A Mainolfi

Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Piedmont, Italy

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Publications (5)14.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Starvation exerts critical influence on somatotroph and leptin secretion. Fasting enhances GH levels in normal subjects, but not in GH hyposecretory states, while it always inhibits leptin secretion. We aimed to clarify the GH/IGF-I and metabolic response to short-term fasting in a GH hypersecretory state such as acromegaly. To this goal, in 8 active acromegalic (ACRO) and in 7 normal women (NS) we evaluated mean GH (mGHc), leptin (mLEPc), insulin (mINSc), glucose (mGLUc) concentrations as well as IGF-I, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, IGFBP-1, and free fatty acid (FFA) levels before and after 36-h fasting. Before fasting, mGHc, IGF-I, mINSc, mGLUc, and FFA levels in ACRO were higher (p<0.01) than in NS. IGFBP-3, IGFBP-1, and mLEPc were similar in ACRO and in NS. Fasting clearly (p<0.02) increased mGHc in NS only. After 36-h fasting, significant IGF-I reduction was recorded in NS only (p<0.03). IGFBP-3 did not change both in ACRO and NS. IGFBP-1 significantly increased (p<0.05) after fasting in both groups but in ACRO were lower (p<0.03) than in NS. Fasting decreased (p<0.03) mLEPc, mGLUc, and mINSc in ACRO as well as in NS; mINSc and mGLUc after fasting in ACRO persisted higher (p<0.005) than in NS. FFA levels were increased by fasting in NS (p<0.02), but not in ACRO. This study shows that GH/IGF-I axis, glucose metabolism, and lypolisis but not leptin display some degree of refractoriness to short-term fasting in acromegaly. The lack of any GH response to fasting in acromegaly would likely reflect neuroendocrine alterations secondary to the GH hypersecretory state. On the other hand, the lack of somatotropic response and the peculiarly blunted metabolic reaction to short-term fasting would partially reflect the delayed adaptation of insulin resistance to starvation.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 12/2008; 31(12):1103-9. DOI:10.1007/BF03345660 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of gallstones (GS) is reported during the use of somatostatin analogs (SA) that are at present the mainstay for the medical treatment of acromegaly. To review the prevalence and clinical and biochemical correlates of GS in acromegalic patients. Retrospective survey on hospital records in acromegalic patients followed up in the last 20 yr in tertiary referral centers. Four hundred and fifty-nine patients (272 females). According to SA use and GS occurrence, patients were divided in 4 groups: 1) treated with SA without GS (SA+GS-), 2) GS developed while on SA (SA+GS+), 3) GS without SA use (SA-GS+), 4) neither GS nor SA (SA-GS-). Patients were unevenly distributed in the 4 groups: 232, 125, 38, 64, respectively, pointing to a prevalence of GS in acromegaly of 8.3% at diagnosis with an additional 35% developing GS during SA. GS occurred after 3 months-18 yr (median 3 yr) of SA treatment, were diagnosed after symptoms in 17.6%, were associated to steatosis, ultrasound biliary dilation, and biochemical cholestasis, in 25.6%, 12.8%, and 4% of patients, respectively. Ursodehoxicolic acid was administered after GS occurrence, causing their dissolution in 39% of patients after 3-48 months (median 12). Cholecystectomy was performed in 16.8%of patients in group 2. At multivariate analysis obesity, dyslipidemia, and SA treatment were independent predictors of GS onset, whereas gender and age were not. GS are a frequent occurrence in acromegalic patients treated with SA, may occur at any time, but are seldom symptomatic or prompt acute surgery. Obesity and dyslipidemia appear to play a major role in the occurrence of GS in acromegalic patients on SA treatment.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 09/2008; 31(8):704-10. DOI:10.1007/BF03346419 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    V Gasco · G Corneli · S Rovere · C Croce · G Beccuti · A Mainolfi · S Grottoli · G Aimaretti · E Ghigo ·
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    ABSTRACT: Based on previous consensus statements, it has been widely accepted that the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) must be shown biochemically by provocative tests of GH secretion; in fact, the measurement of IGF-I as well as of other markers was considered unable to distinguish between normal and GHD subjects. The Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) was indicated as that of choice and severe GHD defined by a GH peak lower than 3 microg/l. It is now recognized that, although normal IGF-I levels do not rule out severe GHD, very low IGF-I levels in patients highly suspected for GHD (i.e. patients with childhood-onset severe GHD or with multiple hypopituitarism acquired in adulthood) can be considered as definite evidence for severe GHD. However, patients suspected for adult GHD with normal IGF-I levels must be investigated by provocative tests. ITT remains a test of reference but it should be recognized that other tests are as reliable as ITT. Glucagon as classical test and, particularly, new maximal tests such as GHRH in combination with arginine or GH secretagogues (GHS) (i.e. GHRP-6) have well defined cut-off limits, are reproducible, able to distinguish between normal and GHD subjects. Overweight and obesity have confounding effect on the interpretation of the GH response to provocative tests. In adults cut-off levels of GH response below which severe GHD is demonstrated must be appropriate to lean, overweight and obese subjects to avoid false positive diagnosis in obese adults and false negative diagnosis in lean GHD patients.
    Pituitary 05/2008; 11(2):121-8. DOI:10.1007/s11102-008-0110-x · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • Silvia Grottoli · Valentina Gasco · Alessandra Mainolfi · Damiano De Giorgio · Ezio Ghigo ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus are important complications of acromegaly. Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) exert a dual effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Normalisation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (GH/IGF-I) axis could improve metabolic balance, but inhibition of insulin secretion could worsen glucose tolerance. Case Description: We report a case of an acromegalic patient with diabetes mellitus that was resistant to SSA therapy. Results: Treatment with SSAs typically induces mild reductions in GH and IGF-I levels, but rarely results in normalisation of these parameters. In addition, glucose levels as well as glycosylated haemoglobin levels (HbA 1c) show marked deterioration. In contrast, pegvisomant (PEG) treatment normalises IGF-I levels, and glucose, insulin and HbA1c levels gradually decrease. During SSA therapy, this patient required an increase in the dose and type of hypoglycaemic agents. During PEG treatment, however, hypoglycaemic drugs are often reduced. Conclusion: Patients with acromegaly whose disease is inadequately controlled by SSA therapy can achieve normalisation of IGF-I levels and full control of the disease, including strong improvement of glucose homeostasis despite marked reduction of antidiabetic therapy, when treated with the GH antagonist, PEG.
    Hormone Research 02/2007; 67(1):174-176. DOI:10.1159/000097576 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortistatin binds all somatostatin receptor subtypes but also has particular central actions; moreover, a specific cortistatin receptor has also been discovered. We compared the endocrine effects of cortistatin-17 with those of somatostatin-14 in patients with acromegaly (ACRO) or prolactinoma (PRLOMA). Normal subjects (NS) were studied as control group. All subjects underwent the following tests: 1) saline, 2) somatostatin-14 (2.0 microg/kg.h iv, 0-120 min) and 3) cortistatin-17 (2.0 microg/kg.h iv, 0-120 min) infusion. Cortistatin-17 and somatostatin-14 inhibited GH secretion to the same extent in ACRO (P < 0.05) and NS (P < 0.01). Cortistatin-17 and somatostatin-14 inhibited PRL secretion in PRLOMA (P < 0.05), to some extent in ACRO (P value not significant), but not in NS. Insulin secretion was inhibited by both cortistatin-17 and somatostatin-14 to the same extent in all groups (P < 0.05). Cortistatin-17 and somatostatin-14 display the same effects on GH, PRL, and insulin secretion in patients with ACRO or PRLOMA.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 04/2006; 91(4):1595-9. DOI:10.1210/jc.2005-1837 · 6.21 Impact Factor