-transcriptional mechanisms including mRNA translation. Here, we unveil a unique translational signature, contrasting CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (TFoxp3+) and CD4(+)Foxp3(-) non-regulatory T (TFoxp3-) cells, which imprints subset-specific protein expression. We further show that translation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is induced during T cell activation and, in turn, regulates translation of cell cycle related mRNAs and proliferation in both TFoxp3- and TFoxp3+ cells. Unexpectedly, eIF4E also affects Foxp3 expression and thereby lineage identity. Thus, mRNA-specific translational control directs both common and distinct cellular processes in CD4(+) T cell subsets.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a frequently used disease-modifying therapy for a large spectrum of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, yet its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. Using a robust murine model of antigen-driven allergic airways disease, we have demonstrated that IVIG markedly improves ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway hyperresponsiveness characterized by 4- to 6-fold enhancement in regulatory T (Treg) cells in pulmonary and associated lymphoid tissues.
We sought to determine whether IVIG induces antigen-specific Treg cells and to address cellular interactions that lead to induction of Treg cells by IVIG.
C57Bl/6 mice were sensitized and challenged by means of intranasal OVA exposure. IVIG or albumin control was administered 24 hours before challenge. Treg cells were tracked by using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) knock-in reporter mice (Foxp3(GFP)), and Treg cell and dendritic cell (DC) phenotypes and activities were elucidated by using coculture and flow cytometry.
IVIG therapy of OVA-sensitized and OVA-challenged mice induced antigen-specific forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)-positive Treg cells from non-Treg cell precursors. The induced Treg cells home specifically to the lungs and draining lymph nodes and have greatly potentiated suppressive activity compared with that seen in Treg cells purified from control mice. Induction of Treg cells is mediated by tolerogenic DCs generated after IVIG exposure. Compared with albumin-treated, OVA-exposed mice, IVIG-primed DCs express altered Notch ligands, including increased Delta-4 and reduced Jagged-1 levels, reflecting decreased T(H)2 polarization. Furthermore, IVIG-primed DCs can stimulate Treg cell differentiation from uncommitted Foxp3(-)CD4(+) T cells ex vivo, and adoptive transfer of IVIG-primed DCs abrogates airway hyperresponsiveness and induces Treg cells.
The anti-inflammatory effects of IVIG therapy can be mediated by the immunomodulation of DCs, creating a bridge that induces antigen-specific, highly suppressive Treg cells.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 05/2012; 129(6):1656-65.e3. · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using transgenic mouse models of breast cancer that ablate Src homology and collagen A (ShcA) expression or oncogene-coupled ShcA signaling, we previously showed that this adaptor is critical for mammary tumor onset and progression. We now provide the first evidence that ShcA regulates mammary tumorigenesis, in part, through its ability to regulate the adaptive immune response. Inactivation of ShcA signaling within tumor cells results in extensive CD4(+) T-cell infiltration and induction of a humoral immune response in mammary tumors. This is associated with a robust CTL response in preneoplastic lesions that are deficient in ShcA signaling. Moreover, mammary tumor progression of ShcA-deficient hyperplasias is accelerated in a T cell-deficient background. We also uncover a clinically relevant correlation between high ShcA expression and low CTL infiltration in human breast cancers. Finally, we define a novel ShcA-regulated immune signature that functions as an independent prognostic marker of survival in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(+) and basal breast cancers. We reveal a novel role for tumor cell-derived ShcA in the establishment and maintenance of an immunosuppressive state.
Cancer Research 10/2010; 70(20):7776-87. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relies on its Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) type III secretion system (T3SS) for intracellular replication and virulence. We report that the oxidoreductase thioredoxin 1 (TrxA) and SPI2 are coinduced for expression under in vitro conditions that mimic an intravacuolar environment, that TrxA is needed for proper SPI2 activity under these conditions, and that TrxA is indispensable for SPI2 activity in both phagocytic and epithelial cells. Infection experiments in mice demonstrated that SPI2 strongly contributed to virulence in a TrxA-proficient background whereas SPI2 did not affect virulence in a trxA mutant. Complementation analyses using wild-type trxA or a genetically engineered trxA coding for noncatalytic TrxA showed that the catalytic activity of TrxA is essential for SPI2 activity in phagocytic cells whereas a noncatalytic variant of TrxA partially sustained SPI2 activity in epithelial cells and virulence in mice. These results show that TrxA is needed for the intracellular induction of SPI2 and provide new insights into the functional integration between catalytic and noncatalytic activities of TrxA and a bacterial T3SS in different settings of intracellular infections.
