[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multimorbidity is a common phenomenon in primary care. Until now, no clinical guidelines for multimorbidity exist. For the development of these guidelines, it is necessary to know whether or not patients are aware of their diseases and to what extent they agree with their doctor. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the agreement of self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care, and to discover which patient characteristics are associated with positive agreement.
The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 3,189 multimorbid patients, ages 65 to 85. Data was collected in personal interviews with patients and GPs. The prevalence proportions for 32 diagnosis groups, kappa coefficients and proportions of specific agreement were calculated in order to examine the agreement of patient self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions. Logistic regression models were calculated to analyze which patient characteristics can be associated with positive agreement.
We identified four chronic conditions with good agreement (e.g. diabetes mellitus kappa = 0.80;PA = 0,87), seven with moderate agreement (e.g. cerebral ischemia/chronic stroke kappa = 0.55;PA = 0.60), seventeen with fair agreement (e.g. cardiac insufficiency kappa = 0.24;PA = 0.36) and four with poor agreement (e.g. gynecological problems kappa = 0.05;PA = 0.10).Factors associated with positive agreement concerning different chronic diseases were sex, age, education, income, disease count, depression, EQ VAS score and nursing care dependency. For example: Women had higher odds ratios for positive agreement with their GP regarding osteoporosis (OR = 7.16). The odds ratios for positive agreement increase with increasing multimorbidity in almost all of the observed chronic conditions (OR = 1.22-2.41).
For multimorbidity research, the knowledge of diseases with high disagreement levels between the patients' perceived illnesses and their physicians' reports is important. The analysis shows that different patient characteristics have an impact on the agreement. Findings from this study should be included in the development of clinical guidelines for multimorbidity aiming to optimize health care. Further research is needed to identify more reasons for disagreement and their consequences in health care.Trial registration: ISRCTN89818205.
BMC Family Practice 03/2014; 15(1):39. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2,824) and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32,143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene set, consisting of genes related to neuronal excitability, was robustly linked to performance in working memory-related tasks across ages and to schizophrenia. Functional brain imaging in 707 healthy participants linked this gene set also to working memory-related activity in the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Gene set analyses may help to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cognitive dimensions, brain activity, and psychopathology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With increasing life expectancy the number of people affected by multimorbidity rises. Knowledge of factors associated with health-related quality of life in multimorbid people is scarce. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with self-rated health (SRH) in aged multimorbid primary care patients.
Cross-sectional study with 3,189 multimorbid primary care patients aged from 65 to 85 years recruited in 158 general practices in 8 study centers in Germany. Information about morbidity, risk factors, resources, functional status and socio-economic data were collected in face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with SRH were identified by multivariable regression analyses.
Depression, somatization, pain, limitations of instrumental activities (iADL), age, distress and Body Mass Index (BMI) were inversely related with SRH. Higher levels of physical activity, income and self-efficacy expectation had a positive association with SRH. The only chronic diseases remaining in the final model were Parkinson's disease and neuropathies. The final model accounted for 35% variance of SRH. Separate analyses for men and women detected some similarities; however, gender specific variation existed for several factors.
In multimorbid patients symptoms and consequences of diseases such as pain and activity limitations, as well as depression, seem to be far stronger associated with SRH than the diseases themselves. High income and self-efficacy expectation are independently associated with better SRH and high BMI and age with low SRH.Trial registration: MultiCare Cohort study registration: ISRCTN89818205.
BMC Family Practice 01/2014; 15(1):1. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To map the suitability of the Six Item Cognitive Impairment Test's (6CIT) as a screening instrument for dementia in primary care and to assess its feasibility, reliability, and validity in a real-world setting.Method: The present study was part of a population-based prospective trial aimed at reducing the incidence of stroke and dementia. The 6CIT was administered by general practitioners (GPs) at routine examinations every two years. Incidence of dementia was obtained from health insurance records. Psychometric qualities of the 6CIT were evaluated for two different cut-offs.Results: At baseline, 72 GPs examined 3908 patients. In total, 528 patients were diagnosed with new dementia. Less than 1% of the tests were not completed. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), stability over time (Pearson's r), and the agreement between successive tests (Cohen's kappa) reached values of 0.58, 0.62, and 0.45, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity reached values of 0.49 and 0.92 at the 7/8 cut-off and of 0.32 and 0.98 at the 10/11 cut-off, respectively. Patients with dementia had significantly higher mean error scores than patients without dementia. High scores at baseline posed a more than fourfold risk of being diagnosed with dementia.Conclusion: The 6CIT's psychometric properties in a real-world setting suggest that the test is not suited as a routine screening instrument. Factors inherent to screening in primary care likely contributed to its low reliability and validity. This highlights the need for training GPs in the conduct of cognitive screening before such procedures can be implemented on a routine basis.
Aging and Mental Health 11/2013; · 1.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As physical activity may modify the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, we tested for such a gene-environment interaction in a sample of general practice patients aged ⩾75 years. Method Data were derived from follow-up waves I-IV of the longitudinal German study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). The Kaplan-Meier survival method was used to estimate dementia- and AD-free survival times. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess individual associations of APOE ε4 and physical activity with risk for dementia and AD, controlling for covariates. We tested for gene-environment interaction by calculating three indices of additive interaction.
Among the randomly selected sample of 6619 patients, 3327 (50.3%) individuals participated in the study at baseline and 2810 (42.5%) at follow-up I. Of the 2492 patients without dementia included at follow-up I, 278 developed dementia (184 AD) over the subsequent follow-up interval of 4.5 years. The presence of the APOE ε4 allele significantly increased and higher physical activity significantly decreased risk for dementia and AD. The co-presence of APOE ε4 with low physical activity was associated with higher risk for dementia and AD and shorter dementia- and AD-free survival time than the presence of APOE ε4 or low physical activity alone. Indices of interaction indicated no significant interaction between low physical activity and the APOE ε4 allele for general dementia risk, but a possible additive interaction for AD risk.
Physical activity even in late life may be effective in reducing conversion to dementia and AD or in delaying the onset of clinical manifestations. APOE ε4 carriers may particularly benefit from increasing physical activity with regard to their risk for AD.
Psychological Medicine 07/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Multimorbidity has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Previous studies included only a limited number of conditions. In this study, we analyse the impact of a large number of conditions on HRQL in multimorbid patients without preselecting particular diseases. We also explore the effects of these conditions on the specific dimensions of HRQL.
Materials and Methods: This analysis is based on a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 3189 multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85. The impact of 45 conditions on HRQL was analysed. The severity of the conditions was rated. The EQ-5D, consisting of 5 dimensions and a visual-analogue-scale (EQ VAS), was employed. Data were analysed using multiple ordinary least squares and multiple logistic regressions. Multimorbidity measured by a weighted count score was significantly associated with lower overall HRQL (EQ VAS), b =21.02 (SE: 0.06). Parkinson’s disease had the most pronounced negative effect on overall HRQL (EQ VAS), b =212.29 (SE: 2.18), followed by rheumatism, depression, and obesity. With regard to the individual EQ-5D dimensions, depression (OR = 1.39 to 3.3) and obesity (OR = 1.44 to 1.95) affected all five dimensions of the EQ-5D negatively except for the dimension anxiety/depression. Obesity had a positive effect on this dimension, OR = 0.78 (SE: 0.07). The dimensions ‘‘self-care’’, OR = 4.52 (SE: 1.37) and ‘‘usual activities’’, OR = 3.59 (SE: 1.0), were most strongly affected by Parkinson’s disease. As a limitation our sample may only represent patients with at most moderate disease severity.
Conclusions: The overall HRQL of multimorbid patients decreases with an increasing count and severity of conditions. Parkinson’s disease, depression and obesity have the strongest impact on HRQL. Further studies should address the impact of disease combinations which require very large sample sizes as well as advanced statistical methods.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To analyze the impact of multimorbidity (MM) on health care costs taking into account data heterogeneity. METHODS: Data come from a multicentre prospective cohort study of 1,050 randomly selected primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years suffering from MM in Germany. MM was defined as co-occurrence of >=3 conditions from a list of 29 chronic diseases. A conditional inference tree (CTREE) algorithm was used to detect the underlying structure and most influential variables on costs of inpatient care, outpatient care, medications as well as formal and informal nursing care. RESULTS: Irrespective of the number and combination of co-morbidities, a limited number of factors influential on costs were detected. Parkinson's disease (PD) and cardiac insufficiency (CI) were the most influential variables for total costs. Compared to patients not suffering from any of the two conditions, PD increases predicted mean total costs 3.5-fold to approximately [euro sign] 11,000 per 6 months, and CI two-fold to approximately [euro sign] 6,100. The high total costs of PD are largely due to costs of nursing care. Costs of inpatient care were significantly influenced by cerebral ischemia/chronic stroke, whereas medication costs were associated with COPD, insomnia, PD and diabetes. Except for costs of nursing care, socio-demographic variables did not significantly influence costs. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of any combination and number of co-occurring diseases, PD and CI appear to be most influential on total health care costs in elderly patients with MM, and only a limited number of factors significantly influenced cost.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89818205.
BMC Health Services Research 06/2013; 13(1):219. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Progression from cognitive impairment (CI) to dementia is predicted by several factors, but their relative importance and interaction are unclear. METHOD: We investigated numerous such factors in the AgeCoDe study, a longitudinal study of general practice patients aged 75+. We used recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify hierarchical patterns of baseline covariates that predicted dementia-free survival. RESULTS: Among 784 non-demented patients with CI, 157 (20.0%) developed dementia over a follow-up interval of 4.5 years. RPA showed that more severe cognitive compromise, revealed by a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score < 27.47, was the strongest predictor of imminent dementia. Dementia-free survival time was shortest (mean 2.4 years) in such low-scoring patients who also had impaired instrumental activities of daily living (iADL) and subjective memory impairment with related worry (SMI-w). Patients with identical characteristics but without SMI-w had an estimated mean dementia-free survival time of 3.8 years, which was still shorter than in patients who had subthreshold MMSE scores but intact iADL (4.2-5.2 years). CONCLUSION: Hierarchical patterns of readily available covariates can predict dementia-free survival in older general practice patients with CI. Although less widely appreciated than other variables, iADL impairment appears to be an especially noteworthy predictor of progression to dementia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Depression is a risk factor for stroke and mortality but whether this also holds into old age is uncertain. We therefore studied the association of depression with the risk for non-fatal stroke and all-cause mortality in very old age. METHODS: A representative sample of 3085 primary care patients aged ≥75 years were serially assessed during a 6-year follow-up. The relation between depression (Geriatric Depression Scale >6, n=261) and relevant covariates including vascular risk factors and disease, functional and mild cognitive impairment and ApoE genotype on primary care givers information of incident stroke (n=209) and mortality (n=647) were assessed by Cox regression and by competing risk regressions. RESULTS: Depression was not independently associated with incident stroke in fully adjusted models that treated death as the competing event (subdistribution hazard ratio=0.80, 95% confidence interval=0.47 to 1.36). The risk associated with depression was similar for men and women, and for age groups 75-79, 80-84 and ≥85 years. In contrast, depression increased all-cause mortality rates, even after adjusting for a range of confounders (hazard ratio=1.31, 95% confidence interval=1.03 to 1.67). LIMITATIONS: We have no information on past depressive episodes and cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to reports in younger populations, depression does not appear to increase stroke risk among the old and very old, but continuous to be a risk factor for all-cause mortality.
Journal of affective disorders 03/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI), early MCI (EMCI), and subjective memory impairment (SMI) with normal test performance. METHODS: The baseline sample (n = 2892) of the prospective cohort study in nondemented individuals (German Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients) was divided into LMCI, EMCI, SMI, and control subjects by delayed recall performance. These groups were subdivided by the presence of self-reported concerns associated with experienced memory impairment. AD dementia risk was assessed over 6 years. RESULTS: Across all groups, risk of AD dementia was greatest in LMCI. In those with self-reported concerns regarding their memory impairment, SMI and EMCI were associated with a similarly increased risk of AD dementia. In those subgroups without concerns, SMI was not associated with increased risk of AD dementia, but EMCI remained an at-risk condition. CONCLUSIONS: SMI and EMCI with self-reported concerns were associated with the same risk of AD dementia, suggesting that pre-LMCI risk conditions should be extended to SMI with concerns.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 01/2013; · 5.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: to determine incidence and predictors of late-life depression. METHODS: this is a 3-year observational cohort study of 3,214 non-demented patients aged 75 and over completing three waves of assessment. The patients were recruited in 138 primary care practices in six urban areas in Germany. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline, and 18 months and 36 months later using the GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale with a cut-off 0-5/6-15. Cox proportional hazard regression models were applied to examine predictors of incident depression, adjusting for sex, age, education, living situation, activities of daily living - and instrumental activities of daily living impairment, somatic comorbidity, alcohol consumption, smoking, mild cognitive impairment and apoE4 status. RESULTS: the incidence of depression was 36.8 (95% CI: 29.6-45.3) per 1,000 person-years in men and 46.0 (95% CI: 39.9-52.8) in women (sex difference P = 0.069). The incidence increased from 35.4 (95% CI: 29.7-41.9) per 1000 person-years between the ages of 75 and 79 to 75.2 (95% CI: 53.2-103.2) for subjects 85 years and older. After full adjustment for confounding variables, hazard ratios (HR) for incident depression were significantly higher for subjects 85 years and older (HR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.24-2.70) and those with mobility impairment (HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.97-3.25), vision impairment (HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.04-1.91), mild cognitive impairment (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.10-2.10), subjective memory impairment (HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01-1.74) and current smoking (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.13-2.53). CONCLUSIONS: the incidence of depression increased significantly with age. In designing prevention programmes, it is important to call more attention on functional impairment, cognitive impairment and smoking.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the costs of care for community-dwelling dementia patients with the costs of care for dementia patients living in nursing homes from the societal perspective. DESIGN: Cross-sectional bottom-up cost of illness study nested within the multicenter German AgeCoDe-cohort. SETTING: Community and nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-eight community-dwelling dementia patients and 48 dementia patients living in nursing homes. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS: Utilization and costs of medical care and long term care, including formal and informal social and nursing care based on proxy interviews. Informal care was valued using the replacement cost method. RESULTS: Unadjusted mean annual total costs including informal care were euro29,930 ($43,997) for community-dwelling patients and euro33,482 ($49,218) for patients living in nursing homes. However, multiple regression analysis controlling for age, sex, deficits in basic and instrumental activities of daily living and comorbidity showed that living in the community significantly increased total costs by euro11,344 ($16,676; P < .01) compared with living in a nursing home, mainly due to higher costs of informal care (+euro20,585; +$30,260; P < .001). CONCLUSION: From the societal perspective care for dementia patients living in the community tends to cost more than care in nursing homes when functional impairment is controlled for.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Whether late-onset depression is a risk factor for or a prodrome of dementia remains unclear. We investigated the impact of depressive symptoms and early- v. late-onset depression on subsequent dementia in a cohort of elderly general-practitioner patients (n = 2663, mean age = 81.2 years). Method Risk for subsequent dementia was estimated over three follow-ups (each 18 months apart) depending on history of depression, particularly age of depression onset, and current depressive symptoms using proportional hazard models. We also examined the additive prediction of incident dementia by depression beyond cognitive impairment. RESULTS: An increase of dementia risk for higher age cut-offs of late-onset depression was found. In analyses controlling for age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E4 genotype, we found that very late-onset depression (aged ⩾70 years) and current depressive symptoms separately predicted all-cause dementia. Combined very late-onset depression with current depressive symptoms was specifically predictive for later Alzheimer's disease (AD; adjusted hazard ratio 5.48, 95% confidence interval 2.41-12.46, p < 0.001). This association was still significant after controlling for cognitive measures, but further analyses suggested that it was mediated by subjective memory impairment with worries. CONCLUSIONS: Depression might be a prodrome of AD but not of dementia of other aetiology as very late-onset depression in combination with current depressive symptoms, possibly emerging as a consequence of subjectively perceived worrisome cognitive deterioration, was most predictive. As depression parameters and subjective memory impairment predicted AD independently of objective cognition, clinicians should take this into account.
Psychological Medicine 11/2012; · 5.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke and dementia are the major causes for long-term care (LTC) dependence in old age. This intervention trial compared a multidomain prevention program for stroke and dementia with usual medical care in reducing the need for LTC.
The Intervention Project on Cerebrovascular Disease and Dementia in the District of Ebersberg (INVADE) was a general practice-based 8-year trial in 2 defined catchment areas in Upper Bavaria, Germany. All 11 317 insurants of a statutory health insurance plan who were ≥55 years of age and lived in the intervention district were offered the opportunity to participate in a prevention program; 3908 enrolled. The 13 301 insurants in the reference district received usual medical care. The intervention consisted of the systematic identification and evidence-based treatment of vascular risk factors. The primary clinical end point was incidence of LTC dependence according to external assessment by a special medical service in the framework of the statutory German LTC insurance. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates from the reference district were used to calculate the expected number of cases of LTC dependence under usual medical care. The expected number was compared with the observed number of cases in the intervention district. Analysis was by intention to treat. During the 5 years after completion of the recruitment period, significantly fewer incident cases of LTC dependence arose in the intervention district than expected (χ(2)=13.25; P<0.001). In women, the incidence was reduced by 10% (P<0.01). In men, the incidence was reduced by 9.6% (P<0.05).
Our results support the feasibility and effectiveness of a primary care prevention program for stroke and dementia to reduce the risk of developing LTC dependence.
URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01107548. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000786 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.000786.).
Journal of the American Heart Association. 08/2012; 1(4):e000786.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent preventive strategies for patients with cognitive impairment include the identification of modifiable somatic risk factors like vitamin D deficiency.
A systematic literature research and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the association of cognitive impairment and vitamin D deficiency.
Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies suggest an association between cognitive impairment and vitamin D deficiency. Meta-analysis of 5 cross-sectional and 2 longitudinal studies comprising 7,688 participants showed an increased risk of cognitive impairment in those with low vitamin D compared with normal vitamin D (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.91-3.00; p < 0.0001).
Methodological limitations of these studies comprise heterogeneity of study populations, different forms of cognitive assessment, the problem of reverse causality, different definitions of vitamin D deficiency and inconsistent control for confounders. As the value of vitamin D substitution in cognitive impairment remains doubtful, a long-time major placebo-controlled randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) should be started.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past few decades, a number of studies investigated risk factors of nursing home placement (NHP) in dementia patients. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors of NHP in incident dementia cases, considering characteristics at the time of the dementia diagnosis.
254 incident dementia cases from a German general practice sample aged 75 years and older which were assessed every 1.5 years over 4 waves were included. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine predictors of NHP. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to evaluate the time until NHP.
Of the 254 incident dementia cases, 77 (30%) were institutionalised over the study course. The mean time until NHP was 4.1 years. Significant characteristics of NHP at the time of the dementia diagnosis were marital status (being single or widowed), higher severity of cognitive impairment and mobility impairment.
Marital status seems to play a decisive role in NHP. Early initiation of support of sufferers may ensure remaining in the familiar surroundings as long as possible.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases on initial cognitive test performance and rate of change in three cognitive measures.
Prospective cohort study.
General practices in six towns throughout Germany.
Three thousand three hundred twenty-seven participants aged 75 and older (average 79.7 ± 3.6).
Data were collected during home visits every 18 months and included sociodemographic variables, depression, disease status, drug intake, and cognition.
Although the presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke and diabetes mellitus was related to poor initial cognitive test performance, the presence of those and other far-reaching chronic diseases or a higher disease burden were not related to the rate of change in cognition over time.
Diabetes mellitus, stroke and TIA affect cognitive test performance beyond well-known sociodemographic variables and depressive symptoms, although none of these diseases contributed to cognitive decline over time. In practical terms, prevention and diagnosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases may be essential to cognitively healthy aging.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 06/2012; 60(7):1286-91. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unter Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) oder auch Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances (IEI) versteht man eine erworbene
Störung mit multiplen rezidivierenden Symptomen, die im Zusammenhang steht mit vielfältigen Umwelteinflüssen, die von der
Mehrheit der Bevölkerung gut vertragen werden, und deren Symptomatik durch keine bekannte medizinische oder psychische Störung
erklärbar ist. Wir untersuchten prospektiv 120 Patienten, die sich innerhalb eines Jahres konsekutiv unter dem Verdacht auf
MCS bzw. umweltbedingte Beschwerden in einer umweltmedizinischen Universitäts-ambulanz vorstellten, mit einem strukturierten
psychiatrischen Interview (SKID). Daneben wurden internistische Routine- und toxikologische Spezialdiagnostik durchgeführt.
Insgesamt konnten bei 100 Patienten eine oder mehrere psychiatrische Diagnosen gestellt werden. 53 Patienten erfüllten die
diagnostischen Kriterien für somatoforme Störungen nach DSM-IV. Bei 39 Patienten wurden affektive Störungen in der Vorgeschichte
bzw. aktuell diagnostiziert, bei 29 Patienten Angststörungen. In 25 Fällen lagen Substanzabhängigkeit oder -missbrauch (in
der Vorgeschichte oder aktuell) vor. 16 Patienten wiesen Persönlichkeitsstörungen auf; bei 9 Patienten waren psychotische
Dies ist die größte prospektive Studie zum Thema psychiatrische Morbidität und MCS unter der Verwendung eines standardisierten
diagnostischen Interviews. Sie zeigt, dass viele Patienten mit umweltbezogenen Beschwerden offenbar an somatoformen Störungen,
oftmals aber auch an anderen bekannten psychischen Erkrankungen leiden.
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is understood as an acquired disorder with
multiple recurrent symptoms that cannot be traced to any well-known medical or psychiatric condition and is associated with
diverse environmental influences that are well tolerated by the majority of people. In a prospective study, we investigated
120 consecutive patients admitted a university-based outpatient department for environmental medicine during 1 year. Apart
from routine medical examination and special toxicological diagnostic procedures, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV
psychiatric disorders was performed with every patient. At least one psychiatric diagnosis was found in 100 patients. The
diagnostic criteria for somatoform disorders were filled by 53 patients. We found lifetime or current affective disorders
in 39 patients, anxiety disorders in 29, and substance dependency or abuse in 25. In 16 patients, personality disorders were
diagnosed. Nine suffered from psychotic disorders. This is the largest prospective study with standardized psychiatric diagnostic
methods concerning psychiatric morbidity and MCS. The data show that many patients with environmental health problems obviously
suffer from somatoform disorders but also from other, well-known psychiatric conditions.
Der Nervenarzt 04/2012; 71(9):737-744. · 0.80 Impact Factor