Md Noor Alam

VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (19)68.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The hypocretins (HCRTs) are two hypothalamic peptides predominantly localized to neurons in the perifornical, dorsomedial, and lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA). Evidence suggests that HCRT signaling is critical for the promotion and stabilization of active-arousal and its loss or malfunction leads to symptoms of narcolepsy. In the PF-LHA, HCRT neurons are intermingled with glutamate-expressing neurons and also co-express glutamate. Evidence suggests that HCRT-glutamate interactions within the PF-LHA may play a critical role in maintaining behavioral arousal. However, the relative contributions of the glutamate and HCRT in sleep-wake regulation are not known. We determined whether a lack of HCRT signaling in the prepro-orexin-knockout (HCRT-KO) mouse attenuates/compromises the wake-promoting ability of glutamatergic activation of the PF-LHA region. We used reverse microdialysis to deliver N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) into the HCRT zone of the PF-LHA in HCRT-KO and wild-type (WT) mice to evaluate the contributions of glutamatergic vs. HCRT signaling in sleep-wake regulation. As compared to respective controls, local perfusion of NMDA into the PF-LHA, dose-dependently increased active-waking with concomitant reductions in nonREM and REM sleep in spontaneously sleeping WT as well as HCRT-KO mice. However, compared to WT, the NMDA-induced behavioral changes in HCRT-KO mice were significantly attenuated, as evidenced by the higher dose of NMDA needed and lower magnitude of changes induced in sleep-wake parameters. Although not observed in WT mice, the number of cataplectic events increased significantly during NMDA-induced behavioral arousal in HCRT-KO mice. The findings of this study are consistent with a hypothesis that synergistic interactions between hypocretin and glutamatergic mechanisms within the perifornical, dorsomedial, and lateral hypothalamic area are critical for maintaining behavioral arousal, especially arousal involving elevated muscle tone. Kostin A, Siegel JM, Alam MN. Lack of hypocretin attenuates behavioral changes produced by glutamatergic activation of the perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area. SLEEP 2014;37(5):1011-1020.
    Sleep 01/2014; 37(5):1011-1020. · 5.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The preoptic hypothalamus is implicated in sleep regulation. Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) have been identified as potential sleep regulatory elements. However, the extent to which MnPO and VLPO neurons are activated in response to changing homeostatic sleep regulatory demands is unresolved. To address this question, we continuously recorded the extracellular activity of neurons in the rat MnPO, VLPO and dorsal lateral preoptic area (LPO) during baseline sleep and waking, during 2 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and during 2 h of recovery sleep (RS). Sleep-active neurons in the MnPO (n=11) and VLPO (n=13) were activated in response to SD, such that waking discharge rates increased by 95.8%±29.5% and 59.4±17.3%, respectively, above waking baseline values. During RS, nonREM sleep discharge rates of MnPO neurons initially increased to 65.6±15.2% above baseline values, then declined to baseline levels in association with decreases in EEG delta power. Increase in nonREM sleep discharge rates in VLPO neurons during RS averaged 40.5±7.6% above baseline. REM-active neurons (n=16) in the LPO also exhibited increased waking discharge during SD and an increase in nonREM discharge during RS. Infusion of A2A adenosine receptor antagonist into the VLPO, attenuated SD-induced increases in neuronal discharge. Populations of LPO wake/REM-active and state-indifferent neurons and dorsal LPO sleep-active neurons were unresponsive to SD. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep-active neurons in the MnPO and VLPO, and REM-active neurons in the LPO are components of neuronal circuits that mediate homeostatic responses to sustained wakefulness.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 10/2013; · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the regulation of sleep. The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) is a key wake-promoting region and contains neurons that are active during behavioral or cortical activation. Recently, we found higher levels of NO metabolites (NOx), an indirect measure of NO levels, in the PF-LHA during prolonged-waking (SD). However, NO is highly reactive and diffuses rapidly and the NOx assay is not sensitive enough to detect rapid-changes in NO levels across spontaneous sleep-waking states. We used a novel Nafion®-modified Platinum (NF-PT) electrode for real-time detection of NO levels in the PF-LHA across sleep-wake cycles, dark-light phases, and during SD. Sprague-Dawley male rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep-wake recording and implantation of NF-PT electrode into the PF-LHA. EEG, EMG, and electrochemical current generated by NF-PT electrode were continuously acquired for 5-7 days including one day with 3h of SD. In the PF-LHA, NO levels exhibited a waking>REM>nonREM sleep pattern (0.56±0.03μM >0.47±0.02μM >0.42±0.02μM; p<0.01). NO levels were also higher during the dark- as compared to the light-phase (0.53±0.03μM vs. 0.44±0.02μM; p<0.01). NO levels increased during 3h of SD as compared to undisturbed control (0.58±0.04μM vs. 0.47±0.01μM; p<0.05). The findings indicate that in the PF-LHA, NO is produced during behavioral or cortical activation. Since elevated levels of NO inhibits most of the PF-LHA neurons that are active during cortical activation, these findings support a hypothesis that NO produced in conjunction with the activation of PF-LHA neurons during waking/SD, inhibits the same neuronal population to promote sleep.
    Neuroscience 09/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) are two hypothalamic regions that have been implicated in sleep regulation, and both nuclei contain sleep-active GABAergic neurons. Adenosine is an endogenous sleep regulatory substance, which promotes sleep via A1 and A2A receptors (A2AR). Infusion of A2AR agonist into the lateral ventricle or into the subarachnoid space underlying the rostral basal forebrain (SS-rBF), has been previously shown to increase sleep. We examined the effects of an A2AR agonist, CGS-21680, administered into the lateral ventricle and the SS-rBF on sleep and Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in GABAergic neurons in the MnPN and VLPO. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CGS-21680 during the second half of lights-on phase increased sleep and increased the number of MnPN and VLPO GABAergic neurons expressing Fos-IR. Similar effects were found with CGS-21680 microinjection into the SS-rBF. The induction of Fos-IR in preoptic GABAergic neurons was not secondary to drug-induced sleep, since CGS-21680 delivered to the SS-rBF significantly increased Fos-IR in MnPN and VLPO neurons in animals that were not permitted sleep. ICV of infusion of ZM-241385, an A2AR antagonist, during the last 2 h of a 3 h period of sleep deprivation caused suppression of subsequent recovery sleep and reduced Fos-IR in MnPN and VLPO GABAergic neurons. Our findings support a hypothesis that A2AR mediated activation of MnPN and VLPO GABAergic neurons contributes to adenosinergic regulation of sleep.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 05/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) has been implicated in the regulation of arousal. The PF-LHA contains wake-active neurons that are quiescent during non-REM sleep and in the case of neurons expressing the peptide hypocretin (HCRT), quiescent during both non-REM and REM sleep. Adenosine is an endogenous sleep factor and recent evidence suggests that adenosine via A(1) receptors may act on PF-LHA neurons to promote sleep. We examined the effects of bilateral activation as well as blockade of A(1) receptors in the PF-LHA on sleep-wakefulness in freely behaving rats. The sleep-wake profiles of male Wistar rats were recorded during reverse microdialysis perfusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and two doses of adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine (CPDX; 5 microM and 50 microM) or A(1) receptor agonist, N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 5 microM and 50 microM) into the PF-LHA for 2 h followed by 4 h of aCSF perfusion. CPDX perfused into the PF-LHA during lights-on phase produced arousal (F=7.035, p<0.001) and concomitantly decreased both non-REM (F=7.295, p<0.001) and REM sleep (F=3.456, p<0.004). In contrast, CPA perfused into the PF-LHA during lights-off phase significantly suppressed arousal (F=7.891, p<0.001) and increased non-REM (F=8.18, p <0.001) and REM sleep (F=30.036, p<0.001). These results suggest that PF-LHA is one of the sites where adenosine, acting via A(1) receptors, inhibits PF-LHA neurons to promote sleep.
