[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distinct lymphocyte populations have been identified that either promote or impede the establishment of chimerism and tolerance through allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Natural killer T (NKT) cells have pleiotropic regulatory properties capable of either augmenting or downmodulating various immune responses. We investigated in this study whether NKT cells affect outcome in mixed chimerism models employing fully mismatched nonmyeloablative BMT with costimulation blockade (CB). The absence of NKT cells had no detectable effect on chimerism or skin graft tolerance after conditioning with 3Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and a limited positive effect with 1Gy TBI. Stimulation of NKT cells with alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-gal) at the time of BMT prevented chimerism and tolerance. Activation of recipient (as opposed to donor) NKT cells was necessary and sufficient for the alpha-gal effect. The detrimental effect of NKT activation was also observed in the absence of T cells after conditioning with in vivo T-cell depletion (TCD). NKT cells triggered rejection of BM via NK cells as chimerism and tolerance were not abrogated when NKT cells were stimulated in the absence of both NK cells and T cells. Thus, activation of NKT cells at the time of BMT overcomes the effects of CB, inhibiting the establishment of chimerism and tolerance.
Transplant International 11/2010; 23(11):1179-89. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IgE is a central molecule in allergic disease. We have isolated cDNAs coding for the heavy and light chains of a murine mAb specific to human IgE and expressed a recombinant single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) derived thereof in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant ScFv has a molecular mass of 28 kDa as measured by mass spectrometry and shows a beta-sheet fold as determined by circular dichroism. In biosensor-based studies it was demonstrated that the ScFv rapidly and stably binds to human IgE with an affinity of K(D) of 1.52 x 10(-10) M, which is almost as high as the affinity of IgE for FcepsilonRI, and that the ScFv is able to recognize FcepsilonRI-bound IgE and to prevent IgE binding to FcepsilonRI. The ScFv reacts specifically with IgE but not with other isotypes, allows the measurement of allergen-specific IgE in serum samples, and specifically targets cells that contain FcepsilonRI- or FcepsilonRII-bound IgE or that secrete IgE. Using negative-stain electron microscopy we demonstrated the formation of bimolecular complexes consisting of two ScFv molecules and one IgE and trimolecular complexes consisting of IgE, FcepsilonRI, and ScFv in which only one ScFv is able to bind to IgE. Accordingly, we found that the ScFv does not cross-link basophil-bound IgE and hence does not induce histamine release or activation of basophils as demonstrated by FACS analysis of CD203c expression and by histamine release experiments. In vivo skin testing confirmed the lack of allergenic activity of the ScFv. The recombinant ScFv may represent a universal tool for the IgE-targeted treatment of allergies.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2009; 182(8):4817-29. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergen-IgE immune complexes, in which the IgE paratopes are occupied by allergen, remain undetected in standard IgE-detection assays which are based on capturing specific IgE by allergens.We describe an assay for the detection of immune complexes consisting of IgE bound to one of the most frequent environmental allergens, the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. This assay is based on a Bet v 1-specific monoclonal antibody, Bip 1, which binds to an epitope on Bet v 1 that is distinct from the epitopes recognized by allergic patients' IgE. IgE-immune complexes formed with sera from birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 46) were undetectable with solid phase-bound allergen but could be captured by Bip 1 immobilized to nitrocellulose membranes or ELISA plates and traced with radioactively or enzymatically labelled anti-human IgE antibodies. The levels of IgE complexed with Bet v 1 measured in our assays were highly correlated with the amounts of non-complexed allergen-specific IgE as determined by the ImmunoCAP assay which is based on solid phase-bound IgE (r = 0.95; p < 0.01). Bet v 1-specific IgE could even be detected at serum dilutions below the cut off of the ImmunoCAP system (i.e., 0.35 kUA/L). We have thus developed a robust and sensitive assay for the detection and quantification of Bet v 1-IgE immune complexes which should be useful to measure allergen-bound IgE in human body fluids and in in vitro experiments.
Journal of immunological methods 04/2009; 345(1-2):100-5. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The only way to overcome the need for life-long immunosuppression in a transplant recipient is to induce tolerance. Deletional tolerance can be reliably achieved with the induction of mixed chimerism through transplantation of donor bone marrow (BM). Despite the development of increasingly milder BM transplantation (BMT) animal models, BM engraftment in humans still requires considerably toxic conditioning and puts patients at risk for the development of GVHD. However, in a proof-of-concept trial, mixed chimerism and tolerance have been successfully induced in highly selected patients suffering from both end-stage renal disease and multiple myeloma. Meanwhile, there has been notable progress in developing advanced experimental BMT regimens, in particular through the use of costimulation blockers. Costimulation blockade in rodent models allowed the design of BMT protocols entirely devoid of irradiation. Costimulation blockers have also succeeded in more complex protocols in non-human primates. They are under clinical evaluation in renal transplantation as immunosuppressive therapy. Costimulation blockade may lead the way for the development of milder BMT protocols and broader application of mixed chimerism in organ transplantation.
Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2009; 14:611-20. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we have constructed recombinant derivatives of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, with a more than 100-fold reduced ability to induce IgE-mediated allergic reactions. These derivatives differed from each other because the two recombinant Bet v 1 fragments represented unfolded molecules whereas the recombinant trimer resembled most of the structural fold of the Bet v 1 allergen. In this study, we analyzed the Ab (IgE, IgG subclass, IgA, IgM) response to Bet v 1, recombinant and synthetic Bet v 1-derived peptides in birch pollen allergic patients who had been vaccinated with the derivatives or adjuvant alone. Furthermore, we studied the induction of IgE-mediated skin responses in these patients using Bet v 1 and Bet v 1 fragments. Both types of vaccines induced a comparable IgG1 and IgG4 response against new sequential epitopes which overlap with the conformational IgE epitopes of Bet v 1. This response was 4- to 5-fold higher than that induced by immunotherapy with birch pollen extract. Trimer more than fragments induced also IgE responses against new epitopes and a transient increase in skin sensitivity to the fragments at the beginning of therapy. However, skin reactions to Bet v 1 tended to decrease one year after treatment in both actively treated groups. We demonstrate that vaccination with folded and unfolded recombinant allergen derivatives induces IgG Abs against new epitopes. These data may be important for the development of therapeutic as well as prophylactic vaccines based on recombinant allergens.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2007; 179(8):5309-16. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) under costimulation blockade induces mixed chimerism and tolerance in rodent models. Recent data, predominantly from in vitro studies, suggest that in addition to blocking the CD28 costimulation pathway CTLA4Ig also acts through upregulating the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Here we demonstrate that even though CTLA4Ig is critically required for the induction of chimerism and tolerance in a murine model of nonmyeloablative BMT, IDO activity is not. No significant differences were detectable in the kynurenine to tryptophan ratios (indicative of IDO activity) in sera of BMT recipients treated with CTLA4Ig (tolerant group) versus BMT recipients treated without CTLA4Ig (nontolerant group) versus naïve controls. In vivo inhibition of IDO immediately after BMT with CTLA4Ig or several months thereafter did not block achievement of chimerism and tolerance. Thus, IDO does not play a critical role in the induction or maintenance of chimerism and tolerance in a CTLA4Ig-based BMT model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organ transplant recipients require life-long treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Currently available immunosuppression is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and is ineffective in inhibiting chronic rejection and graft loss. Therefore, a permanent state of donor-specific tolerance remains a primary goal for transplantation research. The induction of mixed hematopoietic chimerism is an attractive concept in this regard. Hematopoietic chimerism modulates the immunologic repertoire by extending the mechanisms of self-tolerance to donor-specific allotolerance. Despite recent progress in developing nontoxic bone marrow transplantation protocols for rodents, translation to large animals has remained difficult. Here, we outline the concept of tolerance via mixed chimerism, and review recent progress and remaining challenges in bringing this approach to the clinical setting.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 02/2007; 144(3):254-66. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of mixed chimerism (i.e., coexistence of donor and recipient hematopoietic cells) through transplantation of allogeneic donor bone marrow under appropriate host conditioning, is one of the most reliable strategies to induce transplantation tolerance. Robust tolerance is evident in mixed chimeras as they permanently accept donor skin grafts while promptly rejecting third party grafts. Although historically, myeloablative and T-cell depleting regimens have been described, milder protocols involving costimulation blockade have recently been developed. The prototypical murine protocol described in this chapter, involves the use of CTLA4Ig and a monoclonal antibody-specific for CD154 (CD40L) for costimulation blockade, 3 Gy of nonmyeloablative total body irradiation and a conventional number of 20 x 10(6) fully allogeneic bone marrow cells. Flow cytometry is used to determine levels of multilineage hematopoietic chimerism and deletion of donor-reactive CD4+ T cells. Tolerance is assessed in vivo by grafting of donor and third party skin.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2007; 380:391-403.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral and central clonal deletion are important tolerance mechanisms in models using bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with costimulation blockade (CB). However, since tolerance can be found before peripheral deletion is complete and since elimination of recipient CD4(+) cells at the time of BMT prevents tolerance induction, we investigated the potential roles of regulation and anergy in such a murine model. We found that transient elimination of CD25(+) cells or neutralization of IL2 immediately after BMT and CB prevented the induction of skin graft tolerance. Cotransfer into SCID mice of CD4(+) cells taken from chimeras early after BMT, together with naive recipient-type CD4(+) cells significantly prolonged donor skin graft survival. In contrast, cotransfer of CD4(+) cells harvested from chimeras late after BMT did not prolong donor skin graft survival. Besides, depletion of CD25(+) cells in established chimeras several months post-BMT did not break tolerance. In vivo administration of recombinant IL2 inhibited chimerism and tolerance neither early nor late post-BMT, arguing against a decisive role for classical anergy. Thus, CD4 cell-mediated regulation contributes significantly to tolerance induction early after BMT, but appears to have no critical role in the maintenance of tolerance.
American Journal of Transplantation 07/2005; 5(6):1237-47. · 6.19 Impact Factor