[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are the major antiviral effector population of the innate immune system. We previously found that S100A9 is a novel ligand of the receptor CD85j and that S100A9 tetramers enhance the anti-HIV activity of NK cells. Also, we found that dendritic cells (DCs) infected by the HIV vaccine candidate, MVAHIV, prime NK cells to specifically control HIV infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we analyzed whether stimulation of NK cells by S100A9 tetramers prior to the priming by MVAHIV-infected DCs modulates the subsequent anti-HIV activity of NK cells. We found that S100A9 tetramers activate NK cells and that DCs enhance the anti-HIV activity of NK cells. Interestingly, we observed that stimulation of NK cells by S100A9 tetramers, prior to the priming, significantly increased the subsequent anti-HIV activity of NK cells and that the enhanced anti-HIV activity was observed following different conditions of priming, including the MVAHIV-priming. As S100A9 tetramers alone directly increase the anti-HIV activity of NK cells and as this increased anti-HIV activity is also observed following the interaction of NK cells with MVAHIV-infected DCs, we propose S100A9 tetramers as potential adjuvants to stimulate the anti-HIV activity of NK cells.
Frontiers in Immunology 10/2015; 6:478. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00478
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting dendritic cell-specific endocytic receptors using monoclonal antibodies fused to desired antigens is an approach widely used in vaccine development to enhance the poor immunogenicity of protein-based vaccines and to induce immune responses. Here, we engineered an anti-human DCIR recombinant antibody, which cross-reacts with the homologous cynomolgous macaque receptor and was fused via the heavy chain C-terminus to HIV Gagp24 protein (αDCIR.Gagp24). In vitro, αDCIR.Gagp24 expanded multifunctional antigen-specific memory CD4+ T cells recognizing multiple Gagp24 peptides from HIV-infected patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In non human primates, priming with αDCIR.Gagp24 without adjuvant elicited a strong anti-Gagp24 antibody response after the second immunization, while in the non-targeted HIV Gagp24 protein control groups the titers were weak. The presence of the double-stranded RNA poly(I:C) adjuvant significantly enhanced the anti-Gagp24 antibody response in all the groups and reduced the discrimination between the different vaccine groups. The avidity of the anti-Gagp24 antibody responses was similar with either αDCIR.Gagp24 or Gagp24 immunization, but increased from medium to high avidity in both groups when poly(I:C) was co-administered. This data provides a comparative analysis of DC-targeted and non-targeted proteins for their capacity to induce antigen-specific antibody responses in vivo. This study supports the further development of DCIR-based DC-targeting vaccines for protective durable antibody induction, especially in the absence of adjuvant.
PLoS ONE 09/2015; 10(9):e0135513. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135513 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total liquid ventilation provides ultrafast and potently neuro- and cardioprotective cooling after shockable cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction in animals. Our goal was to decipher the effect of hypothermic total liquid ventilation on the systemic and cerebral response to asphyxial cardiac arrest using an original pressure- and volume-controlled ventilation strategy in rabbits.
Randomized animal study.
Academic research laboratory.
New Zealand Rabbits.
Thirty-six rabbits were submitted to 13 minutes of asphyxia, leading to cardiac arrest. After resumption of spontaneous circulation, they underwent either normothermic life support (control group, n = 12) or hypothermia induced by either 30 minutes of total liquid ventilation (total liquid ventilation group, n = 12) or IV cold saline (conventional cooling group, n = 12).
Ultrafast cooling with total liquid ventilation (32°C within 5 min in the esophagus) dramatically attenuated the post-cardiac arrest syndrome regarding survival, neurologic dysfunction, and histologic lesions (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs). Final survival rate achieved 58% versus 0% and 8% in total liquid ventilation, control, and conventional cooling groups (p < 0.05), respectively. This was accompanied by an early preservation of the blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral hemodynamics as well as reduction in the immediate reactive oxygen species production in the brain, heart, and kidneys after cardiac arrest. Later on, total liquid ventilation also mitigated the systemic inflammatory response through alteration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8 transcripts levels compared with control. In the conventional cooling group, cooling was achieved more slowly (32°C within 90-120 min in the esophagus), providing none of the above-mentioned systemic or organ protection.
Ultrafast cooling by total liquid ventilation limits the post-cardiac arrest syndrome after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rabbits. This protection involves an early limitation in reactive oxidative species production, blood-brain barrier disruption, and delayed preservation against the systemic inflammatory response.