    Brain research 09/2009; 1304:96-104. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) of the hypothalamus contains sleep-active neurons including sleep-active GABAergic neurons and is involved in the regulation of nonREM/REM sleep. The hypocretinergic (HCRT) neurons of the perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are mostly active during waking and have been implicated in the regulation of arousal. MnPN GABAergic neurons project to the PF-LHA and DRN. It is hypothesized that MnPN promotes sleep by inhibiting multiple arousal systems including HCRT and other wake-active neurons within the PF-LHA and 5-HT neurons in the DRN. We examined the effects of inactivation of MnPN neurons by locally microinjecting 0.2 microl of 1 mM or 10 mM solutions of a GABA(A) receptor agonist, muscimol, into the MnPN on Fos expression (Fos-IR) in the PF-LHA neurons including HCRT neurons and 5-HT neurons in the DRN in anesthetized rats. Compared to artificial cerebrospinal fluid control, microinjection of muscimol into the MnPN resulted in significantly higher percentages of HCRT and non-HCRT neurons in the PF-LHA and 5-HT neurons in the DRN that exhibited Fos-IR. The percentage of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)+/Fos+ neurons in the PF-LHA did not change after muscimol treatments. These results support a hypothesis that the activation of MnPN neurons contributes to the suppression of wake-promoting systems including HCRT and other unidentified neurons in the PF-LHA and 5-HT neurons in the DRN. These results also suggest that MCH neurons may not be under MnPN inhibitory control. These findings are consistent with a hypothesized role of MnPN in sleep regulation.
    Brain Research 09/2008; 1234:66-77. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF/LH) contains neuronal groups playing an important role in control of waking and sleep. Among the brain regions that regulate behavioral states, one of the strongest sources of projections to the PF/LH is the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) containing a sleep-active neuronal population. To evaluate the role of MnPN afferents in the control of PF/LH neuronal activity, we studied the responses of PF/LH cells to electrical stimulation or local chemical manipulation of the MnPN in freely moving rats. Single-pulse electrical stimulation evoked responses in 79% of recorded PF/LH neurons. No cells were activated antidromically. Direct and indirect transsynaptic effects depended on sleep-wake discharge pattern of PF/LH cells. The majority of arousal-related neurons, that is, cells discharging at maximal rates during active waking (AW) or during AW and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, exhibited exclusively or initially inhibitory responses to stimulation. Sleep-related neurons, the cells with elevated discharge during non-REM and REM sleep or selectively active in REM sleep, exhibited exclusively or initially excitatory responses. Activation of the MnPN via microdialytic application of L-glutamate or bicuculline resulted in reduced discharge of arousal-related and in excitation of sleep-related PF/LH neurons. Deactivation of the MnPN with muscimol caused opposite effects. The results indicate that the MnPN contains subset(s) of neurons, which exert inhibitory control over arousal-related and excitatory control over sleep-related PF/LH neurons. We hypothesize that MnPN sleep-active neuronal group has both inhibitory and excitatory outputs that participate in the inhibitory control of arousal-promoting PF/LH mechanisms.
