Kullervo Hynynen

University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (303)689.6 Total impact

  • Ryan Alkins, Yuexi Huang, Dan Pajek, Kullervo Hynynen
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    ABSTRACT: Object Transcranial focused ultrasound is increasingly being investigated as a minimally invasive treatment for a range of intracranial pathologies. At higher peak rarefaction pressures than those used for thermal ablation, focused ultrasound can initiate inertial cavitation and create holes in the brain by fractionation of the tissue elements. The authors investigated the technical feasibility of using MRI-guided focused ultrasound to perform a third ventriculostomy as a possible noninvasive alternative to endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus. Methods A craniectomy was performed in male pigs weighing 13-19 kg to expose the supratentorial brain, leaving the dura mater intact. Seven pigs were treated through the craniectomy, while 2 pigs were treated through ex vivo human skulls placed in the beam path. Registration and targeting was done using T2-weighted MRI sequences. For transcranial treatments a CT scan was used to correct the beam from aberrations due to the skull and maintain a small, high-intensity focus. Sonications were performed at both 650 kHz and 230 kHz at a range of intensities, and the in situ pressures were estimated both from simulations and experimental data to establish a threshold for tissue fractionation in the brain. Results In craniectomized animals at 650 kHz, a peak pressure ≥ 22.7 MPa for 1 second was needed to reliably create a ventriculostomy. Transcranially at this frequency the ExAblate 4000 was unable to generate the required intensity to fractionate tissue, although cavitation was initiated. At 230 kHz, ventriculostomy was successful through the skull with a peak pressure of 8.8 MPa. Conclusions This is the first study to suggest that it is possible to perform a completely noninvasive third ventriculostomy using ultrasound. This may pave the way for future studies and eventually provide an alternative means for the creation of CSF communications in the brain, including perforation of the septum pellucidum or intraventricular membranes.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible and localized blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) using focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with intravascularly administered microbubbles (MBs) has been established as a non-invasive method for drug delivery to the brain. Using two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM), we imaged the cerebral vasculature during BBBD and observed the extravasation of fluorescent dye in real-time in vivo. We measured the enhanced permeability upon BBBD for both 10kDa and 70kDa dextran conjugated Texas Red (TR) at the acoustic pressure range of 0.2-0.8 MPa and found permeability constants of TR10kDa and TR70kDa vary from 0.0006 to 0.0359 min(-1) and 0.0003 to 0.0231 min(-1), respectively. For both substances, a linear regression was applied on the permeability constant against the acoustic pressure and the slope from best-fit was found to be 0.039±0.005 min(-1)/MPa and 0.018±0.005 min(-1)/MPa, respectively. In addition, the pressure threshold for successfully induced BBBD was confirmed to be 0.4-0.6 MPa. Finally, we identified two types of leakage kinetics (fast and slow) that exhibit distinct permeability constants and temporal disruption onsets, as well as demonstrated their correlations with the applied acoustic pressure and vessel diameter. Direct assessment of vascular permeability and insights on its dependency on acoustic pressure, vessel size and leakage kinetics are important for treatment strategies of BBBD-based drug delivery.
    Journal of Controlled Release 09/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: While it is well established that ultrasound stimulated microbubbles (USMBs) can potentiate blood clot lysis, the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we examine the interaction between USMBs and fibrin clots, which are comprised of fibrin networks that maintain the mechanical integrity of blood clots. High speed camera observations demonstrated that USMBs can penetrate fibrin clots. Two-photon microscopy revealed that penetrating bubbles can leave behind patent “tunnels” along their paths and that fluid can be transported into the clots. Finally, it is observed that primary radiation forces associated with USMBs can induce local deformation and macroscopic translation of clot boundaries.
    Applied Physics Letters 07/2013; 103(5). · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Ryan M Jones, Meaghan A O'Reilly, Kullervo Hynynen
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility of transcranial passive acoustic mapping with hemispherical sparse arrays (30 cm diameter, 16 to 1372 elements, 2.48 mm receiver diameter) using CT-based aberration corrections was investigated via numerical simulations. A multi-layered ray acoustic transcranial ultrasound propagation model based on CT-derived skull morphology was developed. By incorporating skull-specific aberration corrections into a conventional passive beamforming algorithm (Norton and Won 2000 IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38 1337-43), simulated acoustic source fields representing the emissions from acoustically-stimulated microbubbles were spatially mapped through three digitized human skulls, with the transskull reconstructions closely matching the water-path control images. Image quality was quantified based on main lobe beamwidths, peak sidelobe ratio, and image signal-to-noise ratio. The effects on the resulting image quality of the source's emission frequency and location within the skull cavity, the array sparsity and element configuration, the receiver element sensitivity, and the specific skull morphology were all investigated. The system's resolution capabilities were also estimated for various degrees of array sparsity. Passive imaging of acoustic sources through an intact skull was shown possible with sparse hemispherical imaging arrays. This technique may be useful for the monitoring and control of transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) treatments, particularly non-thermal, cavitation-mediated applications such as FUS-induced blood-brain barrier disruption or sonothrombolysis, for which no real-time monitoring techniques currently exist.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 06/2013; 58(14):4981-5005. · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Yuexi Huang, Natalia I Vykhodtseva, Kullervo Hynynen
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    ABSTRACT: Low-intensity focused ultrasound was applied with microbubbles (Definity, Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA, USA; 0.02 mL/kg) to produce brain lesions in 50 rats at 558 kHz. Burst sonications (burst length: 10 ms; pulse repetition frequency: 1 Hz; total exposure: 5 min; acoustic power: 0.47-1.3 W) generated ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions at the focal volume revealed by both magnetic resonance imaging and histology. Shorter burst time (2 ms) or shorter sonication time (1 min) reduced the probability of lesion production. Longer pulses (200 ms, 500 ms and continuous wave) caused significant near-field damage. Using microbubbles with focused ultrasound significantly reduced acoustic power levels and, therefore, avoided skull heating issues and potentially can extend the treatable volume of transcranial focused ultrasound to brain tissues close to the skull.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 06/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive, targeted drug delivery to the brain can be achieved using transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS), which transiently increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for localized delivery of therapeutics from the blood to the brain. Previously, we have demonstrated that FUS can deliver intravenously-administered antibodies to the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and rapidly reduce plaques composed of amyloid-ß peptides (Aß). Here, we investigated two potential effects of transcranial FUS itself that could contribute to a reduction of plaque pathology, namely the delivery of endogenous antibodies to the brain and the activation of glial cells. We demonstrate that transcranial FUS application leads to a significant reduction in plaque burden four days after a single treatment in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD and that endogenous antibodies are found bound to Aß plaques. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed an increase in endogenous immunoglobulins within the FUS-targeted cortex. Subsequently, microglia and astrocytes in FUS-treated cortical regions show signs of activation through increases in protein expression and changes in glial size, without changes in glial cell numbers. Enhanced activation of glia correlated with increased internalization of Aβ in microglia and astrocytes. Together these data demonstrate that FUS improved bioavailability of endogenous antibodies and a temporal activation of glial cells, providing evidence towards antibody- and glia-dependent mechanisms of FUS-mediated plaque reduction.