Journal of bacteriology 09/2009; 191(22):6918-27. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade collagen networks in extracellular matrices by cleaving collagen and its denatured form gelatin, and thus enhance migration of mammalian cells. The gastrointestinal pathogen Salmonella enterica survives and grows within host macrophages and dendritic cells, and can disseminate in the host by travelling within infected host cells. Here, we report that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium activates proMMP-9 (gelatinase B) secreted by human primary macrophages, and degrades gelatin after growth within J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Both proMMP-9 activation and gelatin degradation were due to expression of the Salmonella surface protease PgtE. Following intraperitoneal infection in BALB/c mice, the amount of a pgtE deletion derivative was nearly ten-fold lower in the livers and spleens of mice than the amount of wild-type S. enterica, suggesting that PgtE contributes to dissemination of Salmonella in the host. PgtE belongs to the omptin family of bacterial beta-barrel transmembrane proteases. The ortholog of PgtE in Yersinia pestis, Pla, which is central for bacterial virulence in plague, was poor in proMMP-9 activation and in gelatin degradation. To model the evolution of these activities in the omptin barrel, we performed a substitution analysis in Pla and genetically modified it into a PgtE-like gelatinase. Our results indicate that PgtE and Pla have diverged in substrate specificity, and suggest that Salmonella PgtE has evolved to functionally mimic mammalian MMPs.
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 05/2008; 298(3-4):263-78. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A collection of nine salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit the activity of virulence-associated type III secretion systems (T3SSs) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The compounds strongly affected Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) T3SS-mediated invasion of epithelial cells and in vitro secretion of SPI1 invasion-associated effector proteins. The use of a SPI1 effector beta-lactamase fusion protein implicated intracellular entrapment of the protein construct upon application of a salicylidene acylhydrazide, whereas the use of chromosomal transcriptional gene fusions revealed a compound-mediated transcriptional silencing of SPI1. Salicylidene acylhydrazides also affected intracellular bacterial replication in murine macrophage-like cells and blocked the transport of an epitope-tagged SPI2 effector protein. Two of the compounds significantly inhibited bacterial motility and expression of extracellular flagellin. We conclude that salicylidene acylhydrazides affect bacterial T3SS activity in S. enterica and hence could be used as lead substances when designing specific inhibitors of bacterial T3SSs in order to pharmaceutically intervene with bacterial virulence.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2007; 51(8):2867-76. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the cytoplasmic reductase and protein chaperone thioredoxin 1 on the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was evaluated by deleting the trxA, trxB, or trxC gene of the cellular thioredoxin system, the grxA or gshA gene of the glutathione/glutaredoxin system, or the dsbC gene coding for a thioredoxin-dependent periplasmic disulfide bond isomerase. Mutants were tested for tolerance to oxidative and nitric oxide donor substances in vitro, for invasion and intracellular replication in cultured epithelial and macrophage-like cells, and for virulence in BALB/c mice. In these experiments only the gshA mutant, which was defective in glutathione synthesis, exhibited sensitization to oxidative stress in vitro and a small decrease in virulence. In contrast, the trxA mutant did not exhibit any growth defects or decreased tolerance to oxidative or nitric oxide stress in vitro, yet there were pronounced decreases in intracellular replication and mouse virulence. Complementation analyses using defined catalytic variants of thioredoxin 1 showed that there is a direct correlation between the redox potential of thioredoxin 1 and restoration of intracellular replication of the trxA mutant. Attenuation of mouse virulence that was caused by a deficiency in thioredoxin 1 was restored by expression of wild-type thioredoxin 1 in trans but not by expression of a catalytically inactive variant. These results clearly imply that in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, the redox-active protein thioredoxin 1 promotes virulence, whereas in vitro tolerance to oxidative stress depends on production of glutathione.
Infection and Immunity 10/2006; 74(9):5140-51. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: O-antigen-proficient and defined O-antigen-deficient mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were compared for intracellular replication and induction of nitric oxide (NO) expression in the murine macrophage-like cell line J774-A.1. While O-antigen-proficient bacteria replicated and provoked induction of host cell NO synthesis to expected levels, DeltawaaK, DeltawaaL and DeltawaaKL mutants displayed increased growth yields and induction of significantly lower levels of macrophage NO production. The downregulation of NO production did not involve suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, yet it depended on bacterial protein synthesis during infection of J774-A.1 cells. In contrast, when inhibitor substances were used to block iNOS activity, the growth yield of the wild type significantly exceeded that of the DeltawaaL mutant bacteria. Inactivation of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1)-associated bacterial type III secretion system did not affect intracellular replication in the wild type or the DeltawaaL background. However, inactivation of the SPI2-associated type III secretion strongly abrogated bacterial intracellular replication, and the DeltawaaLDeltassaV double mutant lost the ability to suppress NO expression. The results imply that a lack of O-antigen may increase bacterial fitness in J774-A.1 cells through suppression of iNOS activity, and that the O-antigen may protect against NO-independent restriction of bacterial intracellular replication.
Microbes and Infection 07/2006; 8(7):1826-38. · 2.92 Impact Factor