    Journal of Neuroscience 03/2007; 27(7):1616-30. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypocretin (HCRT) system of the perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) has been implicated in the facilitation of behavioral arousal. HCRT neurons receive serotonergic afferents from the dorsal raphe nucleus. Although in-vitro pharmacological studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) inhibits HCRT neurons, the in-vivo effects of 5-HT on HCRT neurons in the PF-LHA and associated behavioral changes have not been described. We examined the effects of 5-HT delivered locally into the PF-LHA using reverse microdialysis on its neuronal activity and the consequent sleep-wake changes in rats. First, we quantified Fos expression (Fos-IR) in HCRT and other PF-LHA neurons following unilateral 5-HT perfusion in awake rats. Second, we determined the transient effects of 5-HT perfusion on the extracellular activity of the PF-LHA neurons recorded via microwires placed adjacent to the microdialysis probe. Third, we examined the effects of 5-HT perfusion into the PF-LHA on the sleep-wake profiles of the rats during the lights-off period. Unilateral perfusion of 5-HT into the PF-LHA in awake rats dose-dependently decreased the number of HCRT neurons exhibiting Fos-IR. 5-HT also inhibited the discharge activity of four of five responsive wake-related, putative HCRT neurons. However, unilateral perfusion of 5-HT into the PF-LHA did not produce significant behavioral changes during the 2-h recording period. These results confirm the in-vitro findings that 5-HT exerts inhibitory influences on HCRT neurons but further suggest that the inactivation of a limited number of HCRT neurons by unilateral 5-HT microdialysis may not be sufficient to induce behavioral changes.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 02/2007; 25(1):201-12. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that adenosine (AD) is an endogenous sleep factor. The hypnogenic action of AD is mediated through its inhibitory A1 and excitatory A2A receptors. Although AD is thought to be predominantly active in the wake-active region of the basal forebrain (BF), a hypnogenic action of AD has been demonstrated in several other brain areas, including the preoptic area. We hypothesized that in lateral preoptic area (LPOA), a region with an abundance of sleep-active neurons, AD acting via A1 receptors would induce waking by inhibition of sleep-active neurons and that AD acting via A2A receptors would promote sleep by stimulating the sleep-active neurons. To this end, we studied the effects on sleep of an AD transport inhibitor, nitrobenzyl-thio-inosine (NBTI) and A1 and A2A receptor agonists/antagonists by microdialyzing them into the LPOA. The results showed that, in the sleep-promoting area of LPOA: 1) A1 receptor stimulation or inhibition of AD transport by NBTI induced waking and 2) A2A receptor stimulation induced sleep. We also confirmed that NBTI administration in the wake promoting area of the BF increased sleep. The effects of AD could be mediated either directly or indirectly via interaction with other neurotransmitter systems. These observations support a hypothesis that AD mediated effects on sleep-wake cycles are site and receptor dependent.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 01/2006; 289(6):R1715-23. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) has been implicated in the regulation of behavioural arousal. The PF-LHA contains several cell types including neurones expressing the peptides, hypocretin (HCRT; also called orexin) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Evidence suggests that most of the PF-LHA neurones, including HCRT neurones, are active during waking and quiescent during non-rapid eye movement (non-NREM) sleep. The PF-LHA contains local GABAergic interneurones and also receives GABAergic inputs from sleep-promoting regions in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. We hypothesized that increased GABA-mediated inhibition within PF-LHA contributes to the suppression of neuronal activity during non-REM sleep. EEG and EMG activity of rats were monitored for 2 h during microdialytic delivery of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) or bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, into the PF-LHA in spontaneously sleeping rats during the lights-on period. At the end of aCSF or bicuculline perfusion, rats were killed and c-Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in HCRT, MCH and other PF-LHA neurones was quantified. In response to bicuculline perfusion into the PF-LHA, rats exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in non-REM and REM sleep time and an increase in time awake. The number of HCRT, MCH and non-HCRT/non-MCH neurones exhibiting Fos-IR adjacent to the microdialysis probe also increased dose-dependently in response to bicuculline. However, significantly fewer MCH neurones exhibited Fos-IR in response to bicuculline as compared to HCRT and other PF-LHA neurones. These results support the hypothesis that PF-LHA neurones, including HCRT neurones, are subject to increased endogenous GABAergic inhibition during sleep. In contrast, MCH neurones appear to be subject to weaker GABAergic control during sleep.
    The Journal of Physiology 04/2005; 563(Pt 2):569-82. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the regulation of nonrapid eye movement (nonREM) sleep. IL-1, IL-1 receptors and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) are present normally in discrete brain regions, including the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus and the adjoining magnocellular basal forebrain (BF). The POA/BF have been implicated in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness. We hypothesized that IL-1 promotes nonREM sleep, in part by altering the state-dependent discharge activity of POA/BF neurons. We recorded the sleep-wake discharge profiles of 83 neurons in the lateral POA/BF and assessed the effects of IL-1, IL-1ra, and IL-ra + IL-1 delivered through a microdialysis probe on state-dependent neuronal discharge activity. IL-1 decreased the discharge rate of POA/BF neurons as a group (n = 55) but wake-related and sleep-related neurons responded differently. IL-1 significantly decreased the discharge rate of wake-related neurons. Of 24 wake-related neurons studied, 19 (79%) neurons exhibited a greater than 20% change in their discharge in the presence of IL-1 during waking. IL-1 suppressed the discharge activity of 18 of 19 responsive neurons. Of 13 sleep-related neurons studied, IL-1 increased the discharge activity of five and suppressed the discharge activity of four neurons. IL-1ra increased the discharge activity of four of nine neurons and significantly attenuated IL-1-induced effects on neuronal activity of POA/BF neurons (n = 19). These results suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of IL-1 may be mediated, in part, via the suppression of wake-related neurons and the activation of a subpopulation of sleep-related neurons in the POA/BF.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 08/2004; 20(1):207-16. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Upper airway dilator activity during sleep appears to be diminished under conditions of enhanced sleep propensity, such as after sleep deprivation, leading to worsening of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep propensity originates in sleep-active neurons of the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus and is facilitated by activation of POA warm-sensitive neurons (WSNs). We hypothesized that activation of WSNs by local POA warming would inhibit activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle, an airway dilator, during NREM sleep. In chronically prepared unrestrained cats, the PCA exhibited inspiratory bursts in approximate synchrony with inspiratory diaphragmatic activity during waking, NREM, and REM. Integrated inspiratory PCA activity (IA), peak activity (PA), and the lead time (LT) of the onset of inspiratory activity in PCA relative to diaphragm were significantly reduced in NREM sleep and further reduced during REM sleep compared with waking. Mild bilateral local POA warming (0.5-1.2 degrees C) significantly reduced IA, PA, and LT during NREM sleep compared with a prewarming NREM baseline. In some animals, effects of POA warming on PCA activity were found during waking or REM. Because POA WSN activity is increased during spontaneous NREM sleep and regulates sleep propensity, we hypothesize that this activation contributes to reduction of airway dilator activity in patients with OSA.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 07/2004; 286(6):R1129-37. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the preoptic area (POA) warm sensitive neurons is known to promote non-REM (NREM) sleep and inhibit neuronal discharge in arousal-related brain structures. The perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PF/LH) was recently recognized to be an additional important arousal promoting region. We studied the behavior of PF/LH neurons in rats during the normal sleep-wake cycle and in response to local POA warming. Most PF/LH neurons were wake-active, and exhibited low discharge throughout NREM. Seventy four percent of these wake-active neurons exhibited moderate or strong activation in REM sleep compared to NREM sleep. A substantial group (26%) exhibited very low discharge in REM as well as NREM sleep. Fifty two percent of units in the PF/LH area were responsive to POA warming; 90% of responsive neurons exhibited a significant reduction (-26.47+/-2.16% for 1 degrees C of POA warming) in their discharge rate. The inhibitory effect of POA warming on PF/LH neurons was not associated with EEG slowing. This study supports the hypothesis that sleep induction by POA warm sensitive neurons is mediated through the inhibition of multiple arousal-related structures.