Critical care medicine 06/2015; 43(10). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001160 · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 replication depends on the state of cell activation and division. It is established that SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection of resting CD4 T cells. The modulation of SAMHD1 expression during T-cell activation and proliferation, however, remains unclear, as well as a role for SAMHD1 during HIV-1 pathogenesis.
SAMHD1 expression was assessed in CD4 T cells after their activation and in-vitro HIV-1 infection. We performed phenotype analyzes using flow cytometry on CD4 T cells from peripheral blood and lymph nodes from cohorts of HIV-1-infected individuals under antiretroviral treatment or not, and controls.
We show that SAMHD1 expression decreased during CD4 T-cell proliferation in association with an increased susceptibility to in-vitro HIV-1 infection. Additionally, circulating memory CD4 T cells are enriched in cells with low levels of SAMHD1. These SAMHD1 cells are highly differentiated, exhibit a large proportion of Ki67 cycling cells and are enriched in T-helper 17 cells. Importantly, memory SAMHD1 cells were depleted from peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals. We also found that follicular helper T cells present in secondary lymphoid organs lacked the expression of SAMHD1, which was accompanied by a higher susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in vitro.
We demonstrate that SAMHD1 expression is decreased during CD4 T-cell activation and proliferation. Also, CD4 T-cell subsets known to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection, for example, T-helper 17 and follicular helper T cells, display lower levels of SAMHD1. These results pin point a role for SAMHD1 expression in HIV-1 infection and the concomitant depletion of CD4 T cells.
AIDS (London, England) 03/2015; 29(5):519-30. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000594 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV vaccine strategies are expected to be a crucial component for controlling the HIV epidemic. Despite the large spectrum of potential candidate vaccines for both prophylactic and therapeutic use, the overall development process of an efficacious HIV vaccine strategy is lengthy. The design of clinical trials and the progression of a candidate strategy through the different clinical development stages remain methodologically challenging, mainly due to the lack of validated correlates of protection. In this review, we describe recent advances in clinical trial designs to increase the efficiency of the clinical development of candidate HIV vaccine strategies. The methodological aspects of the designs for early- (phase I and II) and later -stage (phase IIB and III) development are discussed, taking into account the specificities of both prophylactic and therapeutic HIV vaccine development.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 03/2015; 11(4). DOI:10.1080/21645515.2015.1011974 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vaccination has been poorly investigated. We have reported that vaccination with ex vivo-generated dendritic-cells (DC) loaded with HIV-lipopeptides (LIPO-5-DC vaccine) in HIV-infected patients was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. These responses and their relation to viral replication following analytical treatment interruption (ATI) were variable. Here, we investigated whether the presence of HIV-specific Tregs might explain these differences. Co-expression of CD25, CD134, CD39 and FoxP3 was used to delineate both antigen-specific Tregs and effectors T cells (Teffs). Median LIPO-5 specific-CD25+CD134+ polyfunctional T cells increased from 0.1% (IQR 0-0.3) before vaccination (week -4) to 2.1% (IQR 1.1-3.9) at week 16 following 4 immunizations (p=0.001) and were inversely correlated with maximum viral load following ATI (r=-0.77, p=0.001). Vaccinees who displayed lower levels of HIV-specific CD4+CD134+CD25+CD39+FoxP3+ Tregs responded better to the LIPO-5-DC vaccine. After vaccination, the frequency of HIV-specific Tregs decreased (from 69.3 at week -4 to 31.7% at week 16) and inversely correlated with HIV-specific IFN-γ-producing cells (r=-0.64, p=0.002). We show that therapeutic immunization skewed the HIV-specific response from regulatory to effector phenotype which impacts on the magnitude of viral replication following ATI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term spontaneous evolution between humans and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not well characterized; many species, including humans, exhibit remnants of other retroviruses in their genomes that question such possible endogenization of HIV. We investigated two HIV-infected patients with no HIV-related disease and no detection with routine tests of plasma HIV RNA or cell-associated HIV DNA. We used Sanger and deep sequencing to retrieve HIV DNA sequences integrated in the human genome and tested the host humoral and cellular immune responses. We noticed that viruses from both patients were inactivated by the high prevalence of the transformation of tryptophan codons into stop codons (25% overall (3-100% per gene) and 24% overall (0-50% per gene)). In contrast, the humoral and/or cellular responses were strong for one patient and moderate for the other, indicating that a productive infection occurred at one stage of the infection. We speculate that the stimulation of APOBEC, the enzyme group that exchanges G for A in viral nucleic acids and is usually inhibited by the HIV protein Vif, has been amplified and made effective from the initial stage of the infection. Furthermore, we propose that HIV cure may occur through HIV endogenization in humans, as observed for many other retroviruses in mammals, rather than clearance of all traces of HIV from human cells which defines viral eradication.