Toru Takeuchi

Kagoshima University, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima-ken, Japan

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Publications (42)107.4 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While it is known that benzene induces myeloid leukemia in humans, the mechanism has yet to be clarified. Previously, we suggested that myeloperoxidase (MPO) was the key enzyme because it promotes generation of powerful oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which, reacting with DNA, causes leukemogenesis. In this study, using a whole-human-genome oligonucleotide microarray to clarify the relationships between myelotoxicity of benzene and MPO, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profiles of HL-60 human promyelocytic cell lines exposed to 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT) with or without MPO inhibition. The microarray analysis revealed that short (1 h) and longer (4 h) exposure to BT changed the expression in HL-60 cells of 1,213 or 1,214 genes associated with transcription, RNA metabolic processes, immune response, apoptosis, cell death, and biosynthetic processes (|Z-score|> 2.0), and that these changes were dramatically lessened by MPO-specific inhibition. The presence of functionally important genes and, specifically, genes related to apoptosis, carcinogenesis, regulation of transcription, immune responses, oxidative stress and cell-cycle regulation were further validated by real-time RT-PCR. Gene expression profiles along with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation analysis suggest that BT-induced DNA halogenation by MPO is a primary reaction in the leukemogenesis associated with benzene.
    Toxicology 01/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Dietary protein content is related clinically to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated how dietary protein content (12-24 % energy) within the range used by humans affected renal manifestations including the expressions of genes involved in the renin-angiotensin (RA) system in control and diabetic mice. Moreover, we examined the effects of dietary protein content on HbA1c and urinary glucose. METHODS: Control (CT) and leptin receptor-deficient obese (db) mice, 5 weeks old, were fed the diets below. Under ad libitum conditions, mice were fed 12, 18, and 24 % energy from protein (L-, M-, and H-diets) for 8 weeks. Under pair-feeding conditions, db mice were supplied H-diet (db-Hp) to the equivalent energy to that consumed by db-L mice. Renal manifestations and values related to glucose and insulin were examined biochemically and pathologically. RESULTS: Under ad libitum conditions, db mice consumed food and water dose dependently of the dietary protein content, although they were consumed similarly by CT mice. CT-L mice showed lower urinary albumin and kidney weight, in association with lower mRNA levels of angiotensinogen and renin, than CT-H mice. Under pair-feeding conditions, db-L mice showed a lower ratio of kidney/body weight, HbA1(C), and urinary glucose, and a higher β-cell distribution rate in the pancreas than db-Hp mice. CONCLUSIONS: Low-protein intake in the range used by humans may relieve renal manifestations through the suppressed expression of genes in the renal RA system of CT mice. On the other hand, in db mice, low-protein intake improved hyperglycemia and the renal manifestations of diabetes.
    European Journal of Nutrition 06/2012; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acupuncture, an alternative medicine, has been widely applied for people with sleep disturbances; therefore, the effects should be evaluated objectively. Micro-minipigs (MMPigs), the smallest miniature pigs for animal experiments, were used. Acupuncture was performed at two different points: Dafengmen is located on the head and is an anatomically similar point to human-Baihui (GV20), an effective acupoint for sleep disturbances in humans; pig-Baihui is on the back. The procedure was performed as follows: shallow, within 5 mm depth for several seconds; deep, 10-20 mm depth for 20 min. The sleep conditions were evaluated by actigraph, and the amount of catecholamine in pooled urine after acupuncture treatment. MMPigs with deep acupuncture at Dafengmen showed significantly efficient values on actigraph and catecholamine analysis as compared with untreated MMPigs. The effective acupoint for sleep conditions in the porcine model is at an anatomically similar point to humans, rather than the point determined by traditional Chinese medicine.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:472982. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of long-term voluntary exercise, representing habitual exercise for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, on glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism in mice. Twenty-four mice aged 6 weeks were divided into three groups. Two groups (16 mice) were housed individually in either cages equipped with a running wheel (8 mice, exercising, Ex-mice) or without (8 mice, sedentary, Se-mice) for 24 weeks. The remaining group (8 mice) was sacrificed at 6 weeks of age. Biomarkers related to glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism were examined. Ex-mice ran voluntarily, predominantly in the dark. The distance per day peaked at 4 weeks and then decreased until 12 weeks to around the level seen at the beginning of the experimental period, and was maintained at 4.9 ± 0.2 km/day from 12 to 24 weeks. Ex-mice showed a similar adrenal weight and vitamin C content to Se-mice but had a significantly lower body weight and higher food intake. Ex-mice also showed a higher skeletal muscle weight, a lower white adipose tissue and liver weight, associated with lower plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, and a lower hepatic triglyceride content. Analysis of plasma amino acids showed that Ex-mice had significantly higher phenylalanine, tyrosine, and glutamine levels, resulting in a significantly lower Fischer's ratio. We present an animal model of long-term voluntary exercise under low stress. Findings related to the effects of long-term voluntary exercise on lipid, and amino acid metabolism in our mouse model indicate that such an exercise regimen may affect pathophysiological states related to appetite and behavior.
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 11/2011; 17(4):275-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Although benzene is known to be myelotoxic and to cause myeloid leukemia in humans, the mechanism has not been elucidated. We focused on 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT), a benzene metabolite that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by autoxidation, to investigate the toxicity of benzene leading to leukemogenesis. After exposing HL-60 human myeloid cells to BT, we investigated the cellular effects, including apoptosis, ROS generation, DNA damage, and protein damage. We also investigated how the cellular effects of BT were modified by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger catalase, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenger methionine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH), a myeloperoxidase (MPO)-specific inhibitor. BT increased the levels of apoptosis and ROS, including superoxide (O2•-), H2O2, HOCl, and the hydroxyl radical (•OH). Catalase, ABAH, and methionine each inhibited the increased apoptosis caused by BT, and catalase and ABAH inhibited increases in HOCl and •OH. Although BT exposure increased halogenated DNA, this increase was inhibited by catalase, methionine, and ABAH. BT exposure also increased the amount of halogenated tyrosines; however, it did not increase 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. We suggest that BT increases H2O2 intracellularly; this H2O2 is metabolized to HOCl by MPO, and this HOCl results in possibly cytotoxic binding of chlorine to DNA. Because myeloid cells copiously express MPO and because halogenated DNA may induce both genetic and epigenetic changes that contribute to carcinogenesis, halogenative stress may account for benzene-induced bone marrow disorders and myeloid leukemia.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 08/2011; 120(1):62-7. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) mRNA has been reported as an up-regulated gene in the heart and skeletal muscle of carnitine-deficient juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice under fed conditions. PDK4 plays an important role in the inhibition of glucose oxidation via the phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). This study evaluated the meaning of increased PDK4 mRNA in glucose metabolism by investigating PDK4 protein levels, PDC activity and glucose uptake by the heart and skeletal muscle of JVS mice. PDK4 protein levels in the heart and skeletal muscle of fed JVS mice were increased in accordance with mRNA levels, and protein was enriched in the mitochondria. PDK4 protein was co-fractionated with PDC in sucrose density gradient centrifugation, like PDK2 protein; however, the activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) active form in the heart and skeletal muscle of fed JVS mice were similar to those in fed control mice. Fed JVS mice showed significantly higher glucose uptake in the heart and similar uptake in the skeletal muscle compared with fed control mice. Thus, in carnitine deficiency under fed conditions, glucose was preferentially utilized in the heart as an energy source despite increased PDK4 protein levels in the mitochondria. The preferred glucose utilization may be involved in developing cardiac hypertrophy from carnitine deficiency in fatty acid oxidation abnormality.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 03/2011; 102(3):349-55. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Benzene has been consistently associated with hematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia and aplastic anemia, but the mechanisms causing these disorders are still unclear. Various metabolites of benzene lead to toxicity through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the inhibition of topoisomerase and DNA damage. However, benzene itself is considered to have no mutagenic or cytotoxic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of benzene itself on a human myeloid cell line with or without benzene metabolizing enzyme inhibitors. A human myeloid cell line, HL-60, was exposed to benzene with or without cytochrome P450 2E1 or myeloperoxidase inhibitor. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of global DNA methylation levels, induction of apoptosis, and ROS production. Benzene did not change global DNA methylation levels. However, benzene itself increased the levels of apoptosis and ROS. This cytotoxicity did not change with the addition of benzene metabolizing enzyme inhibitors. Benzene itself increased the mRNA levels of oxidative stress-related genes and transcription factors of activator protein-1. Benzene did not influence global DNA methylation in HL-60 cells, but had cytotoxic effects and changed gene expression levels. To elucidate the mechanisms of benzene toxicity, benzene itself as well as benzene metabolites must be investigated.
    Journal of Occupational Health 02/2011; 53(2):84-92. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic lesions were observed in male and ovariectomized female Microminipig (MMP) fed a high fat and cholesterol diet with sodium cholate (HFCD/SC) for 3 months. HFCD/SC induced hypercholesterolemia accompanied by an increase in serum total cholesterol (T-Cho), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and cholesterol ester (CE). Unlike the mouse or rabbit, a dominant LDL-C fraction in the intact MMP, similar to that in humans, was observed by serum lipoprotein analysis. HFCD/SC increased body weight gain. At the end of the experiment, computed tomography scans of conscious animals showed that HFCD/SC had decreased liver attenuation values (Hounsfield unit) and increased subcutaneous and abdominal fat, suggesting the induction of fatty liver and obesity. HFCD/SC induced atherosclerotic lesions in systemic arteries, including the external and internal iliac arteries, abdominal aorta, coronary artery, and cerebral arterial circle. Atherosclerosis and pathological findings induced by HFCD/SC in MMP were similar to those in humans. The MMP is a potentially suitable tool for investigating human atherosclerosis.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 02/2011; 115(2):115-21. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms is an important medical and social problem. Drug-resistant microorganisms are thought to grow selectively in the presence of antibiotics. Most clinically isolated drug-resistant microorganisms have mutations in the target genes for the drugs. While any of the many mutagens in the environment may cause such genetic mutations, no reports have yet described whether these mutagens can confer drug resistance to clinically important microorganisms. We investigated how environmental mutagens might be implicated in acquired resistance to antibiotics in clinically important microorganisms, which causes human diseases. We selected mutagens found in the environment, in cigarette smoke, or in drugs, and then exposed Pseudomonas aeruginosa to them. After exposure, the incidence of rifampicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa strains markedly increased, and we found mutations in genes for the antibiotic-target molecule. These mutations were similar to those found in drug-resistant microorganisms isolated from clinical samples. Our findings show that environmental mutagens, and an anticancer drug, are capable of inducing drug-resistant P. aeruginosa similar to strains found in clinical settings.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 01/2011; 317(2):109-16. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lifestyle-related diseases are associated with overeating and lack of exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise and high-fat diet on plasma adiponectin and nesfatin levels. Mice were housed for 4 weeks in 4 groups, which included the non-exercise and normal diet (SN), exercise and normal diet (EN), non-exercise and high-fat diet (SF) and the exercise and high-fat diet (EF) group. The mice in the exercise groups were housed in cages with a running wheel and were subjected to voluntary exercise. The food intake (Kcal) of the mice in the exercise groups increased compared to that of the mice in the non-exercise groups (P<0.01). Body weight and visceral fat decreased in the mice in the EF group compared to the mice in the SF group (P<0.01 and P<0.05). The temperature of the mice in the EF group increased compared to that of the mice in the SN group (P<0.05). Blood glucose, insulin (P<0.01), cholesterol (P<0.01) and triglyceride concentrations (P<0.01) increased in the SF group compared to the normal diet groups. Furthermore, plasma insulin and cholesterol concentrations increased in the SF group compared to the exercise groups (P<0.01). Plasma adiponectin and nesfatin-1 levels in the SF group decreased compared to the SN group (P<0.05). Exercise under a high-fat diet antagonized the significant decrease in the nesfatin-1 level. Exercise together with a high-fat diet affected the plasma levels of adiponectin and nesfatin. It is therefore suggested that exercise together with a high-fat diet can affect various diseases via adiponectin and nesfatin.
    Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2011; 2(2):369-373. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether habitual exercise (HE) (treadmill running) suppresses development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) induced by ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA). Male Fischer 344 rats were divided into six groups: group I, saline treatment (12 weeks = initiation period) and non-HE; group II, Fe-NTA treatment (12 weeks) and non-HE; group III, saline treatment and short-term (12 weeks) HE; group IV, Fe-NTA treatment and short-term HE; group V, saline treatment and long-term (40 weeks) HE; and group VI, Fe-NTA treatment and long-term HE. Saline treatment groups did not develop RCC, therefore we investigated the effects of HE among Fe-NTA treatment groups. Gross nodules (diagnosed as RCC), RCC represented by microcarcinomas (Mcs), karyomegalic cells (KCs), and degenerative tubules (DTs) were seen in rats treated with Fe-NTA. The number of Mcs, KCs, and DTs were increased in the short-term HE group when compared with those in the non-HE group, but were decreased in the long-term HE group when compared with those in the short-term HE group. Short-term (initiation period) HE promoted renal carcinogenesis induced by Fe-NTA; however, long-term HE after the initiation period suppressed the promoted carcinogenesis.
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 11/2010; 16(4):232-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Microcystin-LR, a cyclic heptapeptide, possesses the ability to inhibit the serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A and, consequently, exhibits acute hepatocytotoxicity. Moreover, microcystin-LR induces cellular proliferation, resulting in tumor-promoting activity in hepatocytes. However, mechanisms that regulate the balance between cell death and proliferation after microcystin-LR treatment remain unclear. We examined the contribution of the transcription factor p53, as well as that of the hepatic uptake transporter for microcystin-LR, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3), to the cellular response to microcystin-LR exposure. We analyzed intracellular signaling responses to microcystin-LR by immunoblotting and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction techniques using HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with SLCO1B3 (HEK293-OATP1B3). In addition, we analyzed the effect of attenuation of p53 function, via the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha, and knockdown of p53 mRNA on the cytotoxicity of microcystin-LR using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Microcystin-LR induced the phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 in HEK293-OATP1B3 cells, which resulted in up-regulation of the expression of p53 transcript targets, including p21 and seven in absentia homolog 1 (siah-1). In addition, microcystin-LR activated Akt signaling through the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Although Akt signaling was activated, the accumulation of p53 led cells to apoptosis after treatment with 50 nM microcystin-LR for 24 hr. Both pharmacological inhibition of transcription factor activity of p53 by pifithrin-alpha and knockdown of p53 with small hairpin RNA attenuated the susceptibility of HEK293-OATP1B3 cells to microcystin-LR. This study demonstrates the importance of p53 in the regulation of cell fate after exposure to microcystin-LR. Our results suggest that, under conditions of p53 inactivation (including p53 mutation), chronic exposure to low doses of microcystin-LR may lead to cell proliferation through activation of Akt signaling. Results of this study may contribute to the development of chemoprevention and chemotherapeutic approaches to microcystin-LR poisoning.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 09/2010; 118(9):1292-8. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carnitine-deficient juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, suffering from fatty acid metabolism abnormalities, have reduced locomotor activity after fasting. We examined whether JVS mice exhibit specific defect in the feeding response to fasting, a key process of anti-famine homeostatic mechanism. Carnitine-deficient JVS mice showed grossly defective feeding response to 24 h-fasting, with almost no food intake in the first 4 h, in marked contrast to control animals. JVS mice also showed defective acyl-ghrelin response to fasting, less suppressed leptin, and seemingly normal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression in the hypothalamus despite markedly increased plasma corticosterone. The anorectic response was ameliorated by intraperitoneal administration of carnitine or acyl-ghrelin, with decreased CRF expression. Intracerebroventricular treatment of CRF type 2 receptor antagonist, anti-sauvagine-30, recovered the defective feeding response of 24 h-fasted JVS mice. The defective feeding response to fasting in carnitine-deficient JVS mice is due to the defective acyl-ghrelin and enhanced CRF signaling in the hypothalamus through fatty acid metabolism abnormalities. In this animal model, carnitine normalizes the feeding response through an inhibition of CRF.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2009; 1792(11):1087-93. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a reversible inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), is increasingly taken as an antioxidative and anti-ageing supplement. This study investigated the effects of DHEA on the expression of G6PD and on the state of oxidative stress in a human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line, HL60, during the differentiation to neutrophil-like cell. This study differentiated HL60 with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the presence (DMSO-HL60/DHEA) or absence (DMSO-HL60) of DHEA. During the differentiation, activity, mRNA and protein levels of G6PD were increased. DHEA increased these levels further. DHEA by itself suppressed the production of superoxide from DMSO-HL60 upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). However, DMSO-HL60/DHEA stimulated with PMA in the absence of DHEA produced superoxide and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine more than PMA-stimulated DMSO-HL60. After addition of H(2)O(2), the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione was lower in DMSO-HL60/DHEA than in DMSO-HL60. These findings indicate that DHEA acts both as an antioxidant and as a pro-oxidant.
    Free Radical Research 09/2009; 43(10):922-31. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Toru Takeuchi
    Sangyo eiseigaku zasshi Journal of occupational health 08/2009; 51(5):71-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is the secondary lymphoid tissue in bronchial mucosa and is involved in the development of bronchopulmonary immune responses. Although migration of lymphocytes from blood vessels into secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for the development of appropriate adaptive immunity, the endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that recruit specific subsets of lymphocytes into human BALT are not known. The aim of this study was to determine which adhesion molecules are expressed on lymphocytes and high endothelial venules (HEVs) in human BALT. We immunostained frozen sections of BALT from lobectomy specimens from 17 patients with lung carcinoma with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules. Sections of BALT showed B cell follicles surrounded by T cells. Most BALT CD4+ T cells had a CD45RO+ memory phenotype. Almost all BALT B cells expressed alpha4 integrin and L-selectin. In contrast, 43% of BALT T cells expressed alpha4 integrin and 20% of BALT T cells expressed L-selectin. Almost all BALT lymphocytes expressed LFA-1. HEVs, which support the migration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into secondary lymphoid tissues, were prominent in BALT. All HEVs expressed peripheral node addressin, most HEVs expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and no HEVs expressed mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1. Human BALT expresses endothelia and lymphocyte adhesion molecules that may be important in recruiting naive and memory/effector lymphocytes to BALT during protective and pathologic bronchopulmonary immune responses.
    Respiratory research 01/2009; 10:97. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strict anaerobes are highly sensitive to oxygen, but the mutagenicity of oxygen in strict anaerobes has not been well understood. Prevotella melaninogenica, a strict anaerobe, is susceptible to oxygen and shows an increase in oxidative DNA damage upon exposure to oxygen. In this study, we have investigated the mutagenicity of oxygen and the types of mutations induced by oxygen. Exposure to oxygen decreased cell survival and increased the levels of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). The frequency of rifampicin-resistant mutants was markedly increased after exposure to oxygen. After sequencing a 254-bp fragment of the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase, a target molecule of rifampicin, we found that most mutants induced by oxygen had GC to TA transversions, a signature of 8-oxodG. In addition, all detected single-nucleotide changes would lead to amino acid changes that confer rifampicin resistance. These results indicate that oxygen is mutagenic in a strict anaerobe, P. melaninogenica, and its mutagenic characteristics could be analyzed with this experimental system.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 06/2008; 44(10):1857-62. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a potent hepatotoxin. Oxidative stress is thought to be implicated in the cytotoxicity of MCLR, but the mechanisms by which MCLR produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) are still unclear. This study investigated the role and possible sources of ROS generation in MCLR-induced cytogenotoxicity in HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line. MCLR increased DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxydeoxiguanosine formation, lipid peroxidation, as well as LDH release, all of which were inhibited by ROS scavengers. ROS scavengers partly suppressed MCLR-induced cytotoxicity determined by the MTT assay. MCLR induced the generation of ROS, as confirmed by confocal microscopy with 2-[6-(4'-hydroxy)phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl]benzoic acid, and upregulated the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA. In addition, CYP2E1 inhibitors chlormethiazole and diallyl dulphide inhibited both ROS generation and cytotoxicity induced by MCLR. The results suggest that ROS contribute to MCLR-induced cytogenotoxicity. CYP2E1 might be a potential source responsible for ROS generation by MCLR.
    Free Radical Research 01/2008; 41(12):1326-37. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemokine receptor CCR4 and its ligands (CCL17 and CCL22) are important for the recruitment of memory T cells into the skin in various cutaneous immune diseases. However, information on CCR4 and its ligands in contact hypersensitivity is relatively limited. In this study, we investigated the expression of CCR4, CCL17, and CCL22 in a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone. Contact sensitization to oxazolone increased the proportions of memory CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, and peripheral blood. Although CCR4+ mRNA and CCR4+ cells were detectable in naive mouse lymph nodes, they significantly increased in the sensitized mice. The majority of CCR4+ cells in both control and sensitized mouse lymph nodes were CD4+ T cells. In the skin of naive mice, the mRNAs for CCR4, CCL17, and CCL22 were detectable, but only CCL17 and CCL22 proteins were constitutively expressed in the skin, particularly in the epidermis. Interestingly, the mRNAs for CCR4 and its two ligands were significantly elevated in the inflamed skin of mice with contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone. Furthermore, a subpopulation of cells that infiltrated the skin was CCR4+ cells. Finally, the expression of CCL17 and CCL22 proteins was significantly enhanced in the epidermis of inflamed skin. Thus, our study provides direct evidence for the presence of CCR4 and its ligands in mouse contact hypersensitivity.
    Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 12/2007; 27(11):901-10. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to having health-promoting effects, exercise is considered to induce oxidative stress. To clarify whether increased oxygen consumption during exercise induces oxidative stress, we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise on a series of oxidative damage markers. One group of subjects performed aerobic exercise and another group performed anaerobic exercise with similar workloads, but with different levels of oxygen consumption. Blood and urine samples were collected before, immediately after, and 3, 9, and 24 h after exercise. Serum uric acid (UA) and creatine phosphokinase were evaluated. As markers of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA, we evaluated serum 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, urinary F(2)-isoprostanes, serum protein carbonyls, and leukocyte 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Oxygen consumption was significantly greater during aerobic exercise. Although UA level increased immediately after aerobic exercise and decreased thereafter, UA level did not change after anaerobic exercise. The two types of exercise had significantly different effects on the change in UA level. After anaerobic exercise, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal significantly increased at 24 h and 3 h, respectively. The levels of creatine phosphokinase and F(2)-isoprostanes decreased after exercise. The two types of exercise caused no apparent significant differences in the levels of these biomarkers. The findings suggest that similar workloads of anaerobic exercise and aerobic exercise induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) differently: aerobic exercise seems to initially generate more ROS, whereas anaerobic exercise may induce prolonged ROS generation. Although more oxygen was consumed during aerobic exercise, the generated ROS did not induce significant oxidative damage. Oxygen consumption per se may not be the major cause of exercise-induced oxidative damage.
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 09/2007; 12(5):202-8.

Publication Stats

336 Citations
107.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2012
    • Kagoshima University
      • • Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima-ken, Japan
  • 2011
    • Numazu City Hospital
      Sizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
  • 2006
    • University of Yamanashi
      • Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering
      Kōfu-shi, Yamanashi-ken, Japan