    Experimental Neurology 05/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Glioblastoma is a notoriously difficult tumor to treat because of its relative sanctuary in the brain and infiltrative behavior. Therapies need to penetrate the CNS but avoid collateral tissue injury. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment whereby a (10)B-containing drug preferentially accumulates in malignant cells and causes highly localized damage when exposed to epithermal neutron irradiation. Studies have suggested that (10)B-enriched L-4-boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) complex uptake can be improved by enhancing the permeability of the cerebrovasculature with osmotic agents. We investigated the use of MRI-guided focused ultrasound, in combination with injectable microbubbles, to noninvasively and focally augment the uptake of BPA-f.Methods With the use of a 9L gliosarcoma tumor model in Fisher 344 rats, the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers were disrupted with pulsed ultrasound using a 558 kHz transducer and Definity microbubbles, and BPA-f (250 mg/kg) was delivered intravenously over 2 h. (10)B concentrations were estimated with imaging mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.ResultsThe tumor to brain ratio of (10)B was 6.7 ± 0.5 with focused ultrasound and only 4.1 ± 0.4 in the control group (P < .01), corresponding to a mean tumor [(10)B] of 123 ± 25 ppm and 85 ± 29 ppm, respectively. (10)B uptake in infiltrating clusters treated with ultrasound was 0.86 ± 0.10 times the main tumor concentration, compared with only 0.29 ± 0.08 in controls.Conclusions Ultrasound increases the accumulation of (10)B in the main tumor and infiltrating cells. These findings, in combination with the expanding clinical use of focused ultrasound, may offer improvements in BNCT and the treatment of glioblastoma.
    Neuro-Oncology 05/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease is caused by a mutation in the Huntingtin (Htt) gene, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Silencing of the Htt gene can halt or reverse the progression of the disease indicating that RNA interference is the most effective strategy for disease treatment. However, small interfering RNA (siRNA) does not cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore delivery to the brain is limited. Here, we demonstrate that focused ultrasound (FUS), combined with intravascular delivery of microbubble contrast agent, was used to locally and transiently disrupt the BBB in the right striatum of adult rats. 48 hours following treatment with siRNA, the right (treated) and left (control) striatum was dissected and analyzed for Htt mRNA levels. We demonstrate that FUS can non-invasively deliver siRNA-Htt directly to the striatum leading to a significant reduction of Htt expression in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that reduction of Htt with siRNA-Htt was greater when the extent of BBB disruption was increased. This study demonstrates that siRNA treatment for knockdown of mutant Htt is feasible without the surgical intervention previously required for direct delivery to the brain. Non-invasive delivery of siRNA through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) would be a significant advantage for translating this therapy to HD patients.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 05/2013; 133(5):3408. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Ryan Jones, Meaghan O'Reilly, Kullervo Hynynen
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    ABSTRACT: Passive acoustic mapping (PAM) is receiving increasing interest as a method for monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) therapy. PAM would be beneficial during transcranial cavitation-enhanced FUS treatments, particularly non-thermal, cavitation-mediated applications such as FUS-induced blood-brain barrier disruption or sonothrombolysis, for which no real-time monitoring technique currently exists. However, the use of PAM in the brain is complicated by the presence of the skull bone. If not properly accounted for, skull-induced aberrations of propagating cavitation emissions will lead to image distortion and artifacts upon reconstruction. Through the use of numerical simulations, this study investigated the feasibility of transcranial PAM via hemispherical sparse hydrophone arrays. A multi-layered ray acoustic transcranial ultrasound propagation model based on computed tomography-derived skull morphology was developed. By incorporating skull-specific aberration corrections into a conventional passive beamforming algorithm [Norton and Won, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 1337-1343 (2000)], simulated acoustic source fields were spatially mapped through digitized human skulls. The effects of array sparsity and receiver element configuration on the formation of passive acoustic maps were examined. Multiple source locations were simulated to determine the imageable volume within the skull cavity. Finally, the reconstruction algorithm's sensitivity to noise was explored.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 05/2013; 133(5):3262. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Essential tremor is the most common movement disorder and is often refractory to medical treatment. Surgical therapies, using lesioning and deep brain stimulation in the thalamus, have been used to treat essential tremor that is disabling and resistant to medication. Although often effective, these treatments have risks associated with an open neurosurgical procedure. MR-guided focused ultrasound has been developed as a non-invasive means of generating precisely placed focal lesions. We examined its application to the management of essential tremor. METHODS: Our study was done in Toronto, Canada, between May, 2012, and January, 2013. Four patients with chronic and medication-resistant essential tremor were treated with MR-guided focused ultrasound to ablate tremor-mediating areas of the thalamus. Patients underwent tremor evaluation and neuroimaging at baseline and 1 month and 3 months after surgery. Outcome measures included tremor severity in the treated arm, as measured by the clinical rating scale for tremor, and treatment-related adverse events. FINDINGS: Patients showed immediate and sustained improvements in tremor in the dominant hand. Mean reduction in tremor score of the treated hand was 89·4% at 1 month and 81·3% at 3 months. This reduction was accompanied by functional benefits and improvements in writing and motor tasks. One patient had postoperative paraesthesias which persisted at 3 months. Another patient developed a deep vein thrombosis, potentially related to the length of the procedure. INTERPRETATION: MR-guided focused ultrasound might be a safe and effective approach to generation of focal intracranial lesions for the management of disabling, medication-resistant essential tremor. If larger trials validate the safety and ascertain the efficacy and durability of this new approach, it might change the way that patients with essential tremor and potentially other disorders are treated. FUNDING: Focused Ultrasound Foundation.