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we have investigated the functional profile of CD4 T cells from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), including production of cytokines and proliferation in response to bacteria and virus-derived antigens. We show that the functional impairment of CD4 T cells, including the reduced capacity to proliferate and to produce IFN-γ and IL-2, was restricted to bacteria-specific and not virus-specific CD4 T cells. High levels of endotoxins were found in the plasma of patients with CVID, suggesting that CD4 T cell dysfunction might be caused by bacterial translocation. Of note, endotoxemia was associated with significantly higher expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1) on CD4 T cells. The blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1/2 axis in vitro restored CD4 T cell proliferation capacity, thus indicating that PD-1 signaling negatively regulates CD4 T cell functions. Finally, we showed that intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) treatment significantly reduced endotoxemia and the percentage of PD-1(+) CD4 T cells, and restored bacteria-specific CD4 T cell cytokine production and proliferation. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the CD4 T cell exhaustion and functional impairment observed in CVID patients is associated with bacterial translocation and that IVIG treatment resolves bacterial translocation and restores CD4 T cell functions.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2014; 211(10):2033-45. DOI:10.1084/jem.20140039 · 12.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are pivotal in preventing autoimmunity. They play a major but still ambiguous role in cancer and viral infections.
Functional studies of human Tregs are often hampered by numerous technical difficulties arising from imperfections in isolating and depleting protocols, together with the usual low cell number available from clinical samples.
We standardized a simple procedure (Single Step Method, SSM), based on magnetic beads technology, in which both depletion and isolation of human Tregs with high purities are simultaneously achieved. SSM is suitable when using low cell numbers either fresh or frozen from both patients and healthy individuals. It allows simultaneous Tregs isolation and depletion that can be used for further functional work to monitor suppressive function of isolated Tregs (in vitro suppression assay) and also effector IFN-γ responses of Tregs-depleted cell fraction (OX40 assay).
To our knowledge, there is no accurate standardized method for Tregs isolation and depletion in a clinical context. SSM could thus be used and easily standardized across different laboratories.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efforts aimed at restoring robust immune responses limiting therapeutically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication are warranted. We report that vaccination with dendritic cells (DC) generated ex vivo and loaded with HIV lipopeptides in patients (n = 19) on antiretroviral therapy was well tolerated and immunogenic. Vaccination increased: i) the breadth of the immune response from 1 (1-3) to 4 (2-5) peptide-pool responses/patient (P = 0.009); ii) the frequency of functional T cells (producing at least 2 cytokines among IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) from 0.026 to 0.32% (P = 0.002) and from 0.26 to 0.35% (P = 0.005) for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively; and iii) the breadth of cytokines secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon antigen exposure, including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-21, IL-17 and IL-13. Fifty percent of patients experienced a peak of viral load (VL) 1 log10 lower than the other half following antiviral treatment interruption. An inverse correlation was found between the peak of VL and the frequency of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells (P = 0.007), production of IL-2 (P = 0.006,), IFN-γ (P = 0.01), IL-21 (P = 0.006) and IL-13 (P = 0.001). These results suggest an association between vaccine responses and a better control of viral replication. These findings will help in the development of strategies for a functional cure for HIV infection.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
European Journal of Immunology 09/2014; 44(9). DOI:10.1002/eji.201344433 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innate mechanisms are critical for the development of the host immune responses to antigen. Particularly, early interaction between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DC) greatly impacts the establishment of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, using an autologous in vitro co-culture system we analyzed the NK cell response against MVAHIV-infected DC as well as the subsequent ability of these MVAHIV-primed NK cells to control HIV-1 infection in autologous DC. We found that NK cells responded early to MVAHIV- or MVAWT-infected DC in terms of degranulation and cytokine production. After a 4-day priming of NK cells by MVAHIV- or MVAWT-infected DC we observed an enhanced proliferation and modulation in the NK cell receptor repertoire expression. Interestingly, we found that MVAHIV-primed NK cells had a significant higher ability to control HIV-1 infection in autologous DC compared to MVAWT-primed NK cells; and this enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity appeared to be HIV-specific as MVAHIV-primed NK cells did not have a better ability to control other viral infections or respond against tumoral cells. Furthermore, we observed that NK cell receptors NKG2D and NKp46 modulate the priming of NK cells. This data provides evidence that in vitro NK cells can be primed by viral vector-infected DC, in the context of a NK/DC culture, to specifically target viral infected cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural Killer (NK) cells are the major antiviral effector cell population of the innate immune system. It has been demonstrated that NK-cell activity can be modulated by the interaction with dendritic cells (DCs). The HIV-1 vaccine candidate Modified Vaccinia Ankara encoding an HIV polypeptide (MVAHIV ), developed by the French National Agency for Research on AIDS (ANRS), has the ability to prime NK cells to control HIV-1 infection in DCs. However, whether or not MVAHIV -primed NK cells are able to better control HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells, and the mechanism underlying the specific priming, remain undetermined. In this study we show that MVAHIV -primed NK cells display a greater capacity to control HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells. We also highlight the importance of NKG2D engagement on NK cells and DC-produced IL-15 to achieve the anti-HIV-1 specific priming, as blockade of either NKG2D or IL-15 during MVAHIV -priming lead to a subsequent decreased control of HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore we show that the decreased control of HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells might be due, at least in part, to the decreased expression of membrane-bound IL-15 (mbIL-15) on DCs when NKG2D is blocked during MVAHIV -priming of NK cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal of Immunology 08/2014; 44(8). DOI:10.1002/eji.201344149 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-7 is a non-redundant growth, differentiation and survival factor for human T lymphocytes. Most circulating, mature T cells express the receptor for IL-7, but not all. Importantly, CD4 Tregs express greatly reduced levels of IL-7R compared to conventional CD4 T cells, presenting an opportunity to selectively target the latter cells with either more IL-7 to boost responses, or to block IL-7 signalling to limit responses. This article reviews what is known about regulation of IL-7R expression, and recent progress in therapeutic approaches related to IL-7 and its receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells are major APCs that can efficiently prime immune responses. However, the roles of skin-resident Langerhans cells (LCs) in eliciting immune responses have not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that LCs in cynomolgus macaque skin are capable of inducing antiviral-specific immune responses in vivo. Targeting HIV-Gag or influenza hemagglutinin Ags to skin LCs using recombinant fusion proteins of anti-Langerin Ab and Ags resulted in the induction of the viral Ag-specific responses. We further demonstrated that such Ag-specific immune responses elicited by skin LCs were greatly enhanced by TLR ligands, polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, and R848. These enhancements were not due to the direct actions of TLR ligands on LCs, but mainly dependent on TNF-α secreted from macrophages and neutrophils recruited to local tissues. Skin LC activation and migration out of the epidermis are associated with macrophage and neutrophil infiltration into the tissues. More importantly, blocking TNF-α abrogated the activation and migration of skin LCs. This study highlights that the cross-talk between innate immune cells in local tissues is an important component for the establishment of adaptive immunity. Understanding the importance of local immune networks will help us to design new and effective vaccines against microbial pathogens.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2014; 193(5). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1303339 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exogenous Interleukin-7 (IL-7), in supplement to antiretroviral therapy, leads to a substantial increase of all CD4+ T cell subsets in HIV-1 infected patients. However, the quantitative contribution of the several potential mechanisms of action of IL-7 is unknown. We have performed a mathematical analysis of repeated measurements of total and naive CD4+ T cells and their Ki67 expression from HIV-1 infected patients involved in three phase I/II studies (N = 53 patients). We show that, besides a transient increase of peripheral proliferation, IL-7 exerts additional effects that play a significant role in CD4+ T cell dynamics up to 52 weeks. A decrease of the loss rate of the total CD4+ T cell is the most probable explanation. If this effect could be maintained during repeated administration of IL-7, our simulation study shows that such a strategy may allow maintaining CD4+ T cell counts above 500 cells/µL with 4 cycles or fewer over a period of two years. This in-depth analysis of clinical data revealed the potential for IL-7 to achieve sustained CD4+ T cell restoration with limited IL-7 exposure in HIV-1 infected patients with immune failure despite antiretroviral therapy.