[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relies on its Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) type III secretion system (T3SS) for intracellular replication and virulence. We report that the oxidoreductase thioredoxin 1 (TrxA) and SPI2 are coinduced for expression under in vitro conditions that mimic an intravacuolar environment, that TrxA is needed for proper SPI2 activity under these conditions, and that TrxA is indispensable for SPI2 activity in both phagocytic and epithelial cells. Infection experiments in mice demonstrated that SPI2 strongly contributed to virulence in a TrxA-proficient background whereas SPI2 did not affect virulence in a trxA mutant. Complementation analyses using wild-type trxA or a genetically engineered trxA coding for noncatalytic TrxA showed that the catalytic activity of TrxA is essential for SPI2 activity in phagocytic cells whereas a noncatalytic variant of TrxA partially sustained SPI2 activity in epithelial cells and virulence in mice. These results show that TrxA is needed for the intracellular induction of SPI2 and provide new insights into the functional integration between catalytic and noncatalytic activities of TrxA and a bacterial T3SS in different settings of intracellular infections.
Journal of bacteriology 09/2009; 191(22):6918-27. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade collagen networks in extracellular matrices by cleaving collagen and its denatured form gelatin, and thus enhance migration of mammalian cells. The gastrointestinal pathogen Salmonella enterica survives and grows within host macrophages and dendritic cells, and can disseminate in the host by travelling within infected host cells. Here, we report that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium activates proMMP-9 (gelatinase B) secreted by human primary macrophages, and degrades gelatin after growth within J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Both proMMP-9 activation and gelatin degradation were due to expression of the Salmonella surface protease PgtE. Following intraperitoneal infection in BALB/c mice, the amount of a pgtE deletion derivative was nearly ten-fold lower in the livers and spleens of mice than the amount of wild-type S. enterica, suggesting that PgtE contributes to dissemination of Salmonella in the host. PgtE belongs to the omptin family of bacterial beta-barrel transmembrane proteases. The ortholog of PgtE in Yersinia pestis, Pla, which is central for bacterial virulence in plague, was poor in proMMP-9 activation and in gelatin degradation. To model the evolution of these activities in the omptin barrel, we performed a substitution analysis in Pla and genetically modified it into a PgtE-like gelatinase. Our results indicate that PgtE and Pla have diverged in substrate specificity, and suggest that Salmonella PgtE has evolved to functionally mimic mammalian MMPs.
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 05/2008; 298(3-4):263-78. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A collection of nine salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit the activity of virulence-associated type III secretion systems (T3SSs) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The compounds strongly affected Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) T3SS-mediated invasion of epithelial cells and in vitro secretion of SPI1 invasion-associated effector proteins. The use of a SPI1 effector beta-lactamase fusion protein implicated intracellular entrapment of the protein construct upon application of a salicylidene acylhydrazide, whereas the use of chromosomal transcriptional gene fusions revealed a compound-mediated transcriptional silencing of SPI1. Salicylidene acylhydrazides also affected intracellular bacterial replication in murine macrophage-like cells and blocked the transport of an epitope-tagged SPI2 effector protein. Two of the compounds significantly inhibited bacterial motility and expression of extracellular flagellin. We conclude that salicylidene acylhydrazides affect bacterial T3SS activity in S. enterica and hence could be used as lead substances when designing specific inhibitors of bacterial T3SSs in order to pharmaceutically intervene with bacterial virulence.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2007; 51(8):2867-76. · 4.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the cytoplasmic reductase and protein chaperone thioredoxin 1 on the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was evaluated by deleting the trxA, trxB, or trxC gene of the cellular thioredoxin system, the grxA or gshA gene of the glutathione/glutaredoxin system, or the dsbC gene coding for a thioredoxin-dependent periplasmic disulfide bond isomerase. Mutants were tested for tolerance to oxidative and nitric oxide donor substances in vitro, for invasion and intracellular replication in cultured epithelial and macrophage-like cells, and for virulence in BALB/c mice. In these experiments only the gshA mutant, which was defective in glutathione synthesis, exhibited sensitization to oxidative stress in vitro and a small decrease in virulence. In contrast, the trxA mutant did not exhibit any growth defects or decreased tolerance to oxidative or nitric oxide stress in vitro, yet there were pronounced decreases in intracellular replication and mouse virulence. Complementation analyses using defined catalytic variants of thioredoxin 1 showed that there is a direct correlation between the redox potential of thioredoxin 1 and restoration of intracellular replication of the trxA mutant. Attenuation of mouse virulence that was caused by a deficiency in thioredoxin 1 was restored by expression of wild-type thioredoxin 1 in trans but not by expression of a catalytically inactive variant. These results clearly imply that in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, the redox-active protein thioredoxin 1 promotes virulence, whereas in vitro tolerance to oxidative stress depends on production of glutathione.
Infection and Immunity 10/2006; 74(9):5140-51. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: O-antigen-proficient and defined O-antigen-deficient mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were compared for intracellular replication and induction of nitric oxide (NO) expression in the murine macrophage-like cell line J774-A.1. While O-antigen-proficient bacteria replicated and provoked induction of host cell NO synthesis to expected levels, DeltawaaK, DeltawaaL and DeltawaaKL mutants displayed increased growth yields and induction of significantly lower levels of macrophage NO production. The downregulation of NO production did not involve suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, yet it depended on bacterial protein synthesis during infection of J774-A.1 cells. In contrast, when inhibitor substances were used to block iNOS activity, the growth yield of the wild type significantly exceeded that of the DeltawaaL mutant bacteria. Inactivation of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1)-associated bacterial type III secretion system did not affect intracellular replication in the wild type or the DeltawaaL background. However, inactivation of the SPI2-associated type III secretion strongly abrogated bacterial intracellular replication, and the DeltawaaLDeltassaV double mutant lost the ability to suppress NO expression. The results imply that a lack of O-antigen may increase bacterial fitness in J774-A.1 cells through suppression of iNOS activity, and that the O-antigen may protect against NO-independent restriction of bacterial intracellular replication.
Microbes and Infection 07/2006; 8(7):1826-38. · 2.73 Impact Factor