Horst Bickel

Technische Universität München, München, Bavaria, Germany

Are you Horst Bickel?

Claim your profile

Publications (143)424.77 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor of dementia. The effect of T2DM treatment quality on dementia risk, however, is unclear. 1,342 elderly individuals recruited via general practitioner registries (AgeCoDe cohort) were analyzed. This study analyzed the association between HbA1c level and the incidence of all-cause dementia (ACD) and of Alzheimer's disease dementia (referred to here as AD). HbA1c levels ≥6.5% were associated with 2.8-fold increased risk of incident ACD (p = 0.027) and for AD (p = 0.047). HbA1c levels ≥7% were associated with a five-fold increased risk of incident ACD (p = 0.001) and 4.7-fold increased risk of incident AD (p = 0.004). The T2DM diagnosis per se did not increase the risk of either ACD or AD. Higher levels of HbA1c are associated with increased risk of ACD and AD in an elderly population. T2DM diagnosis was not associated with increased risk if HbA1c levels were below 7%.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 12/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Large-scale epidemiological evidence on the role of inflammation in early atherosclerosis, assessed by carotid ultrasound, is lacking. We aimed to quantify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of inflammatory markers with common-carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) in the general population. Information on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, leucocyte count and CCA-IMT was available in 20 prospective cohort studies of the PROG-IMT collaboration involving 49,097 participants free of pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Estimates of associations were calculated within each study and then combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Mean baseline CCA-IMT amounted to 0.74 mm (SD = 0.18) and mean CCA-IMT progression over a mean of 3.9 years to 0.011 mm/year (SD = 0.039). Cross-sectional analyses showed positive linear associations between inflammatory markers and baseline CCA-IMT. After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, mean differences in baseline CCA-IMT per one-SD higher inflammatory marker were: 0.0082 mm for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p < 0.001); 0.0072 mm for fibrinogen (p < 0.001); and 0.0025 mm for leucocyte count (p = 0.033). 'Inflammatory load', defined as the number of elevated inflammatory markers (i.e. in upper two quintiles), showed a positive linear association with baseline CCA-IMT (p < 0.001). Longitudinal associations of baseline inflammatory markers and changes therein with CCA-IMT progression were null or at most weak. Participants with the highest 'inflammatory load' had a greater CCA-IMT progression (p = 0.015). Inflammation was independently associated with CCA-IMT cross-sectionally. The lack of clear associations with CCA-IMT progression may be explained by imprecision in its assessment within a limited time period. Our findings for 'inflammatory load' suggest important combined effects of the three inflammatory markers on early atherosclerosis. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 11/2014; · 3.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Drugs that modify the risk of dementia in the elderly are of potential interest for dementia prevention. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to reduce gastric acid production, but information on the risk of dementia is lacking. We assessed association between the use of PPIs and the risk of dementia in elderly people. Data were derived from a longitudinal, multicenter cohort study in elderly primary care patients, the German Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe), including 3,327 community-dwelling persons aged ≥75 years. From follow-up 1 to follow-up 4 (follow-up interval 18 months), we identified a total of 431 patients with incident any dementia, including 260 patients with Alzheimer's disease. We used time-dependent Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios of incident any dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Potential confounders included in the analysis comprised age, sex, education, the Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele status, polypharmacy, and the comorbidities depression, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. Patients receiving PPI medication had a significantly increased risk of any dementia [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.38, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.83] and Alzheimer's disease (HR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.01-2.06) compared with nonusers. Due to the major burden of dementia on public health and the lack of curative medication, this finding is of high interest to research on dementia and provides indication for dementia prevention.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 10/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The objective of the study was to compare General Practitioners׳ (GPs) diagnosis of depression and depression diagnosis according to Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and to identify potential factors associated with both depression diagnosis methods. Methods The data were derived from the baseline wave of the German MultiCare1 study, which is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3177 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (15 items, cut-off 6). Cohen׳s kappa was used to assess agreement of GP and GDS diagnoses. To identify factors that might have influenced GP and GDS diagnoses of depression, binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Depressive symptoms according to GDS were diagnosed in 12.6% of the multimorbid subjects, while 17.8% of the patients received a depression diagnosis by their GP. The agreement between general practitioners and GDS diagnosis was poor. To summarize we find that GPs and the GDS have different perspectives on depression. To GPs somatic and psychological comorbid conditions carry weight when diagnosing depression, while cognitive impairment in form of low verbal fluency, pain and comorbid somatic conditions are relevant for a depression diagnosis by GDS. Conclusions Each depression diagnosing method is influenced by different variables and therefore, has advantages and limitations. Possibly, the application of both, GP and GDS diagnoses of depression, could provide valuable support in combining the different perspectives of depression and contribute to a comprehensive view on multimorbid elderly in primary care setting.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2014; 168:276–283. · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The impact of self-efficacy on pain-related disability in multimorbid elderly patients in primary care is not known. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of self-efficacy on the relation between pain intensity and pain-related disability, controlled for age and disease count, in aged multimorbid primary care patients with osteoarthritis and chronic pain. Patients were recruited in the German MultiCare study (trial registration: ISRCTN89818205). Pain was assessed using the Graded Chronic Pain Scale, and self-efficacy using the General Self-Efficacy Scale. We employed SPSS for statistical analysis. One thousand eighteen primary care patients were included in the study. Correlation analyses showed significant correlations between pain intensity and pain-related disability (r = 0.591, p < 0.001), pain intensity and general self-efficacy (r = 0.078, p < 0.05), and between general self-efficacy and pain-related disability (r = 0.153, p < 0.001). Multiple mediator analysis gives indications that self-efficacy partially mediates the relation between pain intensity and pain-related disability. In our results, we found little evidence that self-efficacy partially mediates the relation between pain intensity and pain-related disability in aged multimorbid primary care patients with osteoarthritis and chronic pain. Further research is necessary to prove the effect.
    Clinical rheumatology. 09/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: A phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) precedes most forms of neurodegenerative dementia. Many definitions of MCI recommend the use of test norms to diagnose cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear whether the use of norms actually improves the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. Therefore, the effects of age- and education- norms on the validity of test scores in predicting progression to dementia were investigated. Methods: Baseline cognitive test scores (Syndrome Short Test) of dementia-free participants aged $65 were used to predict progression to dementia within three years. Participants were comprehensively examined one, two, and three years after baseline. Test scores were calculated with correction for (1) age and education, (2) education only, (3) age only and (4) without correction. Predictive validity was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regressions. Areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated for the one-, two-, and three-year intervals. Results: 82 (15.3%) of initially 537 participants, developed dementia. Model coefficients, hazard ratios, and AUCs of all scores were significant (p,0.001). Predictive validity was the lowest with age-corrected scores (22 log likelihood = 840.90, model fit x2 (1) =144.27, HR =1.33, AUCs between 0.73 and 0.87) and the highest with education-corrected scores (22 log likelihood = 815.80, model fit x2 (1) = 171.16, HR = 1.34, AUCs between 0.85 and 0.88). Conclusion: The predictive validity of test scores is markedly reduced by age-correction. Therefore, definitions of MCI should not recommend the use of age-norms in order to improve the detection of individuals at risk of dementia.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e106284. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In primary care, patients with multiple chronic conditions are the rule rather than the exception. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an evidence-based framework for improving chronic illness care, but little is known about the extent to which it has been implemented in routine primary care. The aim of this study was to describe how multimorbid older patients assess the routine chronic care they receive in primary care practices in Germany, and to explore the extent to which factors at both the practice and patient level determine their views.
    BMC Health Services Research 08/2014; 14(1):336. · 1.77 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2014; 10(4):P580-P581. · 17.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is not well established how psychosocial factors like social support and depression affect health-related quality of life in multimorbid and elderly patients. We investigated whether depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life. Cross-sectional data of 3,189 multimorbid patients from the baseline assessment of the German MultiCare cohort study were used. Mediation was tested using the approach described by Baron and Kenny based on multiple linear regression, and controlling for socioeconomic variables and burden of multimorbidity. Mediation analyses confirmed that depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life (Sobel's p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression showed that the influence of depressive mood (beta = -0.341, p < 0.01) on health-related quality of life is greater than the influence of multimorbidity (beta = -0.234, p < 0.01). Social support influences health-related quality of life, but this association is strongly mediated by depressive mood. Depression should be taken into consideration in research on multimorbidity, and clinicians should be aware of its importance when caring for multimorbid patients.Trial register: ISRCTN89818205.
    BMC Family Practice 04/2014; 15(1):62. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the use of prescription and non-prescription (over-the-counter, OTC) analgesics and the associated risks in elderly patients with multiple morbidities. Pain medication use was evaluated from the baseline data (2008/2009) of the MultiCare cohort enrolling elderly patients with multiple morbidities who were treated by primary care physicians (trial registration: ISRCTN89818205). We considered opioids (N02A), other analgesics, and antipyretics (N02B) as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; M01A). OTC use, duplicate prescription, dosages, and interactions were examined for acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, (dex)ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetaminophen. Of 3,189 patients with multiple morbidities aged 65-85 years, 1,170 patients reported to have taken at least one prescription or non-prescription analgesic within the last 3 months (36.7 %). Of these, 289 patients (24.7 % of 1,170) took at least one OTC analgesic. Duplicate prescription was observed in 86 cases; 15 of these cases took the analgesics regularly. In two cases, the maximum daily dose of diclofenac was exceeded due to duplicate prescription. In 235 cases, patients concurrently took a drug with a potentially clinically relevant interaction. In 43 cases (18.3 % of 235) an OTC analgesic, usually ibuprofen, was involved. About one third of the elderly patients took analgesics regularly or as needed. Despite the relatively high use of OTC analgesics, the proportions of duplicate prescription, medication overdoses, and adverse interactions due to OTC products was low.
    Der Schmerz 04/2014; 28(2):175-82. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multimorbidity is a common phenomenon in primary care. Until now, no clinical guidelines for multimorbidity exist. For the development of these guidelines, it is necessary to know whether or not patients are aware of their diseases and to what extent they agree with their doctor. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the agreement of self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care, and to discover which patient characteristics are associated with positive agreement. The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 3,189 multimorbid patients, ages 65 to 85. Data was collected in personal interviews with patients and GPs. The prevalence proportions for 32 diagnosis groups, kappa coefficients and proportions of specific agreement were calculated in order to examine the agreement of patient self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions. Logistic regression models were calculated to analyze which patient characteristics can be associated with positive agreement. We identified four chronic conditions with good agreement (e.g. diabetes mellitus kappa = 0.80;PA = 0,87), seven with moderate agreement (e.g. cerebral ischemia/chronic stroke kappa = 0.55;PA = 0.60), seventeen with fair agreement (e.g. cardiac insufficiency kappa = 0.24;PA = 0.36) and four with poor agreement (e.g. gynecological problems kappa = 0.05;PA = 0.10).Factors associated with positive agreement concerning different chronic diseases were sex, age, education, income, disease count, depression, EQ VAS score and nursing care dependency. For example: Women had higher odds ratios for positive agreement with their GP regarding osteoporosis (OR = 7.16). The odds ratios for positive agreement increase with increasing multimorbidity in almost all of the observed chronic conditions (OR = 1.22-2.41). For multimorbidity research, the knowledge of diseases with high disagreement levels between the patients' perceived illnesses and their physicians' reports is important. The analysis shows that different patient characteristics have an impact on the agreement. Findings from this study should be included in the development of clinical guidelines for multimorbidity aiming to optimize health care. Further research is needed to identify more reasons for disagreement and their consequences in health care.Trial registration: ISRCTN89818205.
    BMC Family Practice 03/2014; 15(1):39. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2,824) and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32,143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene set, consisting of genes related to neuronal excitability, was robustly linked to performance in working memory-related tasks across ages and to schizophrenia. Functional brain imaging in 707 healthy participants linked this gene set also to working memory-related activity in the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Gene set analyses may help to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cognitive dimensions, brain activity, and psychopathology.
    Neuron 02/2014; · 15.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dementia is more common in older age but a number of people develop symptoms at a younger age and are said to have early onset dementia (EOD). Those with EOD face different challenges to those with onset later in life. It has been difficult to quantify this disease burden. This is a systematic review of papers reporting on the prevalence of EOD. A search of Medline and Embase was performed. This was followed by a hand search of the references of these papers. Eleven suitable studies were included. All of the data was from more economically developed countries. The studies were heterogeneous in their design hindering direct comparison. The majority of the papers looked at all types of dementia although many gave a breakdown of the prevalence of different subgroups. A variety of diagnostic criteria was employed. Figures of 38 to 260 per 100 000 are quoted by papers looking at various different types of dementia together with an onset of between 30 and 64 or up to 420 per 100 000 for those aged 55-64. Prevalence rises as age approaches 65. Epidemiological data for prevalence rates for EOD are sparse. EOD remains a rare condition with low case numbers. Assimilation and comparison of results from existing studies is difficult due to methodological heterogeneity. Cross-national standardization of methodology should be a priority for future research in this area.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With increasing life expectancy the number of people affected by multimorbidity rises. Knowledge of factors associated with health-related quality of life in multimorbid people is scarce. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with self-rated health (SRH) in aged multimorbid primary care patients. Cross-sectional study with 3,189 multimorbid primary care patients aged from 65 to 85 years recruited in 158 general practices in 8 study centers in Germany. Information about morbidity, risk factors, resources, functional status and socio-economic data were collected in face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with SRH were identified by multivariable regression analyses. Depression, somatization, pain, limitations of instrumental activities (iADL), age, distress and Body Mass Index (BMI) were inversely related with SRH. Higher levels of physical activity, income and self-efficacy expectation had a positive association with SRH. The only chronic diseases remaining in the final model were Parkinson's disease and neuropathies. The final model accounted for 35% variance of SRH. Separate analyses for men and women detected some similarities; however, gender specific variation existed for several factors. In multimorbid patients symptoms and consequences of diseases such as pain and activity limitations, as well as depression, seem to be far stronger associated with SRH than the diseases themselves. High income and self-efficacy expectation are independently associated with better SRH and high BMI and age with low SRH.Trial registration: MultiCare Cohort study registration: ISRCTN89818205.
    BMC Family Practice 01/2014; 15(1):1. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity and the accompanying increased morbidity and mortality risk is highly prevalent among older adults. As obese elderly might benefit from intentional weight reduction, it is necessary to determine associated and potentially modifiable factors on senior obesity. This cross-sectional study focuses on multi-morbid patients which make up the majority in primary care. It reports on the prevalence of senior obesity and its associations with lifestyle behaviors.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e102587. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In the revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) the Mood Disorder Workgroup for DSM-V the bereavement exclusion criterion for the diagnosis of major depression has been eliminated. Aim To investigate the impact of bereavement on the incidence of depression and depressive symptoms in the elderly. Method Participants over 75 years from the longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe) that were still married at baseline were investigated (n=1,193). Data from four follow-ups (time frame: 6 years) were investigated. The response rate at baseline was 50.3%. Three clinical endpoints were analyzed: depressive symptoms according to Geriatric Depression Scale (1) GDS≥6, (2) GDS≥10, and (3) Major Depression (MD). The effect of loss was investigated using random-effects regression models. Results Experiencing a loss of spouse was predictive of a higher incidence in GDS≥6 (OR 4.52, 95% CI 2.6–7.9) and 10 (OR 5.59, 95% CI 1.8–17.0) even after adjusting for age, gender, impairment at baseline, and GDS score at baseline. Associations with MD were not significant (OR 1.77, 96% CI 0.9–3.5). Conclusions Older adults experiencing the loss of their spouse are more likely to display elevated levels of depressive symptoms, that may reach a concerning level of severity.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2014; 161:97–103. · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the effects of depression on health care utilization and costs in a sample of multimorbid elderly patients. This cross-sectional analysis used data of a prospective cohort study, consisting of 1,050 randomly selected multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years. Depression was defined as a score of six points or more on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization. The impact of depression on health care costs was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. A societal perspective was adopted. Prevalence of depression was 10.7%. Mean total costs per six-month period were €8,144 (95% CI: €6,199-€10,090) in patients with depression as compared to €3,137 (95% CI: €2,735-€3,538; p<0.001) in patients without depression. The positive association between depression and total costs persisted after controlling for socio-economic variables, functional status and level of multimorbidity. In particular, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive association between depression and pharmaceutical costs. Among multimorbid elderly patients, depression was associated with significantly higher health care utilization and costs. The effect of depression on costs was even greater than reported by previous studies conducted in less morbid patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91973. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To map the suitability of the Six Item Cognitive Impairment Test's (6CIT) as a screening instrument for dementia in primary care and to assess its feasibility, reliability, and validity in a real-world setting.Method: The present study was part of a population-based prospective trial aimed at reducing the incidence of stroke and dementia. The 6CIT was administered by general practitioners (GPs) at routine examinations every two years. Incidence of dementia was obtained from health insurance records. Psychometric qualities of the 6CIT were evaluated for two different cut-offs.Results: At baseline, 72 GPs examined 3908 patients. In total, 528 patients were diagnosed with new dementia. Less than 1% of the tests were not completed. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), stability over time (Pearson's r), and the agreement between successive tests (Cohen's kappa) reached values of 0.58, 0.62, and 0.45, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity reached values of 0.49 and 0.92 at the 7/8 cut-off and of 0.32 and 0.98 at the 10/11 cut-off, respectively. Patients with dementia had significantly higher mean error scores than patients without dementia. High scores at baseline posed a more than fourfold risk of being diagnosed with dementia.Conclusion: The 6CIT's psychometric properties in a real-world setting suggest that the test is not suited as a routine screening instrument. Factors inherent to screening in primary care likely contributed to its low reliability and validity. This highlights the need for training GPs in the conduct of cognitive screening before such procedures can be implemented on a routine basis.
    Aging and Mental Health 11/2013; · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As physical activity may modify the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, we tested for such a gene-environment interaction in a sample of general practice patients aged ⩾75 years. Method Data were derived from follow-up waves I-IV of the longitudinal German study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). The Kaplan-Meier survival method was used to estimate dementia- and AD-free survival times. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess individual associations of APOE ε4 and physical activity with risk for dementia and AD, controlling for covariates. We tested for gene-environment interaction by calculating three indices of additive interaction. Among the randomly selected sample of 6619 patients, 3327 (50.3%) individuals participated in the study at baseline and 2810 (42.5%) at follow-up I. Of the 2492 patients without dementia included at follow-up I, 278 developed dementia (184 AD) over the subsequent follow-up interval of 4.5 years. The presence of the APOE ε4 allele significantly increased and higher physical activity significantly decreased risk for dementia and AD. The co-presence of APOE ε4 with low physical activity was associated with higher risk for dementia and AD and shorter dementia- and AD-free survival time than the presence of APOE ε4 or low physical activity alone. Indices of interaction indicated no significant interaction between low physical activity and the APOE ε4 allele for general dementia risk, but a possible additive interaction for AD risk. Physical activity even in late life may be effective in reducing conversion to dementia and AD or in delaying the onset of clinical manifestations. APOE ε4 carriers may particularly benefit from increasing physical activity with regard to their risk for AD.
    Psychological Medicine 07/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
424.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Technische Universität München
      • Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2013
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      • Department of Primary Medical Care
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Leipzig
      • • Institute of Legal Medicine
      • • Institut für Sozialmedizin, Arbeitsmedizin und Public Health
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 1984–2013
    • Central Institute of Mental Health
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Hamburg
      • Department of Primary Medical Care
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2000–2012
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland