[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AtCYP19-4 (also known as CYP5) was previously identified as interacting in vitro with GNOM, a member of a large family of ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors that is required for proper polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. The present study demonstrated that OsCYP19-4, a gene encoding a putative homologue of AtCYP19-4, was up-regulated by several stresses and showed over 10-fold up-regulation in response to cold. The study further demonstrated that the promoter of OsCYP19-4 was activated in response to cold stress. An OsCYP19-4-GFP fusion protein was targeted to the outside of the plasma membrane via the endoplasmic reticulum as determined using brefeldin A, a vesicle trafficking inhibitor. An in vitro assay with a synthetic substrate oligomer confirmed that OsCYP19-4 had peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, as was previously reported for AtCYP19-4. Rice plants overexpressing OsCYP19-4 showed cold-resistance phenotypes with significantly increased tiller and spike numbers, and consequently enhanced grain weight, compared with wild-type plants. Based on these results, the authors suggest that OsCYP19-4 is required for developmental acclimation to environmental stresses, especially cold. Furthermore, the results point to the potential of manipulating OsCYP19-4 expression to enhance cold tolerance or to increase biomass.
Journal of Experimental Botany 10/2015; DOI:10.1093/jxb/erv421 · 5.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OsCYP21-4 is a rice cyclophilin protein that binds to cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant drug. CYP21-4s in Arabidopsis and rice were previously shown to function as mitochondrial cyclophilins, as determined by TargetP analysis. In the current study, we found that OsCYP21-4-GFP localized to the Golgi, rather than mitochondria, in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was confirmed based on its co-localization with cis Golgi α-ManI-mCherry protein. OsCYP21-4 transcript levels increased in response to treatments with various abiotic stresses and the phytohormone abscisic acid, revealing its stress-responsiveness. CYP21-4 homologs do not possess key peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity/cyclosporine A (CsA) binding residues, and recombinant OsCYP21-4 protein did not convert the synthetic substrate Suc-AAPF-pNA via cis- trans- isomerization in vitro. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing OsCYP21-4 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity and hydrogen peroxide treatment, along with increased peroxidase activity. These results demonstrate that OsCYP21-4 is a novel Golgi-localized cyclophilin that plays a role in oxidative stress tolerance, possibly by regulating peroxidase activity.
Frontiers in Plant Science 10/2015; DOI:10.3389/fpls.2015.00797 · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over-expression of group A bZIP transcription factor genes in plants improves abiotic stress tolerance but usually reduces yields. Thus, there have been several efforts to overcome yield penalty in transgenic plants. In this study, we characterized that expression of the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) gene CaBZ1, which encodes a group S bZIP transcription factor, was induced by salt and osmotic stress as well as abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants over-expressing CaBZ1 exhibited reduced rates of water loss and faster stomatal closure than non transgenic potato plants under drought and ABA treatment conditions. CaBZ1 over-expression in transgenic potato increased the expression of ABA- and stress-related genes (such as CYP707A1, CBF and NAC-like genes) and improved drought stress tolerance. Interestingly, over-expression of CaBZ1 in potato did not produce undesirable growth phenotypes in major agricultural traits such as plant height, leaf size and tuber formation under normal growth conditions. The transgenic potato plants also had higher tuber yields than non transgenic potato plants under drought stress conditions. Thus, CaBZ1 may be useful for improving drought tolerance in tuber crops. This might be the first report of the production of transgenic potato with improved tuber yields under drought conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of rice to salt stress greatly depends on growth stages, organ types and cultivars. Especially, the roots of young rice seedlings are highly salt-sensitive organs that limit plant growth, even under mild soil salinity conditions. In an attempt to identify metabolic markers of rice roots responding to salt stress, metabolite profiling was performed by ¹H-NMR spectroscopy in 38 rice genotypes that varied in biomass accumulation under long-term mild salinity condition. Multivariate statistical analysis showed separation of the control and salt-treated rice roots and rice genotypes with differential growth potential. By quantitative analyses of ¹H-NMR data, five conserved salt-responsive metabolic markers of rice roots were identified. Sucrose, allantoin and glutamate accumulated by salt stress, whereas the levels of glutamine and alanine decreased. A positive correlation of metabolite changes with growth potential and salt tolerance of rice genotypes was observed for allantoin and glutamine. Adjustment of nitrogen metabolism in rice roots is likely to be closely related to maintain the growth potential and increase the stress tolerance of rice.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 09/2015; 16(9):21959-74. DOI:10.3390/ijms160921959 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The core components of ABA-dependent gene expression signaling have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice. This signaling pathway consists of four major components; group A OsbZIPs, SAPKs, subclass A OsPP2Cs and OsPYL/RCARs in rice. These might be able to make thousands of combinations through interaction networks resulting in diverse signaling responses. We tried to characterize those gene functions using transient gene expression for rice protoplasts (TGERP) because it is instantaneous and convenient system. Firstly, in order to monitor the ABA signaling output, we developed reporter system named pRab16A-fLUC which consists of Rab16A promoter of rice and luciferase gene. It responses more rapidly and sensitively to ABA than pABRC3-fLUC that consists of ABRC3 of HVA1 promoter in TGERP. We screened the reporter responses for over-expression of each signaling components from group A OsbZIPs to OsPYL/RCARs with or without ABA in TGERP. OsbZIP46 induced reporter most strongly among OsbZIPs tested in the presence of ABA. SAPKs could activate the OsbZIP46 even in the ABA independence. Subclass A OsPP2C6 and -8 almost completely inhibited the OsbZIP46 activity in the different degree through the SAPK9. Lastly, OsPYL/RCAR2 and -5 rescued the OsbZIP46 activity in the presence of SAPK9 and OsPP2C6 dependent on ABA concentration and expression level. By using TGERP, we could characterize successfully the effects of ABA dependent gene expression signaling components in rice. In conclusion, TGERP represents very useful technology to study systemic functional genomics in rice or other monocots.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin 18-2 (CYP18-2) genes, homologues of human peptidyl-prolyl isomerase-like 1 (PPiL1), are conserved across multicellular organisms and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although PPiL1 is known to interact with ski-interacting protein (SKIP), a transcriptional co-regulator and spliceosomal component, there have been no functional analyses of PPiL1 homologues in plants. Rice cyclophilin 18-2 (OsCYP18-2) bound directly to amino acids 56-95 of OsSKIP and its binding was independent of cyclosporin A, a cyclophilin-binding drug. Moreover, OsCYP18-2 exhibited PPIase activity regardless of its interaction with OsSKIP. Therefore, the binding site for OsCYP18-2's interaction with SKIP was distinct from the PPIase active site. OsCYP18-2's interaction with SKIP full length protein enabled OsCYP18-2's translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, and AtSKIP interacted in planta with both AtCYP18-2 and OsCYP18-2. Drought and salt stress induced similar expression of OsCYP18-2 and OsSKIP. Over-expression of OsCYP18-2 in transgenic rice and Arabidopsis thaliana plants enhanced drought tolerance, and altered expression and pre-mRNA splicing patterns of stress-related genes in Arabidopsis under drought conditions. Furthermore, OsCYP18-2 caused transcriptional activation with/without OsSKIP in the GAL4 system of yeast; thus the OsSKIP-OsCYP18-2 interaction has an important role in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes, and increases tolerance to drought stress.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10) by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A) with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were upregulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05) in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also
involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WRKY transcription factors play a major role in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study, WRKY transcription factor, CaWRKY1, whose expression was strongly induced by cold and abscisic acid treatment in pepper, was cloned into potato via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of vector expressing CaWRKY1 under control of the CaMV35S promoter. The overexpression of CaWRKY1 in potato plants increased tolerance to drought stress without noticeably affecting other agricultural important factors, such as plant height, leaf size and tuber formation. In addition, CaWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic potato plants showed increased expression of abiotic stress-related genes, such as C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR 3 (CBF3), ZINC FINGER PROTEIN ZAT10 (ZAT10), TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS) and LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT (LEA). These results suggest that CaWRKY1 can regulate drought stress tolerance in potato plants via the activation of putative stress-responsive genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that plays important roles in the regulation of seed dormancy and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Previous work identified OsPYL/RCARs as functional ABA receptors regulating ABA-dependent gene expression in Oryza sativa. OsPYL/RCARs thus are considered to be good candidate genes for improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in crops. This work demonstrates that the cytosolic ABA receptor OsPYL/RCAR5 in O. sativa functions as a positive regulator of abiotic stress-responsive gene expression. The constitutive expression of OsPYL/RCAR5 in rice driven by the Zea mays ubiquitin promoter induced the expression of many stress-responsive genes even under normal growth conditions and resulted in improved drought and salt stress tolerance in rice. However, it slightly reduced plant height under paddy field conditions and severely reduced total seed yield. This suggests that, although exogenous expression of OsPYL/RCAR5 is able to improve abiotic stress tolerance in rice, fine regulation of its expression will be required to avoid deleterious effects on agricultural traits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AtKAT1 plays roles as a major channel to uptake K(+) in guard cell when stomata open in dicot model plant Arabidopsis. In a recent publication, we isolated 3 KAT-like potassium channels in rice. We expressed them in CHO cell to identify electrophysiological characteristics of the channels. OsKAT2 showed much bigger inwardly rectifying potassium channel activities among them. The histochemical X-glu staining of transgenic rice leaf blades expressing β-glucuronidase fused with OsKAT2 promoter showed that the OsKAT2 is dominantly expressed in rice guard cell. These findings indicate that OsKAT2 may be a functional ortholog of AtKAT1 in rice. Thus this gene will be the prime target for engineering the guard cell movement to improve drought tolerance in monocot plants, including most major crops.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potassium is the most abundant cation and a myriad of transporters regulate K(+) homeostasis in plant. Potassium plays a role as a major osmolyte to regulate stomatal movements that control water utility of land plants. Here we report the characterization of two inward rectifying shaker-like potassium channels, OsKAT2 and OsKAT3, expressed in guard cell of rice plants. While OsKAT2 showed typical potassium channel activity, like that of Arabidopsis KAT1, OsKAT3 did not despite high sequence similarity between the two channel proteins. Interestingly, the two potassium channels physically interacted with each other and such interaction negatively regulated the OsKAT2 channel activity in CHO cell system. Furthermore, deletion of the C-terminal domain recovered the channel activity of OsKAT3, suggesting that the C-terminal region was regulatory domain that inhibited channel activity. Two homologous channels with antagonistic interaction has not been previously reported and presents new information for potassium channel regulation in plants, especially in stomatal regulation.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72541. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072541 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 03/2013; 14(3):5899-919. DOI:10.3390/ijms14035899 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice Spotted leaf 11 (spl11) mutant produces lesions caused by spontaneous cell death without environmental stresses at the three- to four-leaf stages. However, the differential regulation of secreted proteins during cell death process has not yet been explored. Proteins secreted from spotted leaves of the spl11 mutant plants and normal leaves of the wild type were extracted using a calcium chloride extraction method, followed by phenol extraction. Comparative secretome analysis using 2-DGE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS was then applied to these secreted proteins and 28 protein spots were found to be differentially regulated in spl11 compared to wild type rice. Two of them were highly accumulated in the wild type, three were highly expressed in spl11, and 22 were only detected in spl11 mutant. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 19 spots revealed that they were related to multiple molecular functions, such as photosynthesis (oxygen-evolving enhancer protein, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase), plant defense (Thaumatin-like protein, beta-1,3-glucanase), ROS detoxifying (Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, peroxidase), and glycolysis (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). Overall, the results presented here represent the first report of a secretome analzsis of spl11 mutants as a model system and demonstrate that spontaneous cell death progress was tightly associated with host defense related protein expression and secretion, which was similar to auto-activation of the host defense process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycolysis is responsible for the conversion of glucose into pyruvate and for supplying reducing power and several metabolites. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (AtFBA1), a central enzyme in the glycolysis pathway, was isolated by functional complementation of the salt-sensitive phenotype of a calcineurin (CaN)-deficient yeast mutant. Under high salinity conditions, aldolase activity and the concentration of NADH were compromised. However, expression of AtFBA1 maintained aldolase activity and the NADH level in yeast cells. AtFBA1 shares a high degree of sequence identity with known class I type aldolases, and its expression was negatively regulated by stress conditions including NaCl. The fusion protein GFP-AtFBA1 was localized in the cytosol of Arabidopsis protoplasts. The seed germination and root elongation of AtFBA1 knock-out plants exhibited sensitivity to ABA and salt stress. These results indicate that AtFBA1 expression and aldolase activity is important for stress tolerance in yeast and plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role that the putative thylakoid lumenal cyclophilin (CYP) CYP20-2 locates in the thylakoid, and whether CYP20-2 is an essential gene, have not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that CYP20-2 is well conserved in several photosynthetic plants and that the transcript level of the rice OsCYP20-2 gene is highly regulated under abiotic stress. We found that ectopic expression of rice OsCYP20-2 in both tobacco and Arabidopsis confers enhanced tolerance to osmotic stress and extremely high light. Based on these results, we suggest that although the exact biochemical function of OsCYP20-2 in the thylakoid lumen (TL) remains unclear, it may be involved in photosynthetic acclimation to help plants cope with environmental stress; the OsCYP20-2 gene may be a candidate for enhancing multiple abiotic stress tolerance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and stress tolerance. PYL/RCARs were identified an intracellular ABA receptors regulating ABA-dependent gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their function in monocot species has not been characterized yet. Herein, it is demonstrated that PYL/RCAR orthologues in Oryza sativa function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. Transgenic rice plants expressing OsPYL/RCAR5, a PYL/RCAR orthologue of rice, were found to be hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and early seedling growth. A rice ABA signalling unit composed of OsPYL/RCAR5, OsPP2C30, SAPK2, and OREB1 for ABA-dependent gene regulation was further identified, via interaction assays and a transient gene expression assay. Thus, a core signalling unit for ABA-responsive gene expression modulating seed germination and early seedling growth in rice has been unravelled. This study provides substantial contributions toward understanding the ABA signal transduction pathway in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling cascades are activated by extracellular stimuli such as environmental stresses and pathogens in higher eukaryotic plants. To know more about MAPK signalling in plants, aMAPK cDNA clone, OsMAPK33, was isolated from rice. The gene is mainly induced by drought stress. In phylogenetic analysis, OsMAPK33 (Os02g0148100) showed approximately 47-93% identity at the amino acid level with other plant MAPKs. It was found to exhibit organ-specific expression with relatively higher expression in leaves as compared with roots or stems, and to exist as a single copy in the rice genome. To investigate the biological functions of OsMAPK33 in rice MAPK signalling, transgenic rice plants that either overexpressed or suppressed OsMAPK33 were made. Under dehydration conditions, the suppressed lines showed lower osmotic potential compared with that of wild-type plants, suggesting a role of OsMAPK33 in osmotic homeostasis. Nonetheless, the suppressed lines did not display any significant difference in drought tolerance compared with their wild-type plants. With increased salinity, there was still no difference in salt tolerance between OsMAPK33-suppressed lines and their wild-type plants. However, the overexpressing lines showed greater reduction in biomass accumulation and higher sodium uptake into cells, resulting in a lower K+/Na+ ratio inside the cell than that in the wild-type plants and OsMAPK33-suppressed lines. These results suggest that OsMAPK33 could play a negative role in salt tolerance through unfavourable ion homeostasis. Gene expression profiling of OsMAPK33 transgenic lines through rice DNA chip analysis showed that OsMAPK33 altered expression of genes involved in ion transport. Further characterization of downstream components will elucidate various biological functions of this novel rice MAPK.
Journal of Biosciences 03/2011; 36(1):139-51. DOI:10.1007/s12038-011-9002-8 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potassium () is one of the most abundant cations in higher plant. It comprises about 10% of plant dry weight and it plays roles in numerous functions such as osmo- and turgor regulation, charge balance of plasma membrane and control of stomata and organ movement. Several potassium transporters and potassium channels regulate homeostasis in response to uptake systems. In this review, we describe the biological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of shaker like potassium channels in higher plant. Especially, we searched the rice genome databases and analysized expressed genes, genome structures and protein domain characteristics of shaker like potassium channels.