    Brain Research 02/2003; 960(1-2):165-73. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence show that the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus is critically implicated in the regulation of sleep. Functionally heterogeneous cell groups with sleep-related discharge patterns are located both in the medial and lateral POA. Recently a cluster of neurons showing sleep-related c-Fos immunoreactivity was found in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN). To determine the specificity of the state-related behaviour of MnPN neurons we have undertaken the first study of their discharge patterns across the sleep-waking cycle. Nearly 76 % of recorded cells exhibited elevated discharge rates during sleep. Sleep-related units showed several distinct types of activity changes across sleep stages. Two populations included cells displaying selective activation during either non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (10 %) or REM sleep (8 %). Neurons belonging to the predominant population (58 %) exhibited activation during both phases of sleep compared to wakefulness. Most of these cells showed a gradual increase in their firing rates prior to sleep onset, elevated discharge during NREM sleep and a further increase during REM sleep. This specific sleep-waking discharge profile is opposite to that demonstrated by wake-promoting monoaminergic cell groups and was previously found in cells localized in the ventrolateral preoptic area (vlPOA). We hypothesize that these vlPOA and MnPN neuronal populations act as parts of a GABAergic/galaninergic sleep-promoting ('anti-waking') network which exercises inhibitory control over waking-promoting systems. MnPN neurons that progressively increase activity during sustained waking and decrease activity during sustained sleep states may be involved in homeostatic regulation of sleep.
    The Journal of Physiology 10/2002; 543(Pt 2):665-77. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The perifornical lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) has been implicated in the control of several waking behaviours, including feeding, motor activity and arousal. Several cell types are located in the PF-LHA, including projection neurons that contain the hypocretin peptides (also known as orexins). Recent findings suggest that hypocretin neurons are involved in sleep-wake regulation. Loss of hypocretin neurons in the human disorder narcolepsy is associated with excessive somnolence, cataplexy and increased propensity for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the relationship of PF-LHA neuronal activity to different arousal states is unknown. We recorded neuronal activity in the PF-LHA of rats during natural sleep and waking. Neuronal discharge rates were calculated during active waking (waking accompanied by movement), quiet waking, non-REM sleep and REM sleep. Fifty-six of 106 neurons (53 %) were classified as wake/REM-related. These neurons exhibited peak discharge rates during waking and REM sleep and reduced discharge rates during non-REM sleep. Wake-related neurons (38 %) exhibited reduced discharge rates during both non-REM and REM sleep when compared to that during waking. Wake-related neurons exhibited significantly higher discharge rates during active waking than during quiet waking. The discharge of wake-related neurons was positively correlated with muscle activity across all sleep-waking states. Recording sites were located within the hypocretin-immunoreactive neuronal field of the PF-LHA. Although the neurotransmitter phenotype of recorded cells was not determined, the prevalence of neurons with wake-related discharge patterns is consistent with the hypothesis that the PF-LHA participates in the regulation of arousal, muscle activity and sleep-waking states.
    The Journal of Physiology 02/2002; 538(Pt 2):619-31. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In cats, putative serotonergic neurons (PSNs) recorded from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) across the sleep-wake cycle exhibit the so-called rapid eye movement sleep-off (REM-off) discharge pattern. Since, the sleep-wake discharge patterns of DRN neurons in behaving rats is poorly known, the present study examined this neuronal populations. The PSNs recorded in this study exhibited: (1) progressive decrease in discharge rate from waking to NREM to REM sleep; (2) long action potential duration, and (3) reduction of discharge rate after systemic administration of a selective 5-HT1A agonist, (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT). Evidence supports the hypothesis that NREM sleep is modulated by thermoregulatory mechanisms localized in the preoptic area and adjacent basal forebrain (POA/BF). We previously reported that POA/BF warming suppresses the discharge of wake-promoting neurons in the posterior hypothalamus and the basal forebrain. Since the DRN is one component of the brainstem arousal system and receives projections from POA/BF, we examined the effects of local POA/BF warming by 1.5–2.0°C during waking on the discharge of DRN neurons. POA/BF warming reduced the discharge in 14 of 19 PSNs and in 12 of 17 other wake-related neurons in the DRN. DRN neuronal discharge reduction occurred without accompanying EEG frequency or behavioral changes. These results suggest that PSNs recorded in DRN in unrestrained and unanesthetized rats exhibit a “wake-active REM-off” discharge pattern and further support the hypothesis that the POA/BF warm-sensitive hypnogenic system induces sleep by a coordinated inhibition of multiple arousal systems including that modulated by the DRN.
    Brain Research 10/2000; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sleep–waking discharge patterns of neurons in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PLH) were investigated in the rat. Previous studies in the cat demonstrated that this region contained neurons that fired tonically at low rates (2–4 Hz) during waking, decreased firing in non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep and nearly ceased firing during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. These “REM-off” neurons were proposed to be histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus (TM). Since many anatomical and physiological studies are performed in the rat, we sought to examine the sleep–waking discharge of these neurons in this animal. We found three main types of discharge patterns among PLH neurons. Waking-related neurons decreased their discharge in NREM sleep, and remained at low rates during REM sleep. A subpopulation of these neurons discharged very little during REM sleep (<0.2 Hz) (REM-off neurons). Waking/REM-related neurons decreased their discharge in NREM sleep and returned to waking rates in REM sleep. REM-related neurons decreased their discharge in NREM sleep and increased their discharge during REM sleep higher than waking rates. No NREM-related discharge patterns were recorded. Waking-related and waking/REM-related neurons were similar in location within the PLH and action potential duration. Some REM-off and other waking-related neurons were recorded within the boundaries of the histaminergic TM, however, not all waking-related and REM-off neurons were found within this region. Furthermore, neurons with waking/REM-related and state-indifferent discharge patterns were localized within the TM. These results suggest that waking-related and/or REM-off neurons may not be exclusively histaminergic in rats.
    Brain Research 10/1999; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thermosensitivity of the neurons in the diagonal band of Broca (DBB) was studied in 12 freely moving rats by determining responses to local cooling or warming with a water perfused thermode. Of 151 neurons studied, 37 (25%) neurons met the criterion for thermosensitivity including 17 warm-sensitive (WSNs) and 20 cold-sensitive neurons (CSNs). The spontaneous discharge rates of WSNs and CSNs were recorded through 1–3 sleep-waking cycles. The discharge of WSNs and CSNs during waking and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep were different. Of 17 WSNs, 10 exhibited increased discharge rates during NREM sleep as compared with waking (NREM/Wake discharge ratio, ≥ 1.2). Of 20 CSNs, 14 discharged more slowly during NREM sleep as compared with waking (NREM/Wake discharge ratio, ≤ 0.8). In both WSNs and CSNs, changes in discharge rate preceded EEG changes at the waking-NREM transition. These results support a hypothesis that the activation of sleep-related WSNs and the deactivation of wake-related CSNs play a role in the onset and regulation of NREM sleep.
    Brain Research 04/1997; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thermosensitive neurons of the preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area (POAH) have been implicated in the regulation of both body temperature and non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. During NREM sleep, a majority of POAH warm-sensitive neurons (WSN) exhibit increased discharge compared to wakefulness. Cold-sensitive neurons (CSN) exhibit reduced discharge in NREM sleep compared to wakefulness. To further study the mechanism underlying these processes, the present study compared discharge rate and thermosensitivity (discharge rate change/°C) of WSNs and CSNs in NREM sleep and wakefulness in freely moving adult cats. The thermosensitivity of 24 WSNs and 31 CSNs from the medial POAH was determined from responses to local POAH warming and cooling. WSNs with increased discharge in NREM sleep exhibited increased thermosensitivity during NREM sleep compared to wakefulness. CSNs with decreased discharge during NREM sleep exhibited decreased thermosensitivity in NREM sleep. The change in thermosensitivity from wakefulness to NREM sleep was correlated with the change in discharge rate in WSNs but not in CSNs. In addition, 9 of 47 neurons that were thermo-insensitive during wakefulness became warm-sensitive during NREM sleep. Changes in POAH neuronal thermosensitivity could be a component of the mechanism for stabilization of state after state transition.
    Brain Research 05/1996; · 2.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

591 Citations
68.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2013
    • VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1996–2009
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1996–2007
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Psychology
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Australian National University
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia