[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown an elevated prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in sibs of coeliac patients (risk 8-12%).
We evaluated the risk that sibs of children with CD will also develop CD. This cohort of 188 Italian families was composed of probands with CD, at least one sib and both parents. CD status was determined and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ genotyping performed in all family members. The study also used a dataset of Italian triads (127 probands and both their parents) also genotyped for HLA-DQ.
The overall risk that a sib of a CD patient will develop the disease was estimated at 10% in this sample. The risk estimate ranged from 0.1% to 29% when HLA-DQ information of the proband, parents and sib was considered. We found a negligible risk (lower than 1%) for 40% of the sibs of probands, a risk greater than 1% but less than 10% for 30%, and finally a high or very high risk (above 25%) in one-third of families.
These results make it possible to provide more accurate information to parents with a child with CD about the real risk for another child. An antenatal estimate of the order of risk of CD is now possible. Specific follow-up can thus be offered for babies at high risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently proposed a new strategy: 2-locus TDT for detecting two susceptibility genes through their interaction in trio families. We apply our method to two candidate genes, A and C, on the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15) simulated rheumatoid arthritis data and study the power to identify an interactive effect of these genes.This study was performed with full knowledge of the answers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to model the effect of PTPN22 on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we determined the combination of single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) showing the strongest association with RA. Three SNPs (rs2476601-rs12730735-rs11102685) were selected for which we estimated the genotypic relative risks (GRRs) of the corresponding genotypes. On the basis of these GRRs we defined four at-risk genotypic classes. Relative to the class of reference risk, individuals had a risk approximately multiplied by two, three, or four. This classification was confirmed by the excess of identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing (IBD = 2) for the sibs of an index in the high-risk class and by excess of non-IBD sharing (IBD = 0) when the index belonged to the low-risk class. The observed data could not be explained by the role of a single variant but were compatible either with a joint effect of the three typed SNPs of PTPN22 on RA or with the role of two untyped variants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Group 4 at Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 focused on methods that exploited both linkage and association information to map disease loci. All contributions considered the dichotomous trait of rheumatoid arthritis, using either affected sibpairs and/or unrelated controls. While one contribution investigated linkage and association approaches separately in genome-wide analyses, the remaining others focused on joint linkage and association methods in specific genomic regions. The latter contributions proposed new methods and/or examined existing methods that addressed whether one or more polymorphisms partially or fully explained a linkage signal, particularly the methods proposed by Li et al. that are implemented in the computer program Linkage and Association Modeling in Pedigrees (LAMP). Using simulated SNP data under linkage peaks, several contributions found that existing family-based association approaches such as those of Martin et al. and Lake et al. had power similar to LAMP and to several methods proposed by the contributors for testing that a single nucleotide polymorphism partially explains a linkage peak. In evaluating methods for identifying if a polymorphism or a set of polymorphisms fully accounted for a linkage signal, several contributions found that it was important to understand that these methods may be subject to low power in some situations and thus, a non-significant result was not necessarily indicative of the polymorphism(s) being fully responsible for the linkage signal. Finally, modeling the disease using association evidence conditional on linkage may improve understanding of the etiology of disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 simulated data have been analyzed with MASC(marker association segregation chi-squares) in which we implemented a bootstrap procedure to provide the variation intervals of parameter estimates. We model here the effect of a genetic factor, S, for Kofendrerd Personality Disorder in the region of the marker C03R0281 for the Aipotu population. The goodness of fit of several genetic models with two alleles for one locus has been tested. The data are not compatible with a direct effect of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (SNP 16, 17, 18, 19 of pack 153) in the region. Therefore, we can conclude that the functional polymorphism has not been typed and is in linkage disequilibrium with the four studied SNPs. We obtained very large variation intervals both of the disease allele frequency and the degree of dominance. The uncertainty of the model parameters can be explained first, by the method used, which models marginal effects when the disease is due to complex interactions, second, by the presence of different sub-criteria used for the diagnosis that are not determined by S in the same way, and third, by the fact that the segregation of the disease in the families was not taken into account. However, we could not find any model that could explain the familial segregation of the trait, namely the higher proportion of affected parents than affected sibs.