[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists are currently the agents of choice for the treatment of psoriasis, a skin inflammatory indication that is believed to involve an autoimmune component. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, has shown efficacy in animal autoimmune disease models of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type I diabetes. However, the side effect of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) and its synthetic secosteroidal analogs is hypercalcemia, which is a major impediment in their clinical development for autoimmune diseases. Hypercalcemia develops as a result of the action of VDR agonists on the intestine. Here, we describe the identification of a VDR modulator (VDRM) compound A that was transcriptionally less active in intestinal cells and as a result exhibited less calcemic activity in vivo than 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). Cytokine analysis indicated that the VDRM not only modulated the T-helper cell balance from Th1 to Th2 effector function but also inhibited Th17 differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that the oral administration of compound A inhibited the induction and progress of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice without causing hypercalcemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five hypothyroid patients are reported with increased pituitary TSH response to TRH during administration of T3. In one patient treated with intravenous T3, 50 μg daily for 10 days, the peak serum TSH and total pituitary TSH reserve after TRH increased coincident with increases in serum T3 and T4 levels and a decrease in the basal TSH concentration. In four patients treated with oral T3, the peak serum TSH and total pituitary TSH reserve after TRH increased during administration of subphysiological doses of T3. Peak serum T3 levels occurred 4 h after ingestion and increased progressively with increasing T3 doses. Serum TSH levels decreased modestly with the nadir at 4 h after T3 ingestion and then returned to basal levels at 24 h. Augmentation of TSH responses to TRH occurred simultaneously with decreases in serum cholesterol, a swell as increases in the pituitary prolactin response to TRH, and increases in the GH and cortisol response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia where these responses could be studied. These data demonstrated a positive effect of subphysiological T3 therapy in these hypothyroid patients on the TSH response to TRH as well as increases in the responses of other pituitary hormones to stimulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligands are therapeutic agents for the treatment of psoriasis, osteoporosis, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. VDR ligands also show immense potential as therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancers of skin, prostate, colon, and breast as well as leukemia. However, the major side effect of VDR ligands that limits their expanded use and clinical development is hypercalcemia that develops as a result of the action of these compounds mainly on intestine. In order to discover VDR ligands with less hypercalcemia liability, we sought to identify tissue-selective VDR modulators (VDRMs) that act as agonists in some cell types and lack activity in others. Here, we describe LY2108491 and LY2109866 as nonsecosteroidal VDRMs that function as potent agonists in keratinocytes, osteoblasts, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells but show poor activity in intestinal cells. Finally, these nonsecosteroidal VDRMs were less calcemic in vivo, and LY2108491 exhibited more than 270-fold improved therapeutic index over the naturally occurring VDR ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] in an in vivo preclinical surrogate model of psoriasis.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 05/2006; 116(4):892-904. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) plays a crucial role in nuclear receptor-mediated transcription including thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-dependent gene expression. Interaction of the TR-ligand binding domain and SRC-1 through LXXLL motifs is required for this action. However, potential interactions between the TRbeta1-N terminus (N) and SRC-1 have not been explored and thus are examined in this manuscript. Far-Western studies showed that protein construct containing TRbeta1-N + DNA binding domain (DBD) bound to nuclear receptor binding domain (NBD)-1 (amino acid residue, aa 595-780) of SRC-1 without ligand. Mammalian two-hybrid studies showed that NBD-1, as well as SRC-1 (aa 595-1440), bound to TRbeta1-N+DBD in the absence of ligand in CV-1 cells. However, NBD-2 (aa 1237-1440) did not bind to this protein. Glutathione-S-transferase pull-down studies showed that TRbeta1-N (aa 1-105) bound to the broad region of SRC-1-C terminus. Expression vectors encoding a series of truncations and/or point mutations of TRbeta1 were used in transient transfection-based reporter assays in CV-1 cells. N-terminal truncated TRbeta1 (DeltaN-TRbeta1) showed lower activity than that of wild-type in both artificial F2-thyroid hormone response element and native malic enzyme response element. These results suggest that there is the interaction between N terminus of TRbeta1 and SRC-1, which may serve a full activation of SRC-1, together with activation function-2 on TRbeta1-mediated transcription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously cloned and characterized a novel RNA-binding motif-containing coactivator, named coactivator activator (CoAA), as a thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein-interacting protein using a Sos-Ras yeast two-hybrid screening system. A database search revealed that CoAA is identical with synovial sarcoma translocation (SYT)-interacting protein. Thus, we hypothesized that SYT could also function as a coactivator. Subsequently, we isolated a cDNA encoding a larger isoform of SYT, SYT-long (SYT-L), from the brain and liver total RNA using RT-PCR. SYT-L possesses an additional 31 amino acids in its C terminus compared with SYT, suggesting that these two SYT isoforms may be expressed from two mRNAs produced by alternative splicing of a transcript from a single gene. By Northern blot analysis, we found that SYT-L mRNA is expressed in several human embryonic tissues, such as the brain, liver, and kidney. However, we could not detect SYT-L in adult tissues. Glutathione-S-transferase pull-down studies showed that SYT binds to the C-terminus of CoAA, but not to the coactivator modulator. Both isoforms of SYT function as transcriptional coactivators of nuclear hormone receptors in a ligand- and dose-dependent manner in CV-1, COS-1, and JEG-3 cells. However, the pattern of transactivation was different between SYT and SYT-L among these cells. SYT synergistically activates transcription with CoAA. In addition, SYT activates transcription through activator protein-1, suggesting that SYT may function as a general coactivator. These results indicate that SYT activates transcription, possibly through CoAA, to interact with the histone acetyltransferase complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To effectively direct targeted repression, the class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) associate with many important regulatory proteins. In this paper we describe the molecular characterization of a member of the Jumonji domain 2 (JMJD2) family of proteins, and demonstrate its binding to both class I HDACs and the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). JMJD2 proteins are characterized by the presence of two leukemia-associated protein/plant homeodomain (LAP/PHD) zinc fingers, one JmjN, one JmjC (containing an internal retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (RBBP2)-like sequence), and two Tudor domains. The first member of this group, JMJD2A, is widely expressed in human tissues and cell lines, and high endogenous expression of JMJD2A mRNA was found in several cell types, including human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cell lines. JMJD2A and JMJD2B exhibit cell type-specific responses to the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. We show that the JMJD2A protein associates in vivo with pRb and class I HDACs, and mediates repression of E2F-regulated promoters. In HTLV-1 virus-infected cells, we find that JMJD2A binds to the viral Tax protein. Antibodies to JMJD2A recognize the native protein but also a half-sized protein fragment, the latter up-regulated in THP-1 cells during the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. The ability of JMJD2A to associate with pRb and HDACs and potentiate pRb-mediated repression of E2F-regulated promoters implies an important role for this protein in cell proliferation and oncogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2005; 280(31):28507-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the vertebrate brain, the thalamus serves as a relay and integration station for diverse neuronal information en route from the periphery to the cortex. Deficiency of TH during development results in severe cerebral abnormalities similar to those seen in the mouse when the retinoic acid receptor (ROR)alpha gene is disrupted. To investigate the effect of the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) on RORalpha gene expression, we used intact male mice, in which the genes encoding the alpha and beta TRs have been deleted. In situ hybridization for RORalpha mRNA revealed that this gene is expressed in specific areas of the brain including the thalamus, pons, cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus. Our quantitative data showed differences in RORalpha mRNA expression in different subthalamic nuclei between wild-type and knock-out mice. For example, the centromedial nucleus of the thalamus, which plays a role in mediating nociceptive and visceral information from the brainstem to the basal ganglia and cortical regions, has less expression of RORalpha mRNA in the knockout mice (-37%) compared to the wild-type controls. Also, in the dorsal geniculate (+72%) and lateral posterior nuclei (+58%) we found more RORalpha mRNA in dKO as compared to dWT animals. Such differences in RORalpha mRNA expression may play a role in the behavioral alterations resulting from congenital hypothyroidism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) is expressed primarily in the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary. Pituitary homeobox 1 (Pitx-1) has been shown to activate pituitary-specific gene expression by direct DNA binding and/or protein-protein interaction with other transcription factors. We hypothesized that Pitx-1 might also dictate tissue-specific expression of the mouse GnRHR (mGnRHR) gene in a similar manner. Pitx-1 activated the mGnRHR gene promoter, and transactivation was localized to sequences between -308 and -264. Pitx-1 bound to this region only with low affinity. This region includes an activating protein 1 (AP-1) site, which was previously shown to be important for mGnRHR gene expression. Further characterization indicated that an intact AP-1 site was required for full Pitx-1 responsiveness. Furthermore, Pitx-1 and AP-1 were synergistic in the activation of the mGnRHR gene promoter. A Pitx-1 homeodomain (HD) point mutation, which eliminated DNA binding ability, caused only a partial reduction of transactivation, whereas deletion of the HD completely prevented transactivation. Pitx-1 interacted directly with c-Jun, and the HD was sufficient for this interaction. While the point mutation in the Pitx-1 HD did not affect interaction with c-Jun, deletion of the HD eliminated the interaction. Taken together, our studies indicate that Pitx-1 can direct transactivation of the mGnRHR gene, in part by DNA binding and in part by an action of Pitx-1 as a cofactor for AP-1, augmenting AP-1 activity through a novel protein-protein interaction between c-Jun and the HD of Pitx-1.