    The Lancet Neurology 03/2013; · 23.92 Impact Factor
  • Alison Burgess, Kullervo Hynynen
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    ABSTRACT: Brain diseases are notoriously difficult to treat due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we review the development of focused ultrasound (FUS) as a noninvasive method for BBB disruption, aiding in drug delivery to the brain. FUS can be applied through the skull to a targeted region in the brain. When combined with microbubbles, FUS causes localized and reversible disruption of the BBB. The cellular mechanisms of BBB disruption are presented. Several therapeutic agents have been delivered to the brain resulting in significant improvements in pathology in models of glioblastoma and Alzheimer's disease. The requirements for clinical translation of FUS will be discussed.
    ACS Chemical Neuroscience 02/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is substantial evidence that focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with microbubble contrast agent can cause disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to aid in drug delivery to the brain. We have previously demonstrated that FUS efficiently delivers antibodies against amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) through the BBB, leading to a reduction in amyloid pathology at 4 days in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In the current study, we used two-photon microscopy to characterize the effect of FUS in real time on amyloid pathology in the mouse brain. Mice were anesthetized and a cranial window was made in the skull. A custom-built ultrasound transducer was fixed to a coverslip and attached to the skull, covering the cranial window. Methoxy-X04 [2-5mg/kg] delivered intravenously 1 hr prior to the experiment clearly labelled the Aβ surrounding the vessels and the amyloid plaques in the cortex. Dextran conjugated Texas Red (70kDa) administered intravenously, confirmed BBB disruption. BBB disruption occurred in transgenic and non-transgenic animals at similar ultrasound pressures tested. However, the time required for BBB closure following FUS was longer in the Tg mice. We have conjugated Aβ antibodies to the fluorescent molecule FITC for real time monitoring of the antibody distribution in the brain. Our current experiments are aimed at optimizing the parameters to achieve maximal fluorescent intensity of the BAM10 antibody at the plaque surface. Two-photon microscopy has proven to be a valuable tool for evaluating the efficacy of FUS mediated drug delivery, including antibodies, to the Alzheimer brain.
    Proc SPIE 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes involved in innate immunity. NK-92, a human NK cell line, may be targeted to tumor-associated antigens in solid malignancies where it exhibits antitumor efficacy, but its clinical utility for treating brain tumors is limited by an inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We investigated the potential for focused ultrasound (FUS) to deliver targeted NK-92 cells to the brain using a model of metastatic breast cancer. HER-2-expressing human breast tumor cells were implanted into the brain of nude rats. The NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta cell line expressing a chimeric HER-2 antigen receptor was transfected with super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles before intravenous injection, before and following BBB-disruption using focused ultrasound (551.5 kHz focused transducer, 0.33 MPa average peak rarefaction pressure) in the presence of a microbubble contrast agent. Baseline and post-treatment 1.5T and 7T MR imaging was performed, and histology used to identify NK-92 cells post-mortem. Contrast-enhanced MRI showed reproducible and consistent BBB-disruption. 7T MR images obtained at 16 hours post-treatment revealed a significant reduction in signal indicating the presence of iron-loaded NK-92 cells at the tumor site. The average ratio of NK-92 to tumor cells was 1:100 when NK cells were present in the vasculature at the time of sonication, versus 2:1000 and 1:1000 when delivered after sonication and without BBB-disruption, respectively. Our results offer a preclinical proof-of-concept that FUS can improve the targeting of immune cell therapy of brain metastases.
    Cancer Research 01/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • T. Nhan, A. Burgess, K. Hynynen
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    ABSTRACT: Focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles have been used effectively for transient, noninvasive blood¿ brain barrier disruption (BBBD). The use of two-photon microscopy (2PM) imaging of BBBD can provide valuable insights into the associated cellular mechanisms and fundamental biological effects. Coupling a thin ring-shaped transducer to a coverslip offers a robust solution for simultaneous dorsal application of FUS for BBBD and in vivo 2PM imaging of the cerebral microvasculature under treatment conditions. Two modes of vibration (thickness and height) from the transducer configuration were investigated for BBBD in an animal model. With the transducer operating in the thickness mode at 1.2 MHz frequency, shallow and localized BBBD near the cortical surface of animal brain was detected via 2PM and confirmed by Evans blue (EB) extravasation. Acoustic pressures ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 MPa were tested and the probability for successful BBBD was identified. Two distinct types of disruption characterized by different leakage kinetics were observed and appeared to be dependent on acoustic pressure.
    IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 01/2013; 60(7):1376-1385. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Benjamin Lucht, Austin Hubbell, Kullervo Hynynen
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    ABSTRACT: The distortion and attenuation of transcranial ultrasound (US) signals are significant problems in US imaging of the brain. Of the variety of proposed solutions, shear-mode transmission through the skull is one of the more recent options and has been shown to reduce distortion of the US beam. This study examined the effects of transcranial shear-mode transmission on the images of a contrast-agent-filled polytetrafluoroethylene tube produced by a 32-element 750 kHz linear phased array transducer through an ex vivo human skull section. Although the tube was successfully imaged using shear-mode transmission with subharmonic imaging in 6 of 9 cases, the tube was visible in only 1 of 9 cases for both the fundamental and the second harmonic frequencies. Some improvement in the location of the axial image was seen at the fundamental frequency using shear mode. No improvement was seen at the other two frequencies, but this may be due to low transducer sensitivity. As well, neither the presence of the skull nor the incident angle changed the distance at which signals from the two tubes could be resolved. With this transducer, these distances were found to be 5 mm laterally and 3 mm axially for the fundamental and second harmonic images, and 10 mm and 5 mm for the subharmonic images. The results show that the subharmonic signal was the most successful of the three examined in penetrating a thick skull but that the success comes at the cost of image resolution.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 12/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable effort is being directed towards investigating the use of ultrasound (US) stimulated microbubbles (MB) to promote the uptake of anticancer agents in tumors. In this study we propose and investigate a new method for combining therapeutic ultrasound with anticancer agents, which is to induce antivascular effects and combine these with an antiangiogenic treatment strategy, in this case metronomic chemotherapy. This is effectively a vascular targeting rather than a drug delivery approach. Experiments were conducted on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer tumors implanted in athymic mice. Metronomic cyclophosphamide (MCTX) was employed as an antiangiogenic therapy and was administered through the drinking water. Ultrasound stimulated microbubble treatments (USMB) were conducted at 1 MHz employing short bursts (0.00024 duty cycle) at 1.6MPa in combination with the commercial microbubble agent Definity. USMB treatments were performed on a weekly basis for 4 weeks and MCTX was administered for 10 weeks. The USMB induced an acute reduction of blood flow as confirmed with US contrast imaging and DiOC(7) perfusion staining. Longitudinal experiments demonstrated that significant growth inhibition occurred in MCTX-only and USMB-only treatment groups relative to control tumors. The combined USMB and MCTX treatment group showed significant growth inhibition and survival prolongation relative to the USMB-only (p<0.01) and MCTX-only treatment groups (p<0.01). These results indicate the feasibility of a new approach to combining therapeutic ultrasound with an anticancer agent. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2012; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Neurochirurgie. 12/2012; 58(6):410.
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    ABSTRACT: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) occurs in 15% of premature babies and 50% of IVH cases progress to posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation due to large blood clots forming in the ventricles. Existing treatments such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and surgical intervention have severe side effects in paediatric patients that include excessive bleeding and complications. This study investigates the feasibility of MR-HIFU for sonothrombolysis of blood clots from IVH using natural acoustic windows, known as fontanelles, in the skulls of newborns. The study involved 2 elements: a phantom study to examine beam limitations and acoustic properties, and an in-vivo porcine study. A phantom skull was created from sample patient data and was used to analyze reachability of the Philips Sonavelle system. Acoustic measurements of the phantom (attenuation of 5-14 dB and speed of sound of 1722-2965 m/s) indicated the phantom effectively mimics neonatal skull bone. For the ex-vivo studies, a porcine clot was created and sonicated for 5 mins at 500W with a 0.5% duty cycle. For the in-vivo experiment, a vertex craniotomy was performed and porcine blood was injected into the lateral ventricle under ultrasound guidance. Sonication using the prior parameters induced cavitation and post-sonication T1 and T2 images verified clot lysis. Further H&E analysis showed no presence of blood in the ventricles. These positive results show that MR-HIFU has potential as a noninvasive tool for sonothrombolysis of neonatal IVH clots.
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    ABSTRACT: While it is well established that ultrasound stimulated microbubbles can potentiate thrombolysis, the mechanisms of action are poorly understood. The objective of this work was to gain a more fundamental understanding of how acoustically stimulated microbubbles interact with and potentially degrade fibrin clots. Owing to their optical transparency, the use of fibrin clots allowed to optically observe microbubbles interacting with the clot boundary and any resultant disruption of the fluorescently tagged fibrin network. It was found that microbubbles could readily penetrate into fibrin clots with velocities up to 0.2 m/s and to depths related to the number of pulses applied. At lower pressures (0.2-0.55 MPa), microbubbles as small as 3μm were observed to penetrate, whereas higher pressures (>0.9 MPa) caused the penetration of larger microbubbles (10-30μm), formed by coalescence prior to entry. In some cases, patent 'tunnels' remained along the path taken by penetrating microbubbles. Tunnel diameters ranged between 9-35μm depending largely on pressure and pulse duration. Two-photon microscopy indicated either patent tunnels or paths of disrupted fibers consistent with collapsed tunnel. Fluid flow within the clot was observed to accompany penetrating microbubbles, which may have implications for lytic enzyme penetration.
  • Meaghan A. O'Reilly, Sami Rahman, Kullervo Hynynen
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    ABSTRACT: A 32 receiver sparse random spherical array was integrated with an existing 1372 element hemispherical therapy array. Passive beamforming was used to generate intensity maps from the signals received by the array. Intensity maps of a 765 kHz narrowband source showed good correlation with simulation data. Additionally, intensity maps of microbubbles excited by the therapy array successfully located the microbubbles. These maps were also comparable to simulation results. Using hydrophone based phase correction, the array was able to passively image a 765 kHz narrowband source through a human skullcap. Simulations suggest that expansion of the receiver array to 265 elements will improve imaging quality by reducing sidelobes and increasing the field of view of the array.

Publication Stats

5k Citations
689.60 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • University of Eastern Finland
      • Department of Applied Physics
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
    • SickKids
      • Division of Neurosurgery
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007–2014
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Medical Biophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006–2014
    • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      • Centre for Research in Image-Guided Therapeutics (CeRIGT)
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 2011
    • Lakehead University Thunder Bay Campus
      Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009–2011
    • Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute
      Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
  • 1996–2011
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • University of Kuopio
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Applied Physics
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994–2009
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1996–2007
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Division of Health Sciences and Technology
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2003
    • Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan