ABSTRACT: High-dose calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) has antineoplastic activity against a range of tumors and potentiates chemotherapeutic agents. In an earlier canine study, the MTD of intravenous (i.v.) calcitriol was 3.75 μg/kg, but polysorbate-associated hypersensitivity reactions were common. Use of commercially available oral calcitriol is limited by the absence of a formulation of suitable strength to allow administration of a reasonable number of caplets. This study evaluated the bioavailability of DN101, a concentrated oral calcitriol formulation specifically developed for anticancer applications.
An open-label, single-dose, 2-way crossover study was conducted. Dogs randomly received a single 3.75 μg/kg dose of calcitriol either i.v. or oral (as DN101), followed by cisplatin (60 mg/m(2)). Three weeks later, the alternate form of calcitriol was given prior to another dose of cisplatin. Dogs received antihistamines and corticosteroids prior to both treatments. Food was withheld for 12 h before and after therapy. Serum calcitriol concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay.
Ten tumor-bearing dogs received both i.v. and oral calcitriol. Six dogs experienced hypersensitivity reactions during i.v. calcitriol. Sequence of calcitriol administration (day-1 vs. day-21) by either i.v. or oral routes had no effect on the major calcitriol pharmacokinetic parameters. Oral calcitriol resulted in significantly lower values for AUC (P = 0.05) and prolonged T (1/2) (P = 0.003) when compared to i.v. Calcitriol oral bioavailability was highly variable among dogs (mean ± SEM, 71 ± 12.6%).
This study demonstrates that a high-dose formulation of calcitriol has a moderate bioavailability in dogs, but inter-individual variability in PK parameters is similar to that observed in people. With this bioavailability, serum concentrations of calcitriol that exhibit antitumor activity in a preclinical murine model were achieved in some dogs. Exploration of methods to minimize variation in calcitriol systemic exposure is warranted.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2011; 67(1):165-71. · 2.83 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine whether a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assay based on serum iohexol clearance can be used to predict carboplatin clearance in cats.
10 cats with tumors.
GFR was measured concurrently by use of plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) to yield GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and serum clearance of iohexol to yield GFR(Iohexol). A single dose of carboplatin was administered IV as a bolus. Dose was calculated by use of a target value for the area under the plasma platinum concentration-versus-time curve (AUC(Target)) and estimation of platinum clearance (CL(PT)) derived from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x 2.6 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA) x body weight, where AUC(Target) is 2.75 min.mg.mL(-1). Plasma platinum concentrations were measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Values for GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were compared by use of least-squares regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Least-squares regression was used to determine whether CL(PT) could be predicted from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) or GFR(Iohexol) (or both).
GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were strongly correlated (r = 0.90), but GFR(Iohexol) values were significantly larger by a factor of approximately 1.4. Platinum clearance had a significant linear relationship to GFR(99mTc-DTPA) (CL(PT) = 2.5 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA)) and to GFR(Iohexol) (CL(PT) = [1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4).
In cats, serum iohexol clearance was an accurate predictor of CL(PT) and can be used to calculate the carboplatin dose as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x ([1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4) x body weight.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 10/2009; 70(9):1135-40. · 1.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine whether a carboplatin dose calculation that is based on a targeted area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC(Target)) and individual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) accurately predicts carboplatin-associated myelotoxicoses in tumor-bearing cats, and to determine the maximum tolerated AUC(Target).
32 cats with tumors.
In each cat, plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was measured to assess GFR. Carboplatin was administered IV. The dose was calculated by use of an equation as follows: Dose = AUC(Target) x 2.6 x GFR x body weight. Initial AUC(Target) was 2.0 min.mg.mL(-1) and was increased in increments of 0.50 min.mg.mL(-1) in cohorts of 3 cats. To assess myelotoxic effects, CBCs were performed weekly for > or = 4 weeks. Following identification of the maximum tolerated AUC(Target), additional cats were treated at that AUC(Target) and plasma platinum concentrations were measured in 6 cats.
The AUC(Target) values ranged from 2.0 to 3.0 min.mg.mL(-1). Neutropenia was the dose-limiting toxicosis, and the maximum tolerated AUC(Target) was 2.75 min.mg.mL(-1). Nineteen cats received this dose of carboplatin; 13 became neutropenic, but only 1 developed severe neutropenia (< 500 neutrophils/microL), and none had neutropenia-associated clinical signs. In the cats that had plasma platinum concentration determined, the difference between AUC(Target) and the measured value ranged from -0.23 to 0.31 min.mg.mL(-1) (median, 0.20 min.mg.mL(-1)).
In cats, carboplatin-associated myelotoxicoses were accurately and uniformly predicted by use of the proposed dosing strategy. The maximum tolerated AUC(Target) for a single dose of carboplatin was 2.75 min.mg.mL(-1).
American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2009; 70(6):770-6. · 1.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To characterize the pharmacokinetic disposition of carboplatin and determine whether glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could be used to predict carboplatin clearance and myelotoxic effects in cats with tumors.
10 cats with tumors.
Glomerular filtration rate was assessed in each cat by monitoring plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Each cat received carboplatin (200 mg/m2 of body surface area) administered as an IV bolus. Plasma platinum concentrations were measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. A CBC was performed weekly for each cat, and the correlation between the area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) and the severity of myelosuppression was calculated. Least squares regression analysis was performed to determine whether GFR could be used to predict plasma platinum clearance (ClPt).
For all cats, AUC measurements ranged from 0.99 to 4.30 min x mg x mL(-1). Neutrophil concentration nadirs were detected 1 to 3 weeks after treatment and ranged from 200 to 8,000 cells/microl. The absolute neutrophil concentration at the nadir was inversely correlated with AUC. The ClPt was predicted by use of GFR measurements (ClPt = 2.60 x GFR). A carboplatin dose prescription model was derived involving AUC, estimated ClPt, and body weight in kilograms (BWkg), in which dose = AUC x 2.60(GFR) x BWkg.
In cats, an individualized prescription strategy for carboplatin administration based on a targeted AUC and determination of GFR might more uniformly predict myelosuppression than that predicted by conventional dosing based on body surface area.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 12/2004; 65(11):1502-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor