Satoko Iwasawa

Keio University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (17)38.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dementia is a new focus of research on improved treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). In 2007, a screening tool for PD dementia (PD-D) was developed by the Movement Disorder Society (Level I testing), which still requires verification by a large population study.
    Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra. 05/2014; 4(2):147-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is the most suitable measure for screening cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the utility of the MoCA has not been documented sufficiently, especially in Asian populations. AimThis multicenter study including a large number of Japanese patients compared Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and MoCA scores in PD patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study. Idiopathic PD patients (n = 304; age, 70.6 ± 8.3 years; disease duration, 6.6 ± 5.1 years; Hoehn & Yahr stage, 2.7 ± 0.7; mean ± SD) were registered at 13 participating hospitals, and their clinical/neurological/cognitive features were examined using Japanese versions of the MMSE and MoCA. ResultsThe MMSE and MoCA scores were 26.3 ± 3.6 (range, 12-30) and 20.9 ± 5.0 (range, 5-30), respectively, and exhibited a strong correlation (R2 = 0.74, P <0.001) with each other. An MMSE score <26 was observed in 35% of the subjects. A MoCA score <21 had 89% sensitivity and 83% specificity, comparable to an MMSE score <26. The two scores were correlated with age (R2 = 0.12 and 0.20, respectively; P <0.0001), but not with Hoehn & Yahr stage or disease duration. Conclusions One third of the patients met an MMSE score <26, a diagnostic criterion of PD with dementia. A MoCA score <21 seemed comparable to an MMSE score <26. The two scores were correlated with age, rather than severity of motor symptoms, suggesting that cognitive decline might be independent of motor decline in PD.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience. 02/2014;
  • Sangyo eiseigaku zasshi Journal of occupational health 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidence shows how important spinal posture is for aged populations in maintaining independence in everyday life. However, the cross-sectional designs of most previous studies prevent elucidation of the relationship between spinal posture and future dependence in activities of daily living (ADL). We tried to clarify the association by measuring spinal posture noninvasively in a community-based prospective cohort study of older adults, paying particular attention to thoracic curvature, lumbar curvature, sacral hip angle, and inclination to determine which parameter is most strongly associated with dependence in ADL. METHODS: Spinal posture was evaluated in 804 participants (338 men, 466 women, age range: 65-94 years) who were independent in ADL at baseline. We defined dependence in ADL as admission to a nursing home or need of home assistance. During the 4.5-year follow-up period, 126 (15.7%) participants became dependent in ADL. The relationship between the spinal posture parameters and outcome was assessed by dividing the participants into sex-specific quartiles of the parameters. RESULTS: Only inclination (angle subtended between the vertical and a line joining C7 to the sacrum) was associated with outcome, although lumbar curvature also showed a marginal association. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio for a 1 unit increase in the quartiles of inclination was 1.79 (confidence interval: 1.44, 2.23). After mutual adjustment for the 4 parameters, statistical significance for inclination still remained, with no substantial changes in the association estimates. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that spinal inclination is associated with future dependence in ADL among older adults.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 01/2013; · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) appears to have a protective effect against depression, but evidence from prospective cohort studies is sparse. Therefore, we examined the association between serum DHEAS levels and depressive symptoms in older community-dwelling Japanese. DESIGN:: A community-based cohort study. SETTING:: Kurabuchi Town, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. PARTICIPANTS:: A total of 554 residents (248 men and 306 women) age 65 years or older without depressive symptoms at baseline. MEASUREMENTS:: We performed a baseline examination of the subjects between 2005 and 2006 to determine serum DHEAS levels. The subjects were categorized into three groups based on age strata- and sex-specific tertiles of DHEAS. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15) in face-to-face home visit interviews carried out once in 2007 and once in 2008. The association of DHEAS with depressive symptoms (GDS-15 ≥ 6) was analyzed with the use of logistic regression models. RESULTS:: The incidence of depressive symptoms was 12.1% in men and 19.6% in women. In men, the multiadjusted odds ratio of depressive symptoms was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.94, Wald χ = 4.20, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.04) for the highest tertile compared with the lowest. The association observed for the highest versus the lowest remained significant even after adjustment for physical performance and cognitive function. In women, DHEAS was not associated with depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:: In this study, higher serum DHEAS levels were found to be protectively and independently associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms in men, but not in women.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2012; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This multicenter cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the clinical features and varieties of non-motor fluctuation in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: To identify motor and non-motor fluctuation, we employed the wearing-off questionnaire of 19 symptoms (WOQ-19) in 464 PD patients. We compared the frequency of levodopa-related fluctuation as identified by the WOQ-19 with recognition by neurologists. We compared patients with both motor and non-motor fluctuations with those who only had motor fluctuations. Non-motor fluctuations were separated into psychiatric, autonomic, and sensory categories for further analysis. RESULTS: The patients' average age was 70.8 ± 8.4 years (mean ± SD) and disease duration was 6.6 ± 5.0 years. The frequency of motor fluctuations was 69% and for non-motor fluctuation 40%. Fifty-three percent of patients with motor fluctuations also had non-motor fluctuations, whereas 93% of patients with non-motor fluctuations also had motor fluctuations. The WOQ-19 showed a sensitivity of 82% but a specificity of only 40%. The patients with both non-motor and motor fluctuations exhibited more severe motor symptoms, more non-motor symptoms and higher levodopa daily doses (p < 0.05). Patients had significantly higher fluctuation rates if they had psychiatric (49%) and sensory (45%) symptoms than patients with autonomic symptoms (32%, p < 0.01). Forty-eight percent of patients with non-motor fluctuations exhibited more than one type of non-motor fluctuation. CONCLUSION: Forty percent of PD patients presented with non-motor fluctuations, and almost half of these exhibited more than one type. Appropriate recognition of levodopa-related fluctuations, both motor and non-motor, can lead to treatment modifications in PD patients.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 09/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is known to be observed more frequently in patients with an α-synucleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population. The precise prevalence of RBD in Japanese PD patients is not known. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of patients with RBD in a large population of Japanese patients with PD. We investigated various clinical features and employed the Japanese version of the RBD screening questionnaire on 469 non-demented Japanese PD patients in this multicenter study. Probable or possible RBD was detected in 146 patients (31.1%) and was significantly associated with longer PD duration, higher Hoehn and Yahr stage, higher Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III subscale (7 items), more motor fluctuations, and a higher levodopa-equivalent daily dose (p < 0.01). As to the major autonomic dysfunctions, severe constipation was significantly more frequent in PD patients with RBD than in those without it (p < 0.01). The RBD symptoms of 53 patients (39.0%) preceded the onset of PD motor symptoms. The median interval from the onset of RBD symptoms to PD motor symptoms was 17.5 years, and 3 patients had intervals of over 50 years. This large-scale multicenter study revealed that RBD is a frequent non-motor symptom in Japanese patients with PD, which may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Moreover, RBD that increases with the duration and severity of PD may be associated with autonomic dysfunction.
    Journal of Neurology 01/2012; 259(8):1606-12. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of camptocormia and the clinical characteristics of patients with camptocormia in a large population of PD patients. Although camptocormia has been recognized as a prominent phenomenon in PD, the previous epidemiological reports were limited, especially in terms of sample size. We evaluated 531 PD patients (disease duration: 7.0 ± 5.5 years, mean ± standard deviation). We examined their clinical features and the prevalence of camptocormia. Camptocormia was detected in 22 patients (4.1%) and found in patients who were older and had more severe motor symptoms and a higher levodopa (L-dopa) dose (P < 0.05), compared to the patients without camptocormia. Patients with camptocormia showed significantly higher frequencies of autonomic symptoms, such as constipation and urinary incontinence (P < 0.05). Camptocormia is uncommon in PD and is associated with disease severity, higher L-dopa dose and higher frequencies of autonomic symptoms.
