[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgrounds:
Several cross-sectional studies suggested a link between endometriosis and mood disorders. However, the temporal association between endometriosis and mood disorders (depression and anxiety disorders) is still unclear.
Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 10,439 women with endometriosis and 10,439 (1:1) age-/sex-matched controls between 1998 and 2009 were enrolled, and followed up to the end of 2011. Those who developed depression or anxiety disorders during the follow-up were identified.
Women with endometriosis had an increased risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.24-1.97), any depressive disorder (HR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.25-1.65), and anxiety disorders (HR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.22-1.70) in later life compared to those without endometriosis. Stratified by age group, women with endometriosis aged <40 years and those aged ≧40 years were both prone to developing major depression (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.15-1.99; HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.09-2.62), any depressive disorder (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.21-1.69; HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.13-1.56), and anxiety disorders (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14-1.71; HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.15-2.04).
the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders may be underestimated since only those who sought medical consultation and help would be enrolled in our study.
Endometriosis was associated with an elevated likelihood of developing depression and anxiety disorders. Further studies may be required to investigate the underlying pathophysiology between endometriosis and both depression and anxiety disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Even during symptomatic remission, many patients with medication resistant depression (MRD) still demonstrate impaired cognitive function, especially executive function (EF). Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) modulates cortical excitability and may treat MRD. Evidences from previous studies show that intermittent TBS (iTBS) produces cortical excitatory effects, while continuous TBS (cTBS) produces a reduction of cortical excitability. EF is highly dependent on prefrontal activity, but the effects of different forms of prefrontal TBS on EF remain unknown.
60 MRD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to one of four groups. Treatment was determined by the group to which an individual was assigned; A: cTBS 1800pulses/session; B: iTBS 1800pulses/session; C: a combination of cTBS+iTBS, 1800pulses/session for each; and D: sham TBS. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for the performance of EF was evaluated before and after 10 daily treatment sessions RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA, with each WCST index at baseline and 2weeks after TBS as within-subject factors, demonstrated that a statistically significant interaction of TBS groups (G) and antidepressant responses [(R), responses were defined as >50% reduction of depression scores after 2-weeks TBS treatment] on the before-versus-after changes of all WCST indexes (G×R, p<0.05). Responders in Group B, but not in the other groups, showed a significant improvement in WCST performance. Only nonresponders in Group A showed a trend for EF worsening.
Our findings showed that left prefrontal iTBS, not right prefrontal cTBS, improved EF, and this can be independent from its antidepressant effects.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.11.009 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Chronic inflammation plays an important role in schizophrenia and atopic diseases, and studies have suggested that chronic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of stroke. The role of atopic diseases in the development of stroke among patients with schizophrenia is still unknown.
A total of 63,913 patients with schizophrenia without a stroke history between 2002 and 2008 and 63,913 age- and sex-matched controls were included and followed up to the end of 2011. Patients with schizophrenia and the reference group were divided into subgroups based on the presence or absence of atopic diseases. Individuals who developed stroke during follow-up were identified.
Patients with schizophrenia had an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke (no atopic disease: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.88-2.53; with atopic disease: HR = 3.11, 95% CI = 2.63-3.69) compared with the reference group without atopic diseases. Among patients with schizophrenia, the presence of atopic diseases increased the risk of developing ischemic stroke (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.24-1.66), with a cumulative relationship between greater numbers of atopic comorbidities and a greater risk of ischemic stroke (one atopic disease: HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.19-1.63; two atopic comorbidities: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10-2.00; at least 3 atopic comorbidities: HR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.55-5.12).
The combined presence of schizophrenia and atopic diseases is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in later life compared with individuals without these conditions.
Psychosomatic Medicine 10/2015; 77(9). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000234 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders, and alcohol misuse are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, the link between psychiatric disorders and stroke in the young population is rarely investigated.Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2063 young adults aged between 18 and 45 years with ischemic stroke and 8252 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2011. Participants who had preexisting psychiatric disorders were identified.After adjusting for preexisting physical disorders and demographic data, patients with ischemic stroke had an increased risk of having preexisting psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06∼4.67), unipolar depression (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.62∼2.86), anxiety disorders (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87∼3.69), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79∼4.57). Young ischemic stroke (age ≥30 years) was related to the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05∼2.11), anxiety disorders (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.97), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55∼4.14); very young stroke (age <30 years) was only associated with the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.47∼11.72).Patients who had experienced ischemic stroke at age younger than 45 years had a higher risk of having pre-existing bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders than those who did not after adjusting for demographic data and stroke-related medical comorbidities.
Medicine 09/2015; 94(38):e1520. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000001520 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Previous studies have suggested an immunological dysfunction in bipolar disorder, but none has investigated the temporal association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and bipolar disorder.
Using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 9506 adolescents aged 12-18years with allergic rhinitis were enrolled between 2000 and 2008 and compared to 38,024 age-and gender-matched (1:4) control groups. Subjects of bipolar disorder that occurred up to the end of follow-up (December 31, 2011) were identified.
Adolescents with AR had a significantly higher incidence of developing bipolar disorder (0.77 vs. 0.18 per 1000 person-years, p<0.001) during the follow-up period than the controls. Adolescents with AR had an increased risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.17-6.75) of developing bipolar disorder in their later life compared to the control group after adjusting for demographic data and comorbid allergic diseases.
This is the first study showing a temporal association between AR and bipolar disorder, in that patients who had AR in adolescence exhibited an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder in later life. Further study would be required to investigate the underlying mechanism about this association.
Journal of psychosomatic research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.08.009 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional retrospective study suggested a link between allergic diseases and Parkinson's disease. However, the temporal association between asthma and Parkinson's disease remains unknown.
From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 10,455 patients who were diagnosed with asthma between 1998 and 2008 and aged ≧ 45 years and 41,820 age- and sex-matched controls were selected for our study and observed until the end of 2011. Those who developed Parkinson's disease during the follow-up period were identified. We also examined the asthma severity, as indicated by the frequency of admission (times per year) for asthma exacerbation, and the risk of subsequent Parkinson's disease.
Patients with asthma had an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.20-4.36) after we adjusted for demographic data, health system use, medical comorbidities, and medication use. Sensitivity tests yielded consistent findings after we excluded observations on the first year (HR: 2.90, 95% CI: 2.04-4.13) and first 3 years (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.64-3.69). Patients with asthma who had more frequent admissions (times per year) during the follow-up period exhibited a greater risk of subsequent Parkinson's disease (> 2: HR: 16.42, 95% CI: 5.88-45.91; 1-2: 12.69, 95% CI: 5.03-31.71; 0-1: HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.91-4.49).
Patients with asthma had an elevated risk of developing Parkinson's disease later in life, and we observed a dose-dependent relationship between greater asthma severity and a higher risk of subsequent Parkinson's disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown. Aims To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development of stroke. Method Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 5217 individuals aged ≥ 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke, and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002 and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the development of stroke. Results Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44-4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 3.47, 95% CI 2.23-5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13-4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.79-4.66) after excluding the first year of observation. Conclusions Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
Royal College of Psychiatrists.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 02/2015; 206(4). DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.143610 · 7.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Medication-resistant depression (MRD) is associated with poorer attentional performance and immense socioeconomic costs. Aims We aimed to investigate the central pathophysiology of MRD, previously linked to impaired prefrontal cortex function. Method A total of 54 participants (22 with MRD, 16 with non-resistant depression, 16 healthy controls) were recruited. Non-MRD status was confirmed by a prospective 6-week antidepressant trial. All medication-free participants underwent a go/no-go task to study prefrontal cortical function (attention) and positron emission tomography scans to study regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglu) at rest. Results The MRD group had worse attentional ratings and decreased rCMglu compared with the non-MRD and control groups. Attentional performance was positively associated with prefrontal cortex rCMglu. The prefrontal cortex differences between MRD and non-MRD groups remained after adjusting for past depressive episodes (F(1,35) = 4.154, P = 0.043). Conclusions Pronounced hypofrontality, with the associated attentional deficits, has a key role in the neuropathology of medication-resistant depression.
Royal College of Psychiatrists.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 02/2015; 206(4). DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.140434 · 7.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of osteoporotic fracture (OF), a condition that leads to higher morbidity and mortality in the elderly, is increasing yearly worldwide. However, most studies of OF have focused on the epidemiology of initial fractures, mainly in female and white populations. This study aimed to explore the incidence and the risk factors for repeat osteoporotic fracture (ROF) in Taiwan.We performed a retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database (NHIRD) from 1995 through 2011. Individuals aged 65 years or older who experienced an initial OF were included. The patients were followed until death, the end of registration in the NHIRD, ROF occurrence, or the end of the study period (December 31, 2011), whichever occurred first. The incidence of ROF over ≥5 years after the initial fracture was analyzed, and the risk factors for ROF were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models.The incidence rates of ROF were 950.5, 321.4, 158.7, 92.8, and 70.2 per 1000 person-years among subjects in their first, second, third, fourth, and fifth years after the initial OF, respectively. Nearly 45% of the subjects sustained a ROF in the first year after OF. ROF risk increased with age and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score. Greater risk for ROF was observed among female subjects and those who had suffered from hip and vertebral fracture at the first OF, had undergone OF-related surgery, and had received bone-related medications.The incidence of ROF in the Taiwanese elderly is higher during the first year after the initial OF, and ROF risk increases with age, female sex, high CCI score, and in those who have undergone OF-related surgery, sustained hip or vertebral fracture, and used bone-related medications.
Medicine 02/2015; 94(7):e532. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000532 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) and zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon (Z-drugs) are commonly prescribed to HIV-infected patients. We hypothesized that frequent BZD and Z-drug use among these patients may be associated with psychiatric illnesses, particularly in long-term users. Methods. We included 1,081 patients with HIV between 1998 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and matched them according to age, sex, and comorbidity with uninfected controls to investigate the psychiatric diagnoses and prescriptions of BZDs and Z-drugs. Cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD) was assessed as the indicator of the duration of medication exposure. Patients exhibiting a cDDD exceeding 180 were defined as long-term users. Results. The patients with HIV had an increased risk of any use (odds ratio (OR): 8.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.82-10.97) and long-term use (OR: 5.06, 95% CI: 3.63-7.04) of BZD and Z-drugs compared with those without HIV during the follow-up after demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities were adjusted. Conclusion. A large proportion of the HIV-infected patients received prescriptions of BZDs and Z-drugs. Mood disorders, insomnia, anxiety disorders, HIV infection, and substance use disorder were substantial predictors among the BZD and Z-drug users. These findings suggest that providing psychiatric services for HIV-infected patients is vital.
BioMed Research International 01/2015; 2015:465726. DOI:10.1155/2015/465726 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, but the comorbid effect of ASD and ADHD relative to the comorbid risk of other psychiatric disorders is still unknown. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 725 patients with ASD-alone, 5694 with ADHD-alone, 466 with ASD + ADHD, and 27,540 (1:4) age-/gender-matched controls were enrolled in our study. The risk of psychiatric comorbidities was investigated. The ADHD + ASD group had the greatest risk of developing schizophrenia (hazard ratio [HR]: 95.89; HR: 13.73; HR: 174.61), bipolar disorder (HR: 74.93; HR: 19.42; HR: 36.71), depressive disorder (HR: 17.66; HR: 12.29; HR: 9.05), anxiety disorder (HR: 49.49; HR: 50.92; HR: 14.12), disruptive behavior disorder (HR: 113.89; HR: 93.87; HR: 26.50), and tic disorder (HR: 8.95; HR: 7.46; HR: 4.87) compared to the ADHD-alone, ASD-alone, and control groups. Patients with ADHD + ASD were associated with the greatest risk of having comorbid bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, disruptive behavior disorder, and tic disorder. The diagnoses of ASD and ADHD preceded the diagnoses of other psychiatric comorbidities. A comprehensive interview scrutinizing the psychiatric comorbidities would be suggested when encountering and following patients with both ASD and ADHD in clinical practice.
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 11/2014; 10. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.10.014 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 13-year-old boy suffered from hypersomnia, fragmented nighttime sleep, and cataplexy since age 10 years, and then developed prominent psychotic symptoms (i.e., auditory and visual hallucination, hallucinatory behavior, delusions of reference, and misidentification) that occurred persistently during the wakeful and consciously clear period when he was aged 12 years. The child underwent additional medical evaluation and testing, and comorbidity of narcolepsy and schizophrenia was diagnosed. The child's psychotic symptoms and narcolepsy improved significantly upon treatment with methylphenidate 30 mg, olanzapine 25 mg, and haloperidol 10 mg. In this case, the child's symptomology of narcolepsy and schizophrenia and the dilemma of the use of antipsychotics and psychostimulants are representative examples of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in adolescent psychiatry.
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 11/2014; 77(11). DOI:10.1016/j.jcma.2014.06.008 · 0.85 Impact Factor