Oliver O Aalami

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

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Publications (12)60.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although reossification of large calvarial defects is possible in children, adults lack this tissue engineering capacity. In this study, the authors compared the differences in gene expression between juvenile and adult dura mater using a mouse cDNA microarray with 42,000 unique elements. Non-suture-associated parietal bone was harvested from 6-day-old and 60-day-old mice. The dura mater was carefully dissected from the calvarial disk and snap-frozen. RNA was extracted from pooled dura mater for microarray analysis. The 25 most differentially expressed genes were listed, as were selected bone-related genes. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmation of selected genes-BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7; and osteopontin (OP), osteocalcin (OC), and FGFR-1-was performed. Juvenile dura mater expressed significantly greater amounts of BMP-2 and OP. Minimal difference in OC expression was observed between juvenile and adult dura mater. Extracellular matrix proteins (Col3a1, 5a1, 6a1, and fibronectin 1), osteoblast differentiation markers (Runx2/Cbfa1, Itm2a, and FGFR-1), and the growth factor Ptn were among other genes with greater expression in juvenile dura mater. Markers of osteoclasts (Acp5, MMP9, Ctsk) and the multiple candidate gene Ntrk2 were also expressed at higher levels in the juvenile dura mater. These findings suggest a more differentiated osteoprogenitor population to exist along with a greater presence of osteoclasts in the juvenile dura mater relative to adults. In addition to establishing a baseline difference in gene expression between juvenile and adult dura mater, new genes potentially critical to the regenerative potential of juvenile calvaria were identified.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 10/2006; 118(4):851-61. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has widely been observed that young children are capable of reossifying large calvarial defects, while adults lack this endogenous tissue-engineering capacity. The ability of juvenile animals to regenerate calvarial defects has been investigated in multiple animal models, including mice. In this study, the authors used cDNA microarrays to investigate the expression of osteogenesis-associated genes upstream and downstream of Runx2 in juvenile and adult mouse calvaria. Nonsuture-associated parietal bone discs were harvested from 6-day-old (n = 50) and 60-day-old (n = 35) male CD-1 mice. After separation of the underlying dura mater and overlying pericranium, the calvarial discs were snap-frozen and RNA was extracted from pooled samples of calvaria for microarray analysis. Genes analyzed included cytokines, receptors, and cell-surface and matrix proteins both upstream and downstream of Runx2. Genes associated with the Runx2 pathway had notably higher levels in the juvenile versus adult calvaria. All genes except for osteocalcin were expressed at least twofold higher in the juvenile calvaria. This pattern was validated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, mRNA for potent osteoinductive growth factors was present at higher levels in the juvenile compared with the adult calvaria. These findings reflect a genomic environment of active osteoblast differentiation and ossification in the juvenile calvaria compared with the adult "quiescent" calvarial tissue. These data suggest that a decreased osteogenic potential of adult calvarial osteoblasts may, in part, explain the inability of adult animals to heal calvarial defects.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 07/2005; 115(7):1986-94. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of craniofacial defects presents a substantial biomedical burden, and requires complex surgery. Interestingly, children after age 2 years and adults are unable to heal large skull defects. This nonhealing paradigm provides an excellent model system for craniofacial skeletal tissueengineering strategies. Previous studies have documented the in vivo osteogenic potential of adipose-derived stromal (ADS) cells and bone marrow-derived stromal (BMS) cells. This study investigates the ability to accelerate in vivo osteogenesis on ex vivo recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and retinoic acid stimulation. Mouse osteoblasts, ADS cells, and BMS cells were seeded onto apatite-coated PLGA scaffolds, stimulated with rhBMP-2 and retinoic acid ex vivo for 4 weeks, and subsequently implanted into critically sized (4 mm) calvarial defects. Samples were harvested after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Areas of complete bony bridging were noted as early as 2 weeks in vivo; however, osteoclasts were attracted to the scaffold as identified by calcitonin receptor staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity staining. Although the optimal method of in vitro osteogenic priming for mesenchymal cells remains unknown, these results provide evidence that BMP-2 and retinoic acid stimulation of multipotent cells ex vivo can subsequently induce significant quantities of bone formation within a short time period in vivo.
