Andrew D Weinberg

Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon, United States

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Publications (98)485.05 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Decline in CD4 T cell immune responses is associated with aging. Although a number of immunological defects have been identified in elderly mice (>18 months old), a key early-onset immune defect at middle age could be a driver or contributor to defective CD4 T cell responses. Our studies demonstrate that age-related alterations in DC subsets within the priming environment of middle-aged mice (12 months old) correlate with and can directly contribute to decreases in antigen-specific CD4 T cell Th1 differentiation, which measured by T-bet and IFN-γ expression, was decreased significantly in T cells following VSV infection or s.c. immunization with a protein antigen in the context of immune stimulation via OX40. The deficient Th1 phenotype, observed following protein antigen challenge, was found to be the result of an age-related decrease in an inflammatory DC subset (CD11b+ Gr-1/Ly6C+) in the dLN that corresponded with T cell dysfunction. In the virus model, we observed significant changes in two DC subsets: mDCs and pDCs. Thus, different, early age-related changes in the DC profile in the priming environment can significantly contribute to impaired Th1 differentiation, depending on the type of immunological challenge.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 04/2014; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune responses wane during aging, posing challenges to the potential effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies. We previously demonstrated that in the context of a promising immunotherapeutic, OX40 agonist (αOX40), older animals exhibited impaired anti-tumor immune responses and diminished CD4 T cell effector differentiation. In this study, we hypothesized that tumor immune responses could be maintained during aging through caloric restriction (CR) or dietary supplementation with resveratrol (RES), a CR mimetic. Mice were placed on either a calorically restricted diet or a RES-formulated diet starting between 4 and 6 months of age and continued until mice reached 12 months of age. Tumor immune responses were assessed after challenging with either sarcoma or breast tumor cells followed by αOX40 treatment. Our results show that CR, but not RES, maintained OX40-mediated anti-tumor immunity. In addition, CR fully sustained antigen-specific CD4 T cell priming in aged hosts (12 months old), whereas tumor-specific CD8 T cell priming was not fully maintained compared to young reference animals (2 months old). Thus, CR appears to maintain immunological fitness of the CD4 T cell priming environment during aging, which is critical for optimal OX40-mediated responses.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 03/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OX40 is a potent co-stimulatory receptor that can potentiate T cell receptor signaling on the surface of T lymphocytes, leading to their activation by a specifically recognized antigen. In particular, OX40 engagement by ligands present on dendritic cells dramatically increases the proliferation, effector function and survival of T cells. Preclinical studies have shown that OX40 agonists increase anti-tumor immunity and improve tumor-free survival. In this study, we performed a Phase I clinical trial using a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that agonizes human OX40 signaling in patients with advanced cancer. Patients treated with one course of the anti-OX40 mAb showed an acceptable toxicity profile and regression of at least one metastatic lesion in 12/30 patients. Mechanistically, this treatment increased T and B cell responses to reporter antigen immunizations, led to preferential upregulation of OX40 on CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes andincreased the anti-tumor reactivity of T and B cells in patients with melanoma. Our findings clinically validate OX40 as a potent immune-stimulating target for treatment in cancer patients, providing a generalizable tool to favorably influence the antitumor properties of circulating T cells, B cells and intratumoral regulatory T cells.
    Cancer Research 10/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cell-mediated rejection of tumors requires signals from the T cell receptor and co-stimulatory molecules to license effector functions of tumor-antigen specific T cells. There is also an array of immune suppressive mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment that can suppress anti-tumor immunity. The use of monoclonal antibodies to overcome this suppression and/or enhance tumor-antigen specific T cell responses has shown promise in clinical trials. In particular, targeting co-stimulatory members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family with agonist Abs enhances T cell function, which has led to encouraging therapeutic results in cancer-bearing hosts. These encouraging data establish TNFRs as important targets for enhancing tumor-specific immune responses in mice and man. This review will focus on agonists that target the TNFRs OX40, 4-1BB, and CD40.
    Current opinion in immunology 02/2013; · 10.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surface expression of the IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) has been used to discriminate between CD4(+) CD25(HI) FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4(+) CD25(NEG) FOXP3(-) non-Treg cells. However, this study reports that the majority of resting human memory CD4(+) FOXP3(-) T cells expresses intermediate levels of CD25 and that CD25 expression can be used to delineate a functionally distinct memory subpopulation. The CD25(NEG) memory T-cell population contains the vast majority of late differentiated cells that respond to antigens associated with chronic immune responses and are increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In contrast, the CD25(INT) memory T cells respond to antigens associated with recall responses, produce a greater array of cytokines, and are less dependent on costimulation for effector responses due to their expression of CD25. Lastly, compared to the CD25(NEG) and Treg-cell populations, the CD25(INT) memory population is lost to a greater degree from the blood of cancer patients treated with IL-2. Collectively, these results show that in humans, a large proportion of CD4(+) memory T cells express intermediate levels of CD25, and this CD25(INT) FOXP3(-) subset is a functionally distinct memory population that is uniquely affected by IL-2.
    European Journal of Immunology 05/2012; 42(7):1893-905. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    Michael J Gough, N Killeen, Andrew D Weinberg
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of high-grade tumours must consider a tumour environment dominated by cells that support cancer growth. In addition to directing angiogenesis and invasion, alternatively activated macrophages in the tumour provide protection from adaptive immunity and permit tumour growth. Agonist antibodies to the tumour necrosis factor receptor family member OX40 are an effective therapy for cancer in a range of murine models; however, as with many immune therapies, αOX40 therapy is less effective as the tumour grows and develops an immune suppressive environment. We demonstrate that αOX40 directly activates T cells and that this T-cell activation alters macrophage differentiation in the tumour environment. We demonstrate that macrophages in the tumour limit the efficacy of αOX40 therapy, and that combining αOX40 therapy with inhibitors of arginase significantly enhances survival of tumour-bearing mice. These data demonstrate that macrophages in the tumour environment limit the effectiveness of OX40-based immunotherapy, and combination therapies that target both the cell-mediated immune response and the suppressive tumour environment will be required for translation of effective immunotherapies to patients with established tumours.
    Immunology 05/2012; 136(4):437-47. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The provision of T cell co-stimulation via members of the TNFR super-family, including OX40 (CD134) and 4-1BB (CD137), provides critical signals that promote T cell survival and differentiation. Recent studies have demonstrated that ligation of OX40 can augment T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity in pre-clinical models and more importantly, OX40 agonists are under clinical development for cancer immunotherapy. OX40 is of particular interest as a therapeutic target as it is not expressed on naïve T cells but rather, is transiently up-regulated following TCR stimulation. Although TCR engagement is necessary for inducing OX40 expression, the downstream signals that regulate OX40 itself remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that OX40 expression is regulated through a TCR and common gamma chain cytokine-dependent signaling cascade that requires JAK3-mediated activation of the downstream transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5. Furthermore, combined treatment with an agonist anti-OX40 mAb and IL-2 augmented tumor immunotherapy against multiple tumor types. Dual therapy was also able to restore the function of anergic tumor-reactive CD8 T cells in mice with long-term well-established (>5 wks) tumors, leading to increased survival of the tumor-bearing hosts. Together, these data reveal the ability of TCR/common gamma chain cytokine signaling to regulate OX40 expression and demonstrate a novel means of augmenting cancer immunotherapy by providing dual anti-OX40/common gamma chain cytokine-directed therapy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34467. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OX40 (CD134) is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor expressed primarily on activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and transmits a potent costimulatory signal when engaged. OX40 is transiently expressed after T-cell receptor engagement and is upregulated on the most recently antigen-activated T cells within inflammatory lesions (e.g. sites of autoimmune destruction and on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes). Hence, it is an attractive target to modulate immune responses: OX40 blocking agents to inhibit undesirable inflammation or OX40 agonists to enhance immune responses. In regards to this review, OX40 agonists enhance anti-tumor immunity, which leads to therapeutic effects in mouse tumor models. A team of laboratory and clinical scientists at the Providence Cancer Center has collaborated to bring the preclinical observations in cancer models from the bench to the bedside. This review describes the journey from in vitro experiments through preclinical mouse models to the successful translation of the first OX40 agonist to the clinic for the treatment of patients with cancer.
