Teodor T Postolache

Aarhus University, Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark

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Publications (98)296.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite increased interest regarding the potentially long-term negative impact of chronic traumatic brain injury, limited research has been conducted regarding such injuries and neurological outcomes in real world settings. To increase understanding regarding the rela-tionship between sparring (e.g., training under the tutelage of an experienced boxing coach for the purpose of improving skills and/or fitness) and neurological functioning, professional boxers (n = 237) who competed in Maryland between 2003 and 2008 completed mea-sures regarding sparring exposure (Cumulative Sparring Index, CSI) and performance on tests of cognition (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT) and balance (Sharpened Romberg Test, SRT). Measures were completed prior to boxing matches. Higher scores on the CSI (increased sparring exposure) were associated with poorer performance on both tests of cognition (SDMT) and balance (SRT). A threshold effect was noted regarding performance on the SDMT, with those reporting CSI values greater than about 150 experiencing a decline in cognition. A history of frequent and/or intense sparring may pose a significant risk for developing boxing associated neurological sequelae. Implementing administration of clin-ically meaningful tests before bouts, such as the CSI, SDMT, and/or the SRT, as well as documentation of results into the boxer's physicals or medical profiles may be an important step for improving boxing safety.
    Frontiers in Public Health 07/2014; Volume 2(Article 69):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis (AS), a major pathologic consequence of obesity, is the main etiological factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of death in the western world. A systemic chronic low grade immune-mediated inflammation (scLGI) is substantially implicated in AS and its consequences. In particular, pro-inflammatory cytokines play a major role, with Th1-type cytokine interferon-γIFN-γ) being a key mediator. Among various other molecular and cellular effects, IFN-γ activates the enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, dendritic, and other cells, which, in turn, decreases serum levels of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP). Thus, people with CVD often have increased serum kynurenine to tryptophan ratios (KYN/TRP), a result of an increased TRP breakdown. Importantly, increased KYN/TRP is associated with a higher likelihood of fatal cardiovascular events. A scLGI with increased production of the proinflammatory adipokine leptin, in combination with IFN-γ and interleukin-6 (IL-6), represents another central link between obesity, AS, and CVD. Leptin has also been shown to contribute to Th1-type immunity shifting, with abdominal fat being thus a direct contributor to KYN/TRP ratio. However, TRP is not only an important source for protein production but also for the generation of one of the most important neurotransmitters, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), by the tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent TRP 5-hydroxylase. In prolonged states of scLGI, availability of free serum TRP is strongly diminished, affecting serotonin synthesis, particularly in the brain. Additionally, accumulation of neurotoxic KYN metabolites such as quinolinic acid produced by microglia, can contribute to the development of depression via NMDA glutamatergic stimulation. Depression had been reported to be associated with CVD endpoints, but it most likely represents only a secondary loop connecting excess adipose tissue, scLGI and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accelerated catabolism of TRP is further involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia of scLGI. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ suppresses growth and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells, and the depletion of TRP limits protein synthesis and thus hemoglobin production, and, through reduction in oxygen supply, may contribute to ischemic vascular disease. In this review we discuss the impact of TRP breakdown and the related complex mechanisms on the prognosis and individual course of CVD. Measurement of TRP, KYN concentrations, and calculation of the KYN/TRYP ratio will contribute to a better understanding of the interplay between inflammation, metabolic syndrome, mood disturbance, and anemia, all previously described as significant predictors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with CVD. The review leads to a novel framework for successful therapeutic modification of several cardinal pathophysiological processes leading to adverse cardiovascular outcome.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An extensive body of experimental and clinical evidence documents the negative impact of chronic psychological stress and depression on the immune system and health. Chronic stress and depression can result in general dysregulation of the immune system, of both cellular and humoral pathways, which may contribute to pathogenic infection and concomitant periodontal tissue destruction. In general, the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that stress can modify the host defense and progression of periodontal infections in patients susceptible to periodontitis. However, substantial evidence also indicates that these conditions can mediate risk for disease, including periodontitis, through changes in health-related behaviors, such as oral hygiene, smoking and diet. The unequivocal interpretation of studies has also been hampered, in part, by issues related to conceptualization of stress and depression, as well as commonly associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, that can modify the onset and progression of periodontal disease. In addition, stress and depression appear to fall into a spectrum, ranging from mild to severe, involving a complex interaction of genetic background, coping strategies and environment. Differences in the conceptualization of stress and depression are probably important in assessing associations with other biologic and clinical measures. Future studies are necessary to clarify the complex interactions of chronic stress and depression in periodontal diseases.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2014; 64(1):127-38. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596). Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85945. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] are reported to be decreased in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and in other chronic immunopathologies. Vitamin D (vitD) has been shown to be significantly linked to mortality, and is thought to be a predictor of survival. Therefore, supplementation with vitD has been suggested as an option to improve clinical outcomes. In contrast to the causal assumption, we hypothesize that the decreased vitD levels, seen in patients with CVD and chronic immunopathologies is secondary to inflammation and not as pathophysiologically relevant as currently suggested. Under these conditions, low vitD might be mainly caused by oxidative stress that results from chronic, immune-mediated vascular and systemic inflammation seen in patients with CVD. The oxidative environment most likely causes biodegradation of vitD and interferes with key enzymes, disturbing the biosynthesis of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)D. Thus far, no clear evidence of a beneficial effect of vitD supplements exists, beyond treating vitD deficiency to improve skeletal health. Moreover, a prolonged and/or high dose vitD supplementation, unless needed to correct actual vitD deficiency [levels of 25(OH)D<20 ng/ml)] may even be immunologically harmful by downregulating Th1 immune responses and indirectly upregulating Th2 immune activation with potential detrimental metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Large randomized controlled studies of vitD with multiple outcomes (skeletal, metabolic, cardiovascular and mental) are urgently needed.
    Current Vascular Pharmacology 12/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Interdisciplinary state-of-the-art interven-tions to treat obesity demand equally interdisciplinary outcome assessments. The Bariatric Evaluation Score for Children (BAREV-C) was developed to reliably and com-prehensively assess the outcomes of non-surgical and surgical obesity treatment in children and adolescents. Methods: BAREV-C assesses medical, psychological, nutri-tional, and data of physical fitness data. The body mass index standard deviation score and waist measurement were selected to describe anthropometry. Serum trigly-cerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, and plasma glucose tolerance were selected as parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Relevant inter-disciplinary variables were tested using the interdiscipli-nary Adiposity Evaluation kit, which assesses cognitive steering variables of eating and exercise behaviour as well as psychological comorbidities, exercise motivation, nutritional preferences, and quality of life associated with obesity. Physical fitness was assessed by means of the Physical fitness test battery. The values for the BAREV-C were determined in several steps and in all relevant disci-plines pre and post intervention. Results: The BAREV-C facilitated the identification and quantification of significant changes of interdisciplinary variables associated with obesity for groups and individu-als (tables of critical differences) as well. The degree of success or failure of an intervention can be quantified for each of the disciplines. Conclusions: The BAREV-C is the first comprehensive outcome instrument for pre-post-intervention evalua-tion of obese individual children as well as groups. It can be applied for intervention studies and can provide the clinician with a differentiated overview in daily practice.
  • Schizophrenia Research 06/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Teodor T Postolache, Thomas Bradley Cook
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 04/2013; 11(4):339-42. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depression involving major depressive episodes during the fall and/or winter months that remit in the spring. The central public health challenge in the management of SAD is prevention of winter depression recurrence. Light therapy (LT) is the established and best available acute SAD treatment. However, long-term compliance with daily LT from first symptom through spontaneous springtime remission every fall/winter season is poor. Time-limited alternative treatments with effects that endure beyond the cessation of acute treatment are needed to prevent the annual recurrence of SAD.Methods/design: This is an NIMH-funded R01-level randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a novel, SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT) against LT in a head-to-head comparison on next winter outcomes. This project is designed to test for a clinically meaningful difference between CBT and LT on depression recurrence in the next winter (the primary outcome). This is a concurrent two-arm study that will randomize 160 currently symptomatic community adults with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, to CBT or LT. After 6 weeks of treatment in the initial winter, participants are followed in the subsequent summer, the next winter, and two winters later. Key methodological issues surround timing study procedures for a predictably recurrent and time-limited disorder with a focus on long-term outcomes. DISCUSSION: The chosen design answers the primary question of whether prior exposure to CBT is associated with a substantially lower likelihood of depression recurrence the next winter than LT. This design does not test the relative contributions of the cognitive-behavioral treatment components vs. nonspecific factors to CBT's outcomes and is not adequately powered to test for differences or equivalence between cells at treatment endpoint. Alternative designs addressing these limitations would have required more patients, increased costs, and reduced power to detect a difference in the primary outcome.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01714050).
    Trials 03/2013; 14(1):82. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research on test-retest reliability of the Season Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) is sparse, and to date, has not been done with subgroups such as the Old Order Amish. We examined the test-retest reliability of the SPAQ in a sample of Old Order Amish. A total of 68 Old Order Amish participants completed the SPAQ twice, with 4 months between administrations. Quantitative data analyses were carried out to determine respective strengths of test-restest reliability for two variables [i.e., Global Seasonality Score (GSS), and Problem Rating Score (PRS)]. Results revealed the test-retest reliability of the SPAQ in this population to be strong within the respective variables (GSS, α= 0.87; and PRS, α= 0.79) using Cronbach's alpha.
    International journal on disability and human development : IJDHD. 02/2013; 12(1):87-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Interdisciplinary state-of-the-art interven-tions to treat obesity demand equally interdisciplinary outcome assessments. The Bariatric Evaluation Score for Children (BAREV-C) was developed to reliably and com-prehensively assess the outcomes of non-surgical and surgical obesity treatment in children and adolescents. Methods: BAREV-C assesses medical, psychological, nutri-tional, and data of physical fitness data. The body mass index standard deviation score and waist measurement were selected to describe anthropometry. Serum trigly-cerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, and plasma glucose tolerance were selected as parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Relevant inter-disciplinary variables were tested using the interdiscipli-nary Adiposity Evaluation kit, which assesses cognitive steering variables of eating and exercise behaviour as well as psychological comorbidities, exercise motivation, nutritional preferences, and quality of life associated with obesity. Physical fitness was assessed by means of the Physical fitness test battery. The values for the BAREV-C were determined in several steps and in all relevant disci-plines pre and post intervention. Results: The BAREV-C facilitated the identification and quantification of significant changes of interdisciplinary variables associated with obesity for groups and individu-als (tables of critical differences) as well. The degree of success or failure of an intervention can be quantified for each of the disciplines. Conclusions: The BAREV-C is the first comprehensive outcome instrument for pre-post-intervention evalua-tion of obese individual children as well as groups. It can be applied for intervention studies and can provide the clinician with a differentiated overview in daily practice.
    International Journal of Disability Development and Education 02/2013; 12:37-43. · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We aimed to replicate, in a larger sample and in a different geographical location, the previously reported elevation of anti-gliadin IgG antibodies in schizophrenia. Methods. A total of 950 adults with schizophrenia (severity assessed by PANSS) and 1000 healthy controls were recruited in the Munich metropolitan area. Anti-gliadin IgG antibodies were analyzed with ELISA. χ(2)-tests and logistic regression were used to analyze the association of schizophrenia with elevated anti-gliadin IgG. A multivariable general linear model was used to compare anti-gliadin IgG levels between patients and controls. Results. The odds ratio of having elevated anti-gliadin IgG antibodies in the schizophrenia group was 2.13 (95% CI 1.57 to 2.91, p < 0.0001). Mean anti-gliadin IgG levels were higher in schizophrenia patients (0.81 ± 0.79 vs. 0.52 ± 0.56, t = 9.529, df = 1,697, p < 0.0001) and the difference persisted after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions. Our study, limited by its cross sectional design, confirmed an association between anti-gliadin IgG antibodies and schizophrenia. Replication in longitudinal studies, clinical trials of gluten free diet and mechanistic investigation could lead to novel treatment targets, preventive and therapeutic considerations in schizophrenia.
    The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 01/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide claims over one million lives worldwide each year. In the United States, 1 per 10,000 persons dies from suicide every year, and these rates have remained relatively constant over the last 20 years. There are nearly 25 suicide attempts for each suicide, and previous self-directed violence is a strong predictor of death from suicide. While many studies have focused on suicides, the epidemiology of non-fatal self-directed violence is not well-defined. We used a nationally representative survey to examine demographics and underlying psychiatric disorders in United States (US) hospitalizations with non-fatal self-directed violence (SDV). International Classification of Disease, 9(th) Revision (ICD-9) discharge diagnosis data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) were examined from 1997 to 2006 using frequency measures and adjusted logistic regression. The rate of discharges with SDV remained relatively stable over the study time period with 4.5 to 5.7 hospitalizations per 10,000 persons per year. Excess SDV was documented for females, adolescents, whites, and those from the Midwest or West. While females had a higher likelihood of self-poisoning, both genders had comparable proportions of hospitalizations with SDV resulting in injury. Over 86% of the records listing SDV also included psychiatric disorders, with the most frequent being affective (57.8%) and substance abuse (37.1%) disorders. The association between psychiatric disorders and self-injury was strongest for personality disorders for both males (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4) and females (OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 2.7-5.3). The NHDS provides new insights into the demographics and psychiatric morbidity of those hospitalized with SDV. Classification of SDV as self-injury or self-poisoning provides an additional parameter useful to epidemiologic studies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59818. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the well-observed spring peak of suicide incidents coincides with the peak of seasonal aeroallergens as tree-pollen, we want to document an association between suicide and pollen exposure with empirical data from Denmark. Ecological time series study. Data on suicide incidents, air pollen counts and meteorological status were retrieved from Danish registries. 13 700 suicide incidents over 1304 consecutive weeks were obtained from two large areas covering 2.86 million residents. Risk of suicide associated with pollen concentration was assessed using a time series Poisson-generalised additive model. We noted a significant association between suicide risk and air pollen counts. A change of pollen counts levels from 0 to '10-<30' grains/m(3) air was associated with a relative risk of 1.064, that is, a 6.4% increase in weekly number of suicides in the population, and from 0 to '30-100' grains, a relative risk of 1.132. The observed association remained significant after controlling for effects of region, calendar time, temperature, cloud cover and humidity. Meanwhile, we observed a significant sex difference that suicide risk in men started to rise when there was a small increase of air pollen, while the risk in women started to rise until pollen grains reached a certain level. High levels of pollen had slightly stronger effect on risk of suicide in individuals with mood disorder than those without the disorder. The observed association between suicide risk and air pollen counts supports the hypothesis that aeroallergens, acting as immune triggers, may precipitate suicide.
    BMJ Open 01/2013; 3(5). · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a global public health problem that is linked with morbidity, mortality, and functional limitations and has limited options for sustained interventions. Novel targets for prevention and intervention require further research into the pathogenesis of obesity. Consistently, elevated markers of inflammation have been reported in association with obesity, but their causes and consequences are not well understood. An emerging field of research has investigated the association of infections and environmental pathogens with obesity, potential causes of low grade inflammation that may mediate obesity risk. In this study, we estimate the possible association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and obesity in a sample of 999 psychiatrically healthy adults. Individuals with psychiatric conditions, including personality disorders, were excluded because of the association between positive serology to T. gondii and various forms of serious mental illness that have a strong association with obesity. In our sample, individuals with positive T. gondii serology had twice the odds of being obese compared to seronegative individuals (p = 0.01). Further, individuals who were obese had significant higher T. gondii IgG titers compared to individuals who were non-obese. Latent T. gondii infection is very common worldwide, so potential public health interventions related to this parasite can have a high impact on associated health concerns.
    Frontiers in Public Health 01/2013; 1:73.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Interdisciplinary state-of-the-art interventions to treat obesity demand equally interdisciplinary outcome assessments. The Bariatric Evaluation Score for Children (BAREV-C) was developed to reliably and comprehensively assess the outcomes of non-surgical and surgical obesity treatment in children and adolescents. Methods: BAREV-C assesses medical, psychological, nutritional, and data of physical fitness data. The body mass index standard deviation score and waist measurement were selected to describe anthropometry. Serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, and plasma glucose tolerance were selected as parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Relevant interdisciplinary variables were tested using the interdisciplinary Adiposity Evaluation kit, which assesses cognitive steering variables of eating and exercise behaviour as well as psychological comorbidities, exercise motivation, nutritional preferences, and quality of life associated with obesity. Physical fitness was assessed by means of the Physical fitness test battery. The values for the BAREV-C were determined in several steps and in all relevant disciplines pre and post intervention. Results: The BAREV-C facilitated the identification and quantification of significant changes of interdisciplinary variables associated with obesity for groups and individuals (tables of critical differences) as well. The degree of success or failure of an intervention can be quantified for each of the disciplines. Conclusions: The BAREV-C is the first comprehensive outcome instrument for pre-post-intervention evaluation of obese individual children as well as groups. It can be applied for intervention studies and can provide the clinician with a differentiated overview in daily practice.
    International Journal of Disability Development and Education 01/2013; 12(1):37–43. · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine has proven efficient in reducing symptoms of suicidality, although the mechanisms explaining this effect have not been detailed in psychiatric patients. Recent evidence points towards a low-grade inflammation in brains of suicide victims. Inflammation leads to production of quinolinic acid (QUIN) and kynurenic acid (KYNA), an agonist and antagonist of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, respectively. We here measured QUIN and KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 64 medication-free suicide attempters and 36 controls, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. We assessed the patients clinically using the Suicide Intent Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We found that QUIN, but not KYNA, was significantly elevated in the CSF of suicide attempters (P<0.001). As predicted, the increase in QUIN was associated with higher levels of CSF interleukin-6. Moreover, QUIN levels correlated with the total scores on Suicide Intent Scale. There was a significant decrease of QUIN in patients who came for follow-up lumbar punctures within 6 months after the suicide attempt. In summary, we here present clinical evidence of increased QUIN in the CSF of suicide attempters. An increased QUIN/KYNA quotient speaks in favor of an overall NMDA-receptor stimulation. The correlation between QUIN and the Suicide Intent Scale indicates that changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission could be specifically linked to suicidality. Our findings have important implications for the detection and specific treatment of suicidal patients, and might explain the observed remedial effects of ketamine.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 9 January 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.248.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2012; · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although humans have become partially isolated from physical seasonal environmental changes through artificial lighting and temperature control, seasonal changes in mood and behavior have been described across hemispheres, continents, ethnicities and occupations. The Old Order Amish are more exposed than the general population to environmental seasonal changes both occupationally as well as through their limited use of electric light in the winter and air conditioning in the summer; yet, their seasonal changes in mood and behavior have not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to analyze seasonal patterns in mood and behavior in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, who returned completed Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires (SPAQ). Monthly seasonal patterns were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVAs, followed by a post hoc t-test if significant. The χ(2) was used for presence or absence of seasonal patterns for each item. More than 75% of the participants reported at least one seasonal change. More than 75 % endorsed seasonality in "feeling best" but only <25% did so for "feeling worst". Mood-wise, the best month was May, and the worst months were January and February. There were significant seasonal patterns for all mood and behavior items reported by the majority of participants. The results were consistent with an overall winter pattern of seasonality previously consistently reported in predominantly Caucasian populations.
    International journal on disability and human development : IJDHD. 12/2012; 12(1):53-60.
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Publication Stats

1k Citations
296.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Aarhus University
      • National Centre for Integrated Register-based Research "CIRRAU"
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Psychology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Psychology
      Charlottesville, VA, United States
  • 2005–2013
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      • Anxiety Disorders Clinic
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of South Florida
      Tampa, Florida, United States
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • University of Maryland Medical Center
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • District of Columbia Department of Mental Health
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1998–2005
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Allergic Diseases
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1998–2003
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • Beth Israel Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States