    Tissue Engineering 01/2005; 11(3-4):645-58. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Young children are capable of healing large calvarial defects, whereas adults lack this endogenous osseous tissue-engineering capacity. Despite the important clinical implications, little is known about the molecular and cell biology underlying this differential ability. Traditionally, guinea pig, rabbit, and rat models have been used to study the orchestration of calvarial healing. To harness the research potential of knockout and transgenic mice, the authors developed a mouse model for calvarial healing. Nonsuture-associated parietal defects 3, 4, and 5 mm in diameter were made in both juvenile (6-day-old, n = 15) and adult (60-day-old, n = 15) mice. Calvariae were harvested after 8 weeks and analyzed radiographically and histologically. Percentage of healing was quantified using Scion Image software analysis of calvarial radiographs. A significant difference in the ability to heal calvarial defects was seen between 6-day-old and 60-day-old mice when 3-, 4-, or 5-mm defects were created. The authors' analysis revealed that juvenile mice healed a significantly greater percentage of their calvarial defects than adult mice (juvenile mean percentage of healing: 3-mm defects, 59 percent; 4-mm defects, 65 percent; 5-mm defects, 44 percent; adult mean percentage of healing: <5 percent in all groups; p < 0.05). All three defect sizes were found to be critical in the adult, whereas significant healing was seen regardless of the size of the defect in juvenile mice. The establishment of this model will facilitate further, detailed evaluation of the molecular biology underlying the different regenerative abilities of juvenile versus adult mice and enhance research into membranous bone induction by making available powerful tools such as knockout and transgenic animals.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 09/2004; 114(3):713-20. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Young children are capable of healing large calvarial defects, whereas adults lack this endogenous osseous tissue-engineering capacity. Despite the important clinical implications, little is known about the molecular and cell biology underlying this differential ability. Traditionally, guinea pig, rabbit, and rat models have been used to study the orchestration of calvarial healing. To harness the research potential of knockout and transgenic mice, the authors developed a mouse model for calvarial healing. Nonsuture-associated parietal defects 3, 4, and 5 mm in diameter were made in both juvenile (6-day-old, n = 15) and adult (60-day-old, n = 15) mice. Calvariae were harvested after 8 weeks and analyzed radiographically and histologically. Percentage of healing was quantified using Scion Image software analysis of calvarial radiographs. A significant difference in the ability to heal calvarial defects was seen between 6-day-old and 60-day-old mice when 3-, 4-, or 5-mm defects were created. The authors’ analysis revealed that juvenile mice healed a significantly greater percentage of their calvarial defects than adult mice (juvenile mean percentage of healing: 3-mm defects, 59 percent; 4-mm defects, 65 percent; 5-mm defects, 44 percent; adult mean percentage of healing: <5 percent in all groups; p < 0.05). All three defect sizes were found to be critical in the adult, whereas significant healing was seen regardless of the size of the defect in juvenile mice. The establishment of this model will facilitate further, detailed evaluation of the molecular biology underlying the different regenerative abilities of juvenile versus adult mice and enhance research into membranous bone induction by making available powerful tools such as knockout and transgenic animals.
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 08/2004; 114(3):713-720. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In adults and children over two years of age, large cranial defects do not reossify successfully, posing a substantial biomedical burden. The osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells has been documented. This study investigates the in vivo osteogenic capability of adipose-derived adult stromal (ADAS) cells, BMS cells, calvarial-derived osteoblasts and dura mater cells to heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects. Implanted, apatite-coated, PLGA scaffolds seeded with ADAS or BMS cells produced significant intramembranous bone formation by 2 weeks and areas of complete bony bridging by 12 weeks as shown by X-ray analysis, histology and live micromolecular imaging. The contribution of implanted cells to new bone formation was 84-99% by chromosomal detection. These data show that ADAS cells heal critical-size skeletal defects without genetic manipulation or the addition of exogenous growth factors.