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/2004; 24(14):6127-39. · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that in colon cancer cells, Vitamin D receptor (VDR) interacts with the catalytic subunit of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, PP1c and PP2Ac, and induces their enzymatic activity in a ligand-dependent manner. The VDR-PP1c and VDR-PP2Ac interactions were ligand independent in vivo, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3))-mediated increase in VDR-associated phosphatase activity resulted in dephosphorylation and inactivation of p70S6 kinase in colon cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that in myeloid leukemia cells, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment increased the Thr389 phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. Accordingly, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) decreased VDR-associated Ser/Thr protein phosphatase activity by dissociating VDR-PP1c and VDR-PP2Ac interactions. Further, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased the association between VDR and Thr389 phosphorylated p70S6 kinase. Finally, by using non-secosteroidal VDR ligands, we demonstrate a separation between transactivation and p70S6 kinase phosphorylation activities of VDR and show pharmacologically that p70S6 kinase phosphorylation correlates with HL-60 cell differentiation.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 06/2004; 89-90(1-5):195-8. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) belongs to the thyroid hormone/retinoid receptor subfamily of nuclear receptors and functions as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor (RXR). The RXR-VDR heterodimer, in contrast to other members of the class II nuclear receptor subfamily, is nonpermissive where RXR does not bind its cognate ligand, and therefore its role in VDR-mediated transactivation by liganded RXR-VDR has not been fully characterized. Here, we show a unique facet of the intermolecular RXR-VDR interaction, in which RXR actively participates in vitamin D3-dependent gene transcription. Using helix 3 and helix 12 mutants of VDR and RXR, we provide functional evidence that liganded VDR allosterically modifies RXR from an apo (unliganded)- to a holo (liganded)-receptor conformation, in the absence of RXR ligand. As a result of the proposed allosteric modification of RXR by liganded VDR, the heterodimerized RXR shows the "phantom ligand effect" and thus acquires the capability to recruit coactivators steroid receptor coactivator 1, transcriptional intermediary factor 2, and amplified in breast cancer-1. Finally, using a biochemical approach with purified proteins, we show that RXR augments the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent recruitment of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 in the context of RXR-VDR heterodimer. These results confirm and extend the previous observations suggesting that RXR is a significant contributor to VDR-mediated gene expression and provide a mechanism by which RXR acts as a major contributor to vitamin D3-dependent transcription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptors mediate gene activation through ligand-dependent interaction with coactivators. We previously cloned and characterized thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein, TRBP (NcoA6: AIB3/ASC-2/RAP250/PRIP/TRBP/NRC), as an LXXLL-containing coactivator that associates with coactivator complexes through its C terminus. To search for protein factors involved in TRBP action, we identified a distinct set of proteins from HeLa nuclear extract that interacts with the C terminus of TRBP. Analysis by mass spectrometric protein sequencing revealed a DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex including its catalytic subunit and regulatory subunits, Ku70 and Ku86. DNA-PK is a heterotrimeric nuclear phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that functions in DNA repair, recombination, and transcriptional regulation. DNA-PK phosphorylates TRBP at its C-terminal region, which directly interacts with Ku70 but not Ku86 in vitro. In addition, in the absence of DNA, TRBP itself activates DNA-PK, and the TRBP-stimulated DNA-PK activity has an altered phosphorylation pattern from DNA-stimulated activity. An anti-TRBP antibody inhibits TRBP-induced kinase activity, suggesting that protein content of TRBP is responsible for the stimulation of DNA-independent kinase activity. Furthermore, in DNA-PK-deficient scid cells, TRBP-mediated transactivation is significantly impaired, and nuclear localization of TRBP is altered. The activation of DNA-PK in the absence of DNA ends by the coactivator TRBP suggests a novel mechanism of coactivator-stimulated DNA-PK phosphorylation in transcriptional regulation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2003; 278(13):11471-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activation function 2 (AF-2)-dependent recruitment of coactivator is essential for gene activation by nuclear receptors. We show that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) (NR1C3) coactivator-1 (PGC-1) requires both the intact AF-2 domain of PPARgamma and the LXXLL domain of PGC-1 for ligand-dependent and ligand-independent interaction and coactivation. Although the AF-2 domain of PPARgamma is absolutely required for PGC-1-mediated coactivation, this coactivator displayed a unique lack of requirement for the charge clamp of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor that is thought to be essential for LXXLL motif recognition. The mutation of a single serine residue adjacent to the core LXXLL motif of PGC-1 led to restoration of the typical charge clamp requirement. Thus, the unique structural features of the PGC-1 LXXLL motif appear to mediate an atypical mode of interaction with PPARgamma. Unexpectedly, we discovered that various ligands display variability in terms of their requirement for the charge clamp of PPARgamma for coactivation by PGC-1. This ligand-selective variable requirement for the charge clamp was coactivator-specific. Thus, distinct structural determinants, which may be unique for a particular ligand, are utilized by the receptor to recognize the coactivator. Our data suggest that even subtle differences in ligand structure are perceived by the receptor and translated into a unique display of the coactivator-binding surface of the ligand-binding domain, allowing for differential recognition of coactivators that may underlie distinct pharmacological profiles observed for ligands of a particular nuclear receptor.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2003; 278(10):8637-44. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for growth and development of brain, including the cerebellum. Deficiency of TH during the perinatal period results in abnormal cerebellar development, which is well documented in rodent animal models. TH exerts its major effect by binding to the nuclear TH receptor (TR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor. Although TR is highly expressed in many brain regions, including the cerebellum, TH-target genes that likely play critical roles in brain development have not yet been fully clarified. At present, however, expression of many cerebellar genes is known to be altered by perinatal hypothyroidism. Interestingly, after the critical period of TH action (first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodent cerebellum), the activities of many genes that are altered by perinatal hypothyroidism return to the same levels as those of euthyroid animal despite morphological alterations. Several prominent candidate genes that may play key roles in TH-mediated cerebellar development are discussed in this review. On the other hand, TR-mediated transcription may be modulated by various substances. The nuclear hormone receptor superfamily contains more than 40 transcriptional factors and, most of these receptors are present in the brain. Possible interactions between TR and such transcription factors are also discussed. Further, several additional issues that need to be clarified are discussed. One such issue is the discrepancy of phenotypes among TR-knockout and perinatal hypothyroid mice. Recent studies have provided several important clues to address this issue. Another current area that needs attention is the effect of endocrine disruptors on brain development. Since the molecular structures of TH and several endocrine disrupting chemicals are similar, the effect of such chemicals on brain may be exerted at least in part through the TH system. Recent studies have shown the possible interaction between TR and such chemicals. Overall, this review provides current findings regarding molecular mechanisms on TH action in cerebellar development.
The Cerebellum 02/2003; 2(4):279-89. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid beta-oxidation. Lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver X receptors alpha and beta (LXRalpha and LXRbeta). Here we show that fenofibrate ester, but not fenofibric acid, functions as an LXR antagonist by directly binding to LXRs. Likewise, ester forms, but not carboxylic acid forms, of other members of the fibrate class of molecules antagonize the LXRs. The fibrate esters display greater affinity for LXRs than the corresponding fibric acids have for PPARalpha. Thus, these two nuclear receptors display a degree of conservation in their recognition of ligands; yet, the acid/ester moiety acts as a chemical switch that determines PPARalpha versus LXR specificity. Consistent with its LXR antagonistic activity, fenofibrate potently represses LXR agonist-induced transcription of hepatic lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, fenofibrate does not repress LXR-induced transcription of various ATP-binding cassette transporters either in liver or in macrophages, suggesting that fenofibrate manifests variable biocharacter in the context of differing gene promoters. These findings provide not only an unexpected mechanism by which fenofibrate inhibits lipogenesis but also the basis for examination of the pharmacology of an LXR ligand in humans.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2003; 278(4):2403-10. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid β-oxidation. Lipid homeostasis
and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver X receptors α and β (LXRα and LXRβ).
Here we show that fenofibrate ester, but not fenofibric acid, functions as an LXR antagonist by directly binding to LXRs.
Likewise, ester forms, but not carboxylic acid forms, of other members of the fibrate class of molecules antagonize the LXRs.
The fibrate esters display greater affinity for LXRs than the corresponding fibric acids have for PPARα. Thus, these two nuclear
receptors display a degree of conservation in their recognition of ligands; yet, the acid/ester moiety acts as a chemical
switch that determines PPARαversus LXR specificity. Consistent with its LXR antagonistic activity, fenofibrate potently represses LXR agonist-induced transcription
of hepatic lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, fenofibrate does not repress LXR-induced transcription of various ATP-binding cassette
transporters either in liver or in macrophages, suggesting that fenofibrate manifests variable biocharacter in the context
of differing gene promoters. These findings provide not only an unexpected mechanism by which fenofibrate inhibits lipogenesis
but also the basis for examination of the pharmacology of an LXR ligand in humans.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2003; 278(4):2403-2410. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor superfamily comprises a large number of ligand-activated transcription factors that are involved in numerous biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and homeostasis. ROR(alpha) (NR1F1) and Reverb(alpha) (NR1D1) are two members of this family whose biological functions are largely unknown. In addition, no ligand has been yet identified for these two receptors; therefore, they are referred as orphan receptors. Here, we show that ROR(alpha) and Reverb(alpha) are expressed with a similar tissue distribution and are both induced during the differentiation of rat L6 myoblastic cells. Ectopic expression of ROR(alpha)1 in L6 cells significantly induces Reverb(alpha) expression as demonstrated by Northern blot analysis. Using reverse transcription-PCR to analyze Reverb(alpha) gene expression from staggerer mice, we found that there was a significant reduction of Reverb(alpha) mRNA in the skeletal muscle comparing it with the wild-type mice, which suggests that ROR(alpha) is involved in the regulation of Reverb(alpha) gene expression. Transient transfection assays using the Reverb(alpha) promoter demonstrate that ROR(alpha) regulates the Reverb(alpha) gene at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, mutagenesis experiments indicate that ROR(alpha) regulates Reverb(alpha) transcription via a monomeric ROR response element located in the Reverb(alpha) gene promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that ROR(alpha) binds strongly to this site in a specific-manner. Finally, overexpression of GRIP-1/TIF-2, but not SRC-1, potentiates ROR(alpha)-stimulated Reverb(alpha) promoter activity in transient transfection experiments. Together, our results identify Reverb(alpha) as a novel target gene for ROR(alpha).
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(38):35013-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide evidence of a cross-talk between nuclear receptor and Ser/Thr protein phosphatases and show that vitamin D receptor (VDR) interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatases, PP1c and PP2Ac, and induces their enzymatic activity in a ligand-dependent manner. PP1c specifically interacts with VDR but not retinoic acid receptor alpha and retinoid X receptor alpha in yeast. Although VDR-PP1c and VDR-PP2Ac interaction is ligand-independent in vivo, 1alpha,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) induces VDR-associated phosphatase activity. Further, VDR modulation of PP1c/PP2Ac activity results in a rapid and specific dephosphorylation and inactivation of their substrate, p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). Finally, we demonstrate that the endogenous VDR, PP1c or PP2Ac, and p70(S6k) are present in a ternary complex in vivo, and the interaction of p70(S6k) with the VDR-PP complex is modulated by the phosphorylation state of the kinase. Since p70(S6k) is essential for G(1)-S transition, our results provide a molecular basis of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-induced G(1) block in colon cancer cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2002; 277(28):24847-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although PGC-1 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1) has been previously shown to enhance thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/retinoid X receptor-mediated ucp-1 gene expression in a ligand-induced manner in rat fibroblast cells, the precise mechanism of PGC-1 modulation of TR function has yet to be determined. In this study, we show that PGC-1 can potentiate TR-mediated transactivation of reporter genes driven by natural thyroid hormone response elements both in a ligand-dependent and ligand-independent manner and that the extent of coactivation is a function of the thyroid hormone response element examined. Our data also show that PGC-1 stimulation of TR activity in terms of Gal4 DNA-binding domain fusion is strictly ligand-dependent. In addition, an E457A AF-2 mutation had no effect on the ligand-induced PGC-1 enhancement of TR activity, indicating that the conserved charged residue in AF-2 is not essential for this PGC-1 function. Furthermore, GST pull-down and mammalian two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the PGC-1 LXXLL motif is required for ligand-induced PGC-1/TR interaction. This agonist-dependent PGC-1/TR interaction also requires both helix 1 and the AF-2 region of the TR ligand-binding domain. Taken together, these results support the notion that PGC-1 is a bona fide TR coactivator and that PGC-1 modulates TR activity via a mechanism different from that utilized with peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-gamma.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2002; 277(11):8898-905. · 4.65 Impact Factor