[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10) by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A) with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were upregulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05) in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also
involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that plays important roles in the regulation of seed dormancy and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Previous work identified OsPYL/RCARs as functional ABA receptors regulating ABA-dependent gene expression in Oryza sativa. OsPYL/RCARs thus are considered to be good candidate genes for improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in crops. This work demonstrates that the cytosolic ABA receptor OsPYL/RCAR5 in O. sativa functions as a positive regulator of abiotic stress-responsive gene expression. The constitutive expression of OsPYL/RCAR5 in rice driven by the Zea mays ubiquitin promoter induced the expression of many stress-responsive genes even under normal growth conditions and resulted in improved drought and salt stress tolerance in rice. However, it slightly reduced plant height under paddy field conditions and severely reduced total seed yield. This suggests that, although exogenous expression of OsPYL/RCAR5 is able to improve abiotic stress tolerance in rice, fine regulation of its expression will be required to avoid deleterious effects on agricultural traits.
Journal of Experimental Botany 02/2014; 65(2):453-64. · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AtKAT1 plays roles as a major channel to uptake K(+) in guard cell when stomata open in dicot model plant Arabidopsis. In a recent publication, we isolated 3 KAT-like potassium channels in rice. We expressed them in CHO cell to identify electrophysiological characteristics of the channels. OsKAT2 showed much bigger inwardly rectifying potassium channel activities among them. The histochemical X-glu staining of transgenic rice leaf blades expressing β-glucuronidase fused with OsKAT2 promoter showed that the OsKAT2 is dominantly expressed in rice guard cell. These findings indicate that OsKAT2 may be a functional ortholog of AtKAT1 in rice. Thus this gene will be the prime target for engineering the guard cell movement to improve drought tolerance in monocot plants, including most major crops.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(3):5899-919. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potassium is the most abundant cation and a myriad of transporters regulate K(+) homeostasis in plant. Potassium plays a role as a major osmolyte to regulate stomatal movements that control water utility of land plants. Here we report the characterization of two inward rectifying shaker-like potassium channels, OsKAT2 and OsKAT3, expressed in guard cell of rice plants. While OsKAT2 showed typical potassium channel activity, like that of Arabidopsis KAT1, OsKAT3 did not despite high sequence similarity between the two channel proteins. Interestingly, the two potassium channels physically interacted with each other and such interaction negatively regulated the OsKAT2 channel activity in CHO cell system. Furthermore, deletion of the C-terminal domain recovered the channel activity of OsKAT3, suggesting that the C-terminal region was regulatory domain that inhibited channel activity. Two homologous channels with antagonistic interaction has not been previously reported and presents new information for potassium channel regulation in plants, especially in stomatal regulation.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e72541. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role that the putative thylakoid lumenal cyclophilin (CYP) CYP20-2 locates in the thylakoid, and whether CYP20-2 is an essential gene, have not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that CYP20-2 is well conserved in several photosynthetic plants and that the transcript level of the rice OsCYP20-2 gene is highly regulated under abiotic stress. We found that ectopic expression of rice OsCYP20-2 in both tobacco and Arabidopsis confers enhanced tolerance to osmotic stress and extremely high light. Based on these results, we suggest that although the exact biochemical function of OsCYP20-2 in the thylakoid lumen (TL) remains unclear, it may be involved in photosynthetic acclimation to help plants cope with environmental stress; the OsCYP20-2 gene may be a candidate for enhancing multiple abiotic stress tolerance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycolysis is responsible for the conversion of glucose into pyruvate and for supplying reducing power and several metabolites. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (AtFBA1), a central enzyme in the glycolysis pathway, was isolated by functional complementation of the salt-sensitive phenotype of a calcineurin (CaN)-deficient yeast mutant. Under high salinity conditions, aldolase activity and the concentration of NADH were compromised. However, expression of AtFBA1 maintained aldolase activity and the NADH level in yeast cells. AtFBA1 shares a high degree of sequence identity with known class I type aldolases, and its expression was negatively regulated by stress conditions including NaCl. The fusion protein GFP-AtFBA1 was localized in the cytosol of Arabidopsis protoplasts. The seed germination and root elongation of AtFBA1 knock-out plants exhibited sensitivity to ABA and salt stress. These results indicate that AtFBA1 expression and aldolase activity is important for stress tolerance in yeast and plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice Spotted leaf 11 (spl11) mutant produces lesions caused by spontaneous cell death without environmental stresses at the three- to four-leaf stages. However, the differential regulation of secreted proteins during cell death process has not yet been explored. Proteins secreted from spotted leaves of the spl11 mutant plants and normal leaves of the wild type were extracted using a calcium chloride extraction method, followed by phenol extraction. Comparative secretome analysis using 2-DGE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS was then applied to these secreted proteins and 28 protein spots were found to be differentially regulated in spl11 compared to wild type rice. Two of them were highly accumulated in the wild type, three were highly expressed in spl11, and 22 were only detected in spl11 mutant. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 19 spots revealed that they were related to multiple molecular functions, such as photosynthesis (oxygen-evolving enhancer protein, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase), plant defense (Thaumatin-like protein, beta-1,3-glucanase), ROS detoxifying (Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, peroxidase), and glycolysis (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). Overall, the results presented here represent the first report of a secretome analzsis of spl11 mutants as a model system and demonstrate that spontaneous cell death progress was tightly associated with host defense related protein expression and secretion, which was similar to auto-activation of the host defense process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and stress tolerance. PYL/RCARs were identified an intracellular ABA receptors regulating ABA-dependent gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their function in monocot species has not been characterized yet. Herein, it is demonstrated that PYL/RCAR orthologues in Oryza sativa function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. Transgenic rice plants expressing OsPYL/RCAR5, a PYL/RCAR orthologue of rice, were found to be hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and early seedling growth. A rice ABA signalling unit composed of OsPYL/RCAR5, OsPP2C30, SAPK2, and OREB1 for ABA-dependent gene regulation was further identified, via interaction assays and a transient gene expression assay. Thus, a core signalling unit for ABA-responsive gene expression modulating seed germination and early seedling growth in rice has been unravelled. This study provides substantial contributions toward understanding the ABA signal transduction pathway in rice.
Journal of Experimental Botany 11/2011; 63(2):1013-24. · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling cascades are activated by extracellular stimuli such as environmental stresses and pathogens in higher eukaryotic plants. To know more about MAPK signalling in plants, aMAPK cDNA clone, OsMAPK33, was isolated from rice. The gene is mainly induced by drought stress. In phylogenetic analysis, OsMAPK33 (Os02g0148100) showed approximately 47-93% identity at the amino acid level with other plant MAPKs. It was found to exhibit organ-specific expression with relatively higher expression in leaves as compared with roots or stems, and to exist as a single copy in the rice genome. To investigate the biological functions of OsMAPK33 in rice MAPK signalling, transgenic rice plants that either overexpressed or suppressed OsMAPK33 were made. Under dehydration conditions, the suppressed lines showed lower osmotic potential compared with that of wild-type plants, suggesting a role of OsMAPK33 in osmotic homeostasis. Nonetheless, the suppressed lines did not display any significant difference in drought tolerance compared with their wild-type plants. With increased salinity, there was still no difference in salt tolerance between OsMAPK33-suppressed lines and their wild-type plants. However, the overexpressing lines showed greater reduction in biomass accumulation and higher sodium uptake into cells, resulting in a lower K+/Na+ ratio inside the cell than that in the wild-type plants and OsMAPK33-suppressed lines. These results suggest that OsMAPK33 could play a negative role in salt tolerance through unfavourable ion homeostasis. Gene expression profiling of OsMAPK33 transgenic lines through rice DNA chip analysis showed that OsMAPK33 altered expression of genes involved in ion transport. Further characterization of downstream components will elucidate various biological functions of this novel rice MAPK.
Journal of Biosciences 03/2011; 36(1):139-51. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins (CYPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) superfamily, which regulate much of metabolism through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. They are collectively referred to as immunophilin (IMM), being present in almost all cellular organs. In particular, a number of IMMs relate to environmental stresses.
FKBP and CYP proteins in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Japonica) were identified and classified, and given the appropriate name for each IMM, considering the ortholog-relation with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas or molecular weight of the proteins. 29 FKBP and 27 CYP genes can putatively be identified in rice; among them, a number of genes can be putatively classified as orthologs of Arabidopsis IMMs. However, some genes were novel, did not match with those of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, and several genes were paralogs by genetic duplication. Among 56 IMMs in rice, a significant number are regulated by salt and/or desiccation stress. In addition, their expression levels responding to the water-stress have been analyzed in different tissues, and some subcellular IMMs located by means of tagging with GFP protein.
Like other green photosynthetic organisms such as Arabidopsis (23 FKBPs and 29 CYPs) and Chlamydomonas (23 FKBs and 26 CYNs), rice has the highest number of IMM genes among organisms reported so far, suggesting that the numbers relate closely to photosynthesis. Classification of the putative FKBPs and CYPs in rice provides the information about their evolutional/functional significance when comparisons are drawn with the relatively well studied genera, Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas. In addition, many of the genes upregulated by water stress offer the possibility of manipulating the stress responses in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is relatively vulnerable to abiotic stress conditions such as drought, but the tolerance mechanisms for such stresses in potato are largely unknown. To identify stress-related factors in potato, we previously carried out a genetic screen of potato plants exposed to abiotic environmental stress conditions using reverse northern-blot analysis. A cDNA encoding a putative R1-type MYB-like transcription factor (StMYB1R-1) was identified as a putative stress-response gene. Here, the transcript levels of StMYB1R-1 were enhanced in response to several environmental stresses in addition to drought but were unaffected by biotic stresses. The results of intracellular targeting and quadruple 9-mer protein-binding microarray analysis indicated that StMYB1R-1 localizes to the nucleus and binds to the DNA sequence (G)/(A)GATAA. Overexpression of a StMYB1R-1 transgene in potato plants improved plant tolerance to drought stress while having no significant effects on other agricultural traits. Transgenic plants exhibited reduced rates of water loss and more rapid stomatal closing than wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. In addition, overexpression of StMYB1R-1 enhanced the expression of drought-regulated genes such as AtHB-7, RD28, ALDH22a1, and ERD1-like. Thus, the expression of StMYB1R-1 in potato enhanced drought tolerance via regulation of water loss. These results indicated that StMYB1R-1 functions as a transcription factor involved in the activation of drought-related genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arabis stelleri var. japonica evidenced stronger osmotic stress tolerance than Arabidopsis thaliana. Using an A. thaliana microarray chip, we determined changes in the expression of approximately 2 800 genes between A. stelleri plants treated with 0.2 M mannitol versus mock-treated plants. The most significant changes in the gene expression patterns were in genes defining cellular components or in genes associated with the endomembrane system, stimulus response, stress response, chemical stimulus response, and defense response. The expression patterns of three de novo proline biosynthesis enzymes were evaluated in A. stelleri var. japonica seedlings treated with 0.2 M mannitol, 0.2 M sorbitol, and 0.2 M NaCl. The expression of Δ¹ -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase was not affected by NaCl stress but was similarly induced by mannitol and sorbitol. The proline dehydrogenase gene, which is known to be repressed by dehydration stress and induced by free L-proline, was induced at an early stage by mannitol treatment, but the level of proline dehydrogenase was increased later by treatment with both mannitol and NaCl. The level of free L-proline accumulation increased progressively in response to treatments with mannitol, sorbitol, and NaCl. Mannitol induced L-proline accumulation more rapidly than NaCl or sorbitol. These findings demonstrate that the osmotic tolerance of the novel halophyte, Arabis stelleri, is associated with the accumulation of L-proline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium serves as a critical messenger in many adaptation and developmental processes. Cellular calcium signals are detected and transmitted by sensor molecules such as calcium-binding proteins. In plants, the calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) family represents a unique group of calcium sensors and plays a key role in decoding calcium transients by specifically interacting with and regulating a family of CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). In this study, we report the role of Arabidopsis CBL5 gene in high salt or drought tolerance. CBL5 gene is expressed significantly in green tissues, but not in roots. CBL5 was not induced by abiotic stress conditions such as high salt, drought or low temperature. To determine whether the CBL5 gene plays a role in stress response pathways, we ectopically expressed the CBL5 protein in transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S-CBL5) and examined plant responses to abiotic stresses. CBL5-overexpressing plants displayed enhanced tolerance to high salt or drought stress. CBL5 overexpression also rendered plants more resistant to high salt or hyperosmotic stress during early development (i.e., seed germination) but did not alter their response to abiscisic acid (ABA). Furthermore, overexpression of CBL5 alters the gene expression of stress gene markers, such as RD29A, RD29B and Kin1 etc. These results suggest that CBL5 may function as a positive regulator of salt or drought responses in plants.
Molecules and Cells 02/2010; 29(2):159-65. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice seed maturation and germination involve drastic changes in water and nutrient transport, in which tonoplast aquaporins may play an important role. In the present study, gene expression profiles of 10 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) from rice were investigated by RT-PCR during seed development and germination. OsTIP3;1 and OsTIP3;2 were specifically expressed in mature seeds. Their transcript level rapidly decreased after onset of seed germination and gene expression was induced by ABA treatment. In contrast, expression of OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 was not seed specific as transcripts were found in vegetative tissues as well. Their respective transcript levels decreased at an early stage of seed development, whereas they increased at a later stage of seed germination and elongation of embryonic roots and shoots. When seed germination was inhibited by various stress conditions and ABA, expression of OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 was completely suppressed. In contrast, the expression level of OsTIP2;2 rapidly increased after seed imbibition and the transcript level was maintained under conditions inhibiting seed germination. These results implicate that tissue specific and developmental transcriptional regulation of OsTIPs in rice seeds depends on their specific function. In addition, OsTIPs can be discriminated by different potential phosphorylation and methylation sites in their protein structures. OsTIP3;1 and OsTIP3;2 possess unique phosphorylation signatures at their N-terminal domain, loop B and loop E, respectively. OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 have a potential methylation site at their Nterminal domain. This suggests that activity of specific tonoplast aquaporins may be regulated by post-translational modification as well as by transcriptional control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potassium () is one of the most abundant cations in higher plant. It comprises about 10% of plant dry weight and it plays roles in numerous functions such as osmo- and turgor regulation, charge balance of plasma membrane and control of stomata and organ movement. Several potassium transporters and potassium channels regulate homeostasis in response to uptake systems. In this review, we describe the biological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of shaker like potassium channels in higher plant. Especially, we searched the rice genome databases and analysized expressed genes, genome structures and protein domain characteristics of shaker like potassium channels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We confirmed the hypo-osmotic shock strengths and duration, different type of vectors, and subcelluar localization to identify the optimum analysis condition of plant aquaporin activity in Xenopus ooctye using Arabidopsis thaliana AtPIP2-1 gene. Six minutes and 1/5ND buffer hypoosmotic shock treatment was the best condition to show the maximum swelling of Xenopus oocytes where AtPIP2-1 was expressed using pcDNA3.1 vector. AtPIP2-1 protein was expressed more efficiently in pGEMHE vector which has 5' and 3' UTR (untranslation region) of Xenopus -GLOBIN gene in multiple cloning site than in pcDNA3.1 vector. Also green fluorescence of GFP fused to AtPIP2-1 was detected onto oocyte plasmamembrane where is the proper subcellular localization target of AtPIP2-1.
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry 01/2010; 53(4).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is one of the most important edible mushrooms worldwide. The mechanism of P. ostreatus fruiting body development has been of interest both for the basic understanding of the phenotypic change of the mycelium-fruiting body and to improve breeding of the mushrooms. Based on our previous publication of P. ostreatus expressed sequence tag database, 1,528 unigene clones were used in macroarray analysis of mycelium, fruiting body and basidiospore developmental stages of P. ostreatus. Gene expression profile databases generated by evaluating expression levels showed that 33, 10, and 94 genes were abundantly expressed in mycelium, fruiting body and basidiospore developmental stages, respectively. Among them, the genes specifically expressed in the fruiting body stage were further analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot to investigate temporal and spatial expression patterns. These results provide useful information for future studies of edible mushroom development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescent indicators of Na+ are valuable tools for nondestructive monitoring of its spatial and temporal distribution in plants. We tested whether CoroNa
Green fluorescent dye, a newly developed sodium indicator, is suitable for measuring relative concentrations in planta. To determine the ideal conditions for its use, we incubated NaCl-pretreated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings with different concentrations of CoroNa Green and visualized fluorescence in each organ with a fluorescein isothiocyanate
filter. When 50μM of dye was applied, fluorescence was distributed more uniformly and intensely in the root tips than in
other tissues. Under those conditions, fluorescence gradually increased in the root tips when Na+ was bound to CoroNa Green for concentrations up to 100mM NaCl. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that when Arabidopsis seedlings were incubated with the same concentration of NaCl, the sos1 mutant had much stronger fluorescence than the wild type. This report is the first to describe the properties of CoroNa Green
for measuring Na+ content in intact plants and demonstrates the usefulness of this technique for investigating the mechanism of Na+ homeostasis.
Journal of Plant Biology 01/2009; 52(4):298-302. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salt stress is a major environmental factor influencing plant growth and development and plants have many tolerance mechanisms to overcome salt stress. To identify salt tolerance determinants in higher plants, an Arabidopsis cDNA clone that encodes translation elongation factor 1 alpha (AtEF1α) was isolated by functional complementation of the salt-sensitive phenotype of a calcineurin (CaN)-deficient yeast mutant (cnbΔ). AtEF1α displayed a chaperone activity in a dose-dependant manner in vitro and the chaperone activity of AtEF1α was required for NaCl tolerance in cnbΔ cells. When compared with wild-type Arabidopsis, AtEF1α knock-out plants were more sensitive to NaCl stress. Furthermore, transgenic plants with transgene AtEF1α were more tolerant to NaCl than the wild-type. These results suggest that AtEF1α functions as molecular chaperone, and this activity enhances NaCl tolerance in yeast and plants.