    Nature Biotechnology 06/2004; 22(5):560-7. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a physiologic model of mouse cranial suture fusion, the authors' laboratory has previously demonstrated that transforming growth factor (TGF)-betas appear to be more abundantly expressed in the suture complex of the fusing posterior frontal compared with the patent sagittal suture. Furthermore, the authors have shown that by blocking TGF-beta signaling with a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding a defective, dominant negative type II TGF-beta receptor (AdDN-TbetaRII), posterior frontal suture fusion was inhibited. In this study, the authors attempt to further elucidate the role of TGF-beta in cranial suture fusion by investigating possible mechanisms of AdDN-TbetaRII-mediated cranial suture patency using both an established organ culture model and a novel in vitro co-culture system that recapitulates the in vivo anatomic dura mater/cranial suture relationship. In this article, the authors demonstrate that blocking TGF-beta signaling with the AdDN-TbetaRII construct led to inhibition of cellular proliferation in the suture mesenchyme and subjacent dura mater during the early period of predicted posterior frontal suture fusion. Interestingly, co-culture experiments revealed that transfecting osteoblasts with AdDN-TbetaRII led to alterations in the gene expression levels of two important bone-related molecules (Msx2 and osteopontin). Inhibiting TGF-beta signaling prevented time-dependent suppression of Msx2 and prevented induction of osteopontin, thereby retarding osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, the authors demonstrated that the AdDN-TbetaRII construct was capable of blocking TGF-beta -mediated up-regulation of collagen IalphaI, an extracellular matrix molecule important for bone formation. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that AdDN-TbetaRII maintains posterior frontal patency, in part by altering early events in de novo bone formation, including cellular proliferation and early extracellular matrix production.
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 06/2004; 113(6):1685-97. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In CD-1 mice, the posterior frontal suture (analogous to the human metopic suture) fuses while all other cranial sutures remain patent. In an in vitro organ culture model, the authors previously demonstrated that posterior frontal sutures explanted immediately before the onset of suture fusion (at 25 days old) mimic in vivo physiologic fusion. In the first portion of this study, the authors defined how early in development the posterior frontal suture fuses in their tension-free, serum-free organ culture system by serially analyzing posterior frontal suture fusion from calvariae explanted at different stages of postnatal development. Their results revealed a divergence of suture fate leading to abnormal patency or physiologic fusion between the first and second weeks of life, respectively, despite viability and continued growth of the calvarial explants in vitro. From these data, the authors postulated that the gene expression patterns present in the suture complex at the time of explant may determine whether the posterior frontal suture fuses or remains patent in organ culture. Therefore, to elucidate potentially important differences in gene expression within this "window of opportunity," they performed a cDNA microarray analysis on 5-day-old and 15-day-old posterior frontal and sagittal whole suture complexes corresponding to the age ranges for unsuccessful (1 to 7 days old) and successful (14 to 21 days old) in vitro posterior frontal suture fusion. Overall, their microarray results reveal interesting differential expression patterns of candidate genes in different categories, including angiogenic cytokines and mechanosensitive genes potentially important in cranial suture biology.
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 05/2004; 113(4):1192-204. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - PLAST RECONSTR SURG. 01/2004; 113(6):1685-1697.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although the multilineage potential of human processed lipoaspirate has previously been demonstrated, few studies exist utilizing mouse adipose-derived mesenchymal cells (ADMSCs) in vitro or in vivo. Here, we develop a method for osteogenic differentiation of ADMSCs in vitro and utilize them to repair calvarial defects in vivo.Methods: ADMSCs were harvested from 3 week old female FVB mice. ADMSCs were cultured in standard osteogenic media with various concentrations of BMP-2 or retinoic acid (RA) for 3 weeks. Growth and differentiation were assessed via cell counting, Oil Red O (ORO), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and von Kossa (VK) staining. Apatite-coated poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds were then seeded with ADMSCs and implanted into critical sized (4mm) calvarial defects in adult male mice. Calvarial regeneration was assessed using histology and radiography.Results: Only slight differences in proliferation were seen in response to BMP2, RA, or BMP2 + RA. ORO staining was dramatically decreased in treated cells. AP and von Kossa staining were induced in a synergistic fashion by BMP2 + RA. In vivo experiments revealed successful healing of calvarial defects by 12 weeks after surgery. ADMSC-seeded scaffolds produced significant intramembranous bone formation by 2 weeks, and areas of complete bony bridging by 12 weeks as demonstrated by X-ray and histology.Conclusions: Our data demonstrate successful osteogenic differentiation of ADMSCs in vitro and in vivo. This novel mouse model potentiates further investigation into the mechanisms governing osteogenesis and the epigenetic manipulations that can be used to enhance this process.
    Journal of The American College of Surgeons - J AMER COLL SURGEONS. 01/2004; 199(3):62-62.
  • Archives of Surgery 11/2003; 138(10):1068-76. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 04/2003; 14(3):380. · 0.69 Impact Factor