    Immunological Reviews 11/2011; 244(1):218-31. · 12.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective tumor immunotherapy may require not only activation of anti-tumor effector cells, but also abrogation of tumor-mediated immunosuppression. The cytokine TGF-β, is frequently elevated in the tumor microenvironment and is a potent immunosuppressive agent and promoter of tumor metastasis. OX40 (CD134) is a member of the TNF-α receptor superfamily and ligation by agonistic antibody (anti-OX40) enhances effector function, expansion, and survival of activated T cells. In this study, we examined the therapeutic efficacy and anti-tumor immune response induced by the combination of a small molecule TGF-β signaling inhibitor, SM16, plus anti-OX40 in the poorly immunogenic, highly metastatic, TGF-β-secreting 4T1 mammary tumor model. Our data show that SM16 and anti-OX40 mutually enhanced each other to elicit a potent anti-tumor effect against established primary tumors, with a 79% reduction in tumor size, a 95% reduction in the number of metastatic lung nodules, and a cure rate of 38%. This positive treatment outcome was associated with a 3.2-fold increase of tumor-infiltrating, activated CD8+ T cells, an overall accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and an increased tumor-specific effector T cell response. Complete abrogation of the therapeutic effect in vivo following depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells suggests that the anti-tumor efficacy of SM16+ anti-OX40 therapy is T cell dependent. Mice that were cured of their tumors were able to reject tumor re-challenge and manifested a significant tumor-specific peripheral memory IFN-γ response. Taken together, these data suggest that combining a TGF-β signaling inhibitor with anti-OX40 is a viable approach for treating metastatic breast cancer.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 10/2011; 61(4):511-21. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OX40 engagement on activated T cells leads to increased proliferation, expansion and survival of Ag-specific T cells. Direct ex vivo examination of Ag-stimulated murine T cells show that the Myc antagonists, Mxd4 and Mnt, are transiently upregulated and translocated to the nucleus following OX40 engagement and may be involved in suppressing cell death. Both Mxd4 and Mnt are upregulated following OX40 stimulation through increased protein stability and we identify a critical phosphorylation site in Mxd4 that controls Mxd4 stability. The upregulation of Mxd4 and Mnt contributes to OX40-mediated T-cell survival because siRNA knockdown of Mxd4 and Mnt led to increased cell death. We hypothesize the upregulation of c-Myc following OX40 engagement drives T-cell proliferation and that upregulation of Mxd4 and Mnt suppresses Myc-dependent cell death. Thus, Mxd4 and Mnt upregulation following OX40 engagement most likely increases T-cell survival.
    European Journal of Immunology 01/2011; 41(4):1024-34. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Camcer Immunology Immunotherapy. 01/2011;
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    Matthew Karulf, Ann Kelly, Andrew D Weinberg, Jeffrey A Gold
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    ABSTRACT: The initial phase of sepsis is characterized by massive inflammatory cytokine production that contributes to multisystem organ failure and death. Costimulatory molecules are a class of receptors capable of regulating cytokine production in adaptive immunity. Recent studies described their presence on neutrophils and monocytes, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of cytokine production in innate immunity. The purpose of this study was to determine the role for OX40-OX40 ligand (OX40L) interaction in the innate immune response to polymicrobial sepsis. Humans with sepsis demonstrated upregulation of OX40L on monocytes and neutrophils, with mortality and intensive care unit stay correlating with expression levels. In an animal model of polymicrobial sepsis, a direct role for OX40L in regulating inflammation was indicated by improved survival, decreased cytokine production, and a decrease in remote organ damage in OX40L(-/-) mice. The finding of similar results with an OX40L Ab suggests a potential therapeutic role for OX40L blockade in sepsis. The inability of anti-OX40L to provide significant protection in macrophage-depleted mice establishes macrophages as an indispensable cell type within the OX40/OX40L axis that helps to mediate the clinical signs of disease in sepsis. Conversely, the protective effect of anti-OX40L Ab in RAG1(-/-) mice further confirms a T cell-independent role for OX40L stimulation in sepsis. In conclusion, our data provide an in vivo role for the OX40/OX40L system in the innate immune response during polymicrobial sepsis and suggests a potential beneficial role for therapeutic blockade of OX40L in this devastating disorder.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(8):4856-62. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The existence of tumor-specific T cells, as well as their ability to be primed in cancer patients, confirms that the immune response can be deployed to combat cancer. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to convert the ineffective immune response commonly found in the tumor environment to one that leads to sustained destruction of tumor. Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily direct diverse immune functions. OX40 and its ligand, OX40L, are key TNF members that augment T-cell expansion, cytokine production, and survival. OX40 signaling also controls regulatory T-cell differentiation and suppressive function. Studies over the past decade have demonstrated that OX40 agonists enhance antitumor immunity in preclinical models using immunogenic tumors; however, treatment of poorly immunogenic tumors has been less successful. Combining strategies that prime tumor-specific T cells together with OX40 signaling could generate and maintain a therapeutic antitumor immune response.
    Seminars in Oncology 10/2010; 37(5):524-32. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor recurrence from residual local or micrometastatic disease remains a problem in cancer therapy. In patients with soft tissue sarcoma and the patients with inoperable nonsmall cell lung cancer, local recurrence is common and significant mortality is caused by the subsequent emergence of metastatic disease. Thus, although the aim of the primary therapy is curative, the outcome may be improved by additional targeting of residual microscopic disease. We display in a murine model that surgical removal of a large primary sarcoma results in local recurrence in approximately 50% of animals. Depletion of CD8 T cells results in local recurrence in 100% of animals, indicating that these cells are involved in the control of residual disease. We further show that systemic adjuvant administration of αOX40 at surgery eliminates local recurrences. In this model, αOX40 acts to directly enhance tumor antigen-specific CD8 T-cell proliferation in the lymph node draining the surgical site, and results in increased tumor antigen-specific cytotoxicity in vivo. These results are also corroborated in a murine model of hypofractionated radiation therapy of lung cancer. Administration of αOX40 in combination with radiation significantly extended the survival compared with either agent alone, and resulted in a significant proportion of long-term tumor-free survivors. We conclude that αOX40 increases tumor antigen-specific CD8 T-cell cytotoxic activity resulting in improved endogenous immune control of residual microscopic disease, and we propose that adjuvant αOX40 administration may be a valuable addition to surgical and radiation therapy for cancer.
    Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md.: 1997) 10/2010; 33(8):798-809. · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • Andrew D Weinberg
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    ABSTRACT: Memory T-cell generation is limited by activation-induced cell death during the effector T-cell stage. Cell surface proteins are known to transmit signals that either accentuate or limit T-cell death after activation. This chapter will focus on the TNF-receptor family member OX40, which is expressed on effector T cells and when engaged greatly enhances survival of T cells leading to increased memory T-cell generation. Targeting OX40 in vivo can alter the fate ofT-cell survival. Enhancing OX40 signaling during Ag priming through agonists increases memory T-cell development, while blocking OX40 signaling decreases the memory T-cell pool. These two opposing outcomes provide therapeutic tools for blocking inflammation in autoimmune conditions and enhancing immunity in hosts harboring cancer or chronic pathogens. OX40 agonists and antagonists are in the first stages of human clinical trials and their therapeutic potential will soon be realized.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2010; 684:57-68. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report that OX40 stimulation drives all lineages of CD4 T cell development, including regulatory T cells (Tregs), and the plasticity of the response is dependant on local cytokines. In TGF-beta1-treated cultures, an OX40 agonist increased IFN-gamma and IL-4 production and diverted T cells from the Treg lineage. However, cytokine blockade in the context of OX40 stimulation promoted enhanced Treg accumulation. This observation was evident in naive mice, as OX40 engagement enhanced Treg proliferation and accumulation in vivo. Lastly, OX40 agonist administration influenced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease severity in opposing directions, depending on the timing of administration. Given during Ag priming, the OX40 agonist drove Treg expansion and inhibited disease, whereas given later it enhanced T cell effector cytokine production in the CNS and exacerbated disease. Hence, OX40 signaling can augment the accumulation of all CD4 T cell lineages; however, its accentuation of immune responses may have vastly different biologic outcomes depending upon the local cytokine milieu.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2009; 183(8):4853-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    William L Redmond, Michael J Gough, Andrew D Weinberg
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-specific CD8 T-cell peripheral tolerance occurs through clonal deletion, suppression, and the induction of anergy and can limit the generation of anti-tumor immunity. Several groups have demonstrated that prostate cancer can render tumor-specific CD8 T cells anergic, suggesting reversing tumor-induced anergy may greatly augment anti-tumor immunity. Recent work has demonstrated that signaling through the OX40 (CD134) co-stimulatory receptor, a member of the TNFR super-family, can augment CD4 and CD8 T-cell expansion, differentiation, and the generation of memory cells. However, whether OX40 ligation can reverse CD8 T-cell anergy, and more specifically, tumor-induced CD8 T-cell anergy, remains unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that OX40 ligation can reverse CD8 T-cell anergy to a prostate-specific self-Ag in non-tumor-bearing hosts. Furthermore, OX40 engagement reversed tumor-specific CD8 T-cell anergy and restored the proliferative capacity of tumor-reactive CD8 T cells, which attenuated tumor growth and enhanced the survival of tumor-bearing hosts. These data demonstrate that OX40 ligation can rescue the function of anergic self- or tumor-reactive CD8 T cells in vivo and suggests that OX40-mediated therapy may provide a novel means of boosting anti-tumor immunity by restoring the responsiveness of previously anergic tumor-specific CD8 T cells.
    European Journal of Immunology 09/2009; 39(8):2184-94. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since multiple lines of experimental and clinical data clearly identified regulatory T cells as an integral part of the immune response, these cells have become a major focus of investigation in tumor immunology. Regulatory T cells are in place to dampen ongoing immune responses and to prevent autoimmunity, but they also have profound effects in blocking therapeutic anti-tumor activity. Therefore regulatory T cells are seen as a major hurdle that must be overcome in order for cancer immunotherapy to reach its therapeutic potential. Regulatory T cells are heterogeneous with sub-populations that exhibit distinct functional features. Here we will review the individual sub-populations in regards to their mode of action and their potential impact on blocking anti-tumor immunity. Approaches to measure function and frequency of regulatory T cells in model systems and clinical trails will be discussed. Finally, we will describe possible ways to interfere with regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression with the focus on recent pre-clinical and clinical findings.
    Current Molecular Medicine 09/2009; 9(6):673-82. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Dean E Evans, Andrew D Weinberg
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    ABSTRACT: Effective immune strategies for eradication of human malignancies will require a thorough understanding of the interactions of cancer with the immune system. It will be crucial to understand how to optimize and sustain a T cell immune response. Recently, our understanding of the molecular interaction that occurs between an APC and a T cell during cognate interaction has increased dramatically. In this review, various costimulatory and inhibitory molecules of the B7 and TNF families will be discussed. The emphasis will be on how these costimulatory molecules impact T cell activation and on how they can be potentially used for the treatment of cancer.
    International Reviews Of Immunology 08/2009; 22(2):173-94. · 5.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since multiple lines of experimental and clinical data clearly identified regulatory T cells as an integral part of the immune response, these cells have become a major focus of investigation in tumor immunology. Regulatory T cells are in place to dampen ongoing immune responses and to prevent autoimmunity, but they also have profound effects in blocking therapeutic anti-tumor activity. Therefore regulatory T cells are seen as a major hurdle that must be overcome in order for cancer immunotherapy to reach its therapeutic potential. Regulatory T cells are heterogeneous with sub-populations that exhibit distinct functional features. Here we will review the individual sub-populations in regards to their mode of action and their potential impact on blocking anti-tumor immunity. Approaches to measure function and frequency of regulatory T cells in model systems and clinical trails will be discussed. Finally, we will describe possible ways to interfere with regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression with the focus on recent pre-clinical and clinical findings.
    Current Molecular Medicine 07/2009; 9(6):673-682. · 4.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
485.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2013
    • Providence Portland Medical Center
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 1993–2007
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • • Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Neurology
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 2004
    • Tohoku University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Sendai, Kagoshima-ken, Japan
  • 1999–2000
    • La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 1996
    • Good Samaritan Hospital
      Suffern, New York, United States
  • 1993–1996
    • Portland VA Medical Center
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 1990
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States