    Movement Disorders 09/2011; 26(14):2567-71. · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mt. Oyama on Miyakejima Island erupted in June 2000 and all Miyake village citizens were forced to evacuate the island in the September, due to continuous eruptions and emission of unsafe amounts of volcanic gas, mainly sulfur dioxide (SO2). Beginning in February 2005, residents returned to live on the island despite the fact that volcanic gas was still being emitted. To examine changes in the respiratory systems of included children from February 2006 to November 2006. The study population was 141 children who participated in health checkups in November 2006, including 33 SO2 hypersusceptible children who had a current or past history of asthma, obstructive lung function, current symptoms of whistling and wheezing, and/or deterioration of respiratory symptoms. Respiratory effects were evaluated by a questionnaire for respiratory symptoms and by spirometry. SO2 was monitored at 7 sampling points within inhabited areas, and the mean SO2 concentration from February 2005 to November 2006 was 0.031 ppm. The area was categorized into four areas by average SO2 concentration, namely, areas L, H-1, H-2, and H-3, where the average SO2 levels were 0.019, 0.026, 0.032, and 0.045 ppm, respectively. Compared to children in area L, the frequencies of "phlegm" and "irritation of the nose" were significantly greater in the children in areas H-2 and H-3. %FVC and %FEV1 in hypersusceptible children were significantly reduced in November 2006 as compared to February 2006 (P = 0.047, 0.027), though no reduction observed in normosusceptible children. Respiratory functions in hypersusceptible Miyakejima children may be affected by SO2 exposure, and further follow-up observation is necessary.
    [Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health 01/2010; 57(1):39-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Several epidemiological studies have shown that self-reported vision and hearing impairments are associated with adverse health outcomes (AHOs) in older populations; however, few studies have used objective sensory measurements or investigated the role of gender in this association. Therefore, we examined the association of vision and hearing impairments (as measured by objective methods) with AHOs (dependence in activities of daily living or death), and whether this association differed by gender. From 2005 to 2006, a total of 801 residents (337 men and 464 women) aged 65 years or older of Kurabuchi Town, Gunma, Japan, participated in a baseline examination that included vision and hearing assessments; they were followed up through September 2008. Vision impairment was defined as a corrected visual acuity of worse than 0.5 (logMAR = 0.3) in the better eye, and hearing impairment was defined as a failure to hear a 30 dB hearing level signal at 1 kHz in the better ear. Information on outcomes was obtained from the town hall and through face-to-face home visit interviews. We calculated the risk ratios (RRs) of AHOs for vision and hearing impairments according to gender. During a mean follow-up period of 3 years, 34 men (10.1%) and 52 women (11.3%) had AHOs. In both genders, vision impairment was related to an elevated risk of AHOs (multi-adjusted RR for men and women together = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.05-2.44), with no statistically significant interaction between the genders. In contrast, a significant association between hearing impairment and AHOs (multi-adjusted RR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.43-6.72) was found only in the men. In this older Japanese population, sensory impairments were clearly associated with AHOs, and the association appeared to vary according to gender. Gender-specific associations between sensory impairments and AHOs warrant further investigation.
    BMC Geriatrics 11/2009; 9:50. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The number of studies that use objective and quantitative methods to evaluate facial skin aging in elderly people is extremely limited, especially in Japan. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study we attempted to characterize the condition of facial skin (hyperpigmentation, pores, texture, and wrinkling) in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older by using objective and quantitative imaging methods. In addition, we aimed to identify lifestyle factors significantly associated with these visible signs of aging. The study subjects were 802 community-dwelling Japanese men and women aged at least 65 years and living in the town of Kurabuchi (Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan), a mountain community with a population of approximately 4800. The facial skin condition of subjects was assessed quantitatively using a standardized facial imaging system and subsequent computer image analysis. Lifestyle information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The association between skin condition and lifestyle factors was examined using multivariable regression analysis. Among women, the mean values for facial texture, hyperpigmentation, and pores were generally lower than those among age-matched men. There was no significant difference between sexes in the severity of facial wrinkling. Older age was associated with worse skin condition among women only. After adjusting for age, smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with skin condition among both men and women. Our study revealed significant differences between sexes in the severity of hyperpigmentation, texture, and pores, but not wrinkling. Smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with signs of visible skin aging in this study population.
    Journal of Epidemiology 09/2009; 19(5):251-9. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between serum levels of retinol and other antioxidants and hearing impairment in Japanese older adults. This is a community-based cross-sectional study comprising 762 residents aged 65 years or older in Kurabuchi, Gumma, Japan. We measured serum retinol and other antioxidants (alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, and carotenoids including beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha- and beta-carotenes, lycopene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin) by high-performance liquid chromatography and divided each measurement into quartiles. Hearing impairment was defined as a failure to hear a 30-dB hearing level (HL) signal at 1 kHz and a 40-dB HL signal at 4 kHz in the better ear in pure-tone audiometric tests. The odds ratios (OR) for hearing impairment were calculated for each of the upper three quartiles of retinol and other antioxidant levels relative to the lowest quartile. Crude analysis showed that serum levels of retinol and provitamin A carotenoids (beta-cryptoxanthin, and alpha- and beta-carotenes) were inversely related to the prevalence of hearing impairment. The multiadjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of retinol and the provitamin A family (combinations of provitamin A carotenoids) compared with the lowest were 0.51 (0.26-1.00) and 0.53 (0.27-1.02), respectively. A dose-response relationship was observed for retinol (p = .03) and provitamin A (p = .09). Increased serum levels of retinol and provitamin A carotenoids were clearly associated with a decreased prevalence of hearing impairment.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 05/2009; 64(8):910-5. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From the perspective of human nutrition, the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through diet control is feasible and desirable. We investigated the relationship between serum antioxidants and AMD in the community-dwelling older Japanese eating a typical Japanese diet. In this study, 722 subjects aged 65 years or older (297 males and 425 females) who had gradable fundus photographs were included. The subjects were divided into three groups of early or late AMD or non-maculopathy. Serum antioxidants (alpha-, gamma-tocopherols, retinol, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, and lutein and zeaxanthin) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. To clarify the combined effect as the group of the antioxidants, we defined the carotene family (alpha-, beta-carotenes and lycopene) and carotenoid family (beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin). Tertiles of each serum antioxidant were obtained and the prevalence of early or late AMD was compared with univariate or multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of early AMD was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.1-6.2) and late AMD was 1.1% (0.5-2.2). Only alpha-tocopherol and beta-cryptoxanthin were related to late AMD as single antioxidants. On the other hand, the carotene and carotenoid families as a combination of antioxidants were protectively associated with late AMD. No relationship was found between serum antioxidants and early AMD. Our findings support the hypothesis that a combination of serum antioxidants obtained from the traditional Japanese diet is protective for late AMD, but not for early AMD.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2009; 18(1):1-7. · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology. 01/2009; 20.
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    ABSTRACT: Mt. Oyama in Miyakejima Island erupted in June, 2000. All Miyake villagers were forced to evacuate from the island in September, 2000, due to continuous eruptions and emissions of unsafe amounts of volcanic gas, mainly SO2. From February, 2005, Miyake villagers returned to the island despite volcanic gas still being emitted. This study examines the 2-yr changes in Miyake residents' respiratory systems from autumn 2004 to November 2006. The study population was 823 Miyake adult residents who participated in the health check-up in 2006. Respiratory effects were evaluated by a questionnaire for respiratory symptoms and spirometry. SO2 has been continuously monitored at 7 sampling points of the inhabited area. The mean SO2 concentration from February 2005 to November 2006 was 0.031 ppm. The area was categorized into 4 areas by SO2 concentration, namely, areas L, H-1, H-2 and H-3, where average SO2 concentrations were 0.019, 0.026, 0.032, and 0.045 ppm, respectively. The study subjects showed no deterioration in lung function. Prevalence of cough and phlegm among all participants were significantly higher in 2006 than in 2004, and age-, sex- and smoking-adjusted odds ratios of cough and phlegm were 1.75 (95%CI 1.33-2.30) and 1.44 (1.12-1.87). Prevalence of chronic bronchitis-like symptoms among normosusceptive subjects in 2006 was 4.1% which was significantly higher than that of 2.1% in 2004 (p=0.035). Compared to area L, the frequencies of phlegm and irritation of the nose were significantly increased in areas H-2 and H-3. SO2 exposure-related respiratory symptoms were observed in adult Miyakejima residents after returning to the island.
    Journal of Occupational Health 12/2008; 51(1):38-47. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Following a volcanic eruption in 2000, high concentrations of ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) are still observed on Miyakejima, Japan despite the reversal 2 years ago of the ban on residents living on the island. This study examines the association between current levels of volcanic SO2 and the incidence of acute subjective symptoms in volunteers on Miyakejima. The authors conducted a follow-up study on 611 healthy volunteers, on a person-hour basis (28 413 person-hours), who visited the island to provide support to residents from February to July 2005. Adverse health symptoms were measured by self-administered diary and exposure was approximated using monitoring data across 14 sites. Associations between incidence rates and increasing SO2 levels (reference (the lowest), very low, low, middle and high) were examined using Poisson regression. Hourly incidence of cough, scratchy throat, sore throat and breathlessness showed clear exposure-response relationships with SO2 concentrations. There were statistically significant risks of those symptoms at relatively low SO2 levels. Thus, rate ratios in the 0.6-2.0 ppm exposure band (vs <0.01 ppm) were: for cough, 3.4 (95% CI 1.8 to 6.6) in men and 9.8 (3.9 to 24.9) in women; for sore throat, 3.2 (1.7 to 6.2) in men and 5.8 (2.0 to 16.5) in women; and for breathlessness, 10.5 (4.2 to 26.6) in men and 18.5 (4.6 to 74.3) in women. Little evidence of SO2 effects on sputum and nasal discharge/congestion was observed in this study. Eye and skin irritations showed inconsistent results between hourly maximal and hourly mean SO2 concentrations. The authors observed strong evidence of an exposure-response relationship between volcanic SO2 and subjective acute respiratory symptoms among a healthy population on Miyakejima. The results are consistent with reports that females and non-smokers are more sensitive to irritant gas than males and smokers, respectively.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 11/2008; 65(10):701-7. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association of hearing impairment, vision impairment and their combination (dual sensory impairment) with negative well-being such as depression, subjective poor health and the reduced functional ability in community-dwelling older adults, and to determine whether any association varies by gender. Between 2005 and 2006, we objectively examined vision and hearing impairment (using best-corrected visual acuity and pure-tone audiometric test) in 843 people aged 65 years and older (351 males, 492 females) in a rural Japanese town. Through a home visit interview survey using a structured questionnaire, we also collected information on depression (the five-item Geriatric Depression Scale), subjective poor health, and reduced functional activity (the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology's Index of Competence). We observed gender differences in the association between sensory impairment and depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hearing impairment in males (adjusted odds ratio: 2.22, 95% confidence interval; 1.07-4.61) and vision impairment in females (1.91, 1.14-3.21) were related to depression. Vision impairment and dual sensory impairment were also associated with subjective poor health and reduced functional activity in both sexes. Sensory impairment is significantly associated with negative well-being in older persons, and its association with depression may differ between males and females.
    Preventive Medicine 07/2008; 47(4):433-7. · 3.50 Impact Factor