Reza Mohammadi

Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Teheran, Tehrān, Iran

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Publications (64)59.99 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To date, there has been little information published on the death of rural road accident deaths. This study uses burden of injury method to explore a more accurate estimate of years of life lost due to road traffic crashes occurring over a four-year period in Guilan province, northern Iran. Rural road accident deaths from 2009 to 2013 were extracted from Iran's Forensic Medicine System, Death Registry System and Road Trauma Research center database. During the study period, the average years of life lost due to motor vehicle crashes was 13.8 per 1 000 persons, ranging from 11.9 during March 2011-2012 to 15.8 per 1 000 persons during March 2012-2013. Road accident deaths in 2013 remained at the same high level as in 2009. The information obtained from this study provides a new perspective on fatal road traffic crash victims in rural settings and show us that more attention is needed in this area.
    12/2014; 17(6):327-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Self-immolation is the third leading cause of years of life lost (YLL) among women in Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate self-immolation-related risk and protective factors in the western region of Iran, a province with the highest prevalent of self-immolation in the country. Using a case-control design, we compared 151 cases of self-immolation attempters who were admitted to a burn center in Kermanshah with 302-matched control group from the same community/locality between March 21st, 2009, and March 20th, 2012. We conducted descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis to examine the associations of self-immolation with demographic and familial risk factors, adverse life events, mental disorders, as well as potential protective factors. According to our findings, the highest percentage of self-immolation was in the 16–25 year-old age group (60%) and in females (76%). Of the potential risk factors in the study, major depression, adjustment disorders, individual history of suicide attempts and opium dependence, were statistically significant predictors of self-immolation. Suggestions for translating the local picture of self-immolation portrayed by our findings, into meaningful prevention strategies that have a good fit with the social and interpersonal context within which self-immolation takes place are discussed.
    Burns. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A household survey was conducted to determine the epidemiological characteristics of injuries among people living in Tehran, the mega capital of Iran. Using cluster random sampling in April 2007, survey was conducted seeking information about injuries occurred within families in past Persian year. All injury patterns and causes were classified according to ICD-10 and analysed using SPSS version 16. Out of 9173 household participants, 765 ones (8.3%) had injuries during the past Persian year, frequently open wounds and burns with a male to female ratio of 0.54 : 1. They occurred mostly due to 'exposure to the inanimate mechanical forces', followed by 'contact with heat or hot substances' and 'falls'. The common locations were home, and then streets. Approximately 15% of injuries required medical attention and the incidence rate was 175.5 per 10,000 person-year with male to female ratio of 2.37 : 1. They were frequently fractures and open wounds and mostly associated with falls and transport accidents that had been transpired on streets or at workplace. This study evidences the high rate of injuries in Tehran city and prevention priorities should be given to traffic and home injuries.
    International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 04/2014; · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • Journal of injury & violence research 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Burns are a major factor in injury mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the possible causes of fatal burns using Haddon's Matrix.
    Journal of injury & violence research 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Iran's hospitals have been considerably affected by disasters during last decade. To address this, health system of I.R.Iran has taken an initiative to assess disaster safety of the hospitals using an adopted version of Hospital Safety Index (HSI). This article presents the results of disaster safety assessment in 224 Iran's hospitals. A self-assessment approach was applied to assess the disaster safety in 145 items categorized in 3 components including structural, non-structural and functional capacity. For each item, safety level was categorized to 3 levels: not safe (0), average safe (1) and high safe (2). A raw score was tallied for each safety component and its elements by a simple sum of all the corresponding scores. All scores were normalized on a 100 point scale. Hospitals were classified to three safety classes according to their normalized total score: low (≤34.0), average (34.01-66.0) and high (>66.0). The average score of all safety components were 32.4 out of 100 (± 12.7 SD). 122 hospitals (54.5%) were classified as low safe and 102 hospitals (45.5%) were classified as average safe. No hospital was placed in the high safe category. Average safety scores out of 100 were 27.3 (±14.2 SD) for functional capacity, 36.0 (±13.9 SD) for non-structural component and 36.0 (±19.0 SD) for structural component. Neither the safety classes nor the scores of safety components were significantly associated with types of hospitals in terms of affiliation, function and size (P>0.05). To enhance the hospitals safety for disaster in Iran, we recommend: 1) establishment of a national committee for hospital safety in disasters; 2) supervision on implementation of the safety standards in construction of new hospitals; 3) enhancement of functional readiness and safety of non-structural components while structural retrofitting of the existing hospitals is being taken into consideration, whenever is cost-effective; 4) considering the disaster safety status as the criteria for licensing and accreditation of the hospitals. Key words: Hospital, safety, disaster, emergency, Iran Correspondence to: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir, ardalan@hsph.harvard.edu.
    PLoS currents. 01/2014; 6.
  • Alireza Moghisi, Reza Mohammadi, Leif Svanstrom
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    ABSTRACT: Background Three studies were conducted aiming to design specific interventions regarding motorcyclist's safety using Haddon matrix in 14 cities of Iran.
    Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 01/2014; 28:37.
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    ABSTRACT: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety. 2013 KUMS, All right reserved.
    Journal of injury & violence research 11/2013;
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    Journal of injury & violence research 11/2013;
  • Najmeh Karimi, Omid Beiki, Reza Mohammadi
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    ABSTRACT: Injuries are responsible for much child and adolescent mortality in the world. To study the effect of parental birth country on the risk of fatal unintentional injuries. We established a cohort by linkages between Swedish national registers through personal identification number. The main variable was country of birth of parents. Children with both parents born in Sweden were the reference group. The cohort was followed up from the starting date of the study (1 January 1961) or date of birth, whichever occurred last, until the exit date, which was death due to unintentional injury, first emigration or end of the follow-up (31 December 2007), whichever came first. We calculated HRs with 95% CIs adjusted for age at exit, parental education and calendar period of birth by Cox proportional hazards models. We found a significantly higher risk of fatal unintentional injuries among children with a foreign background than among native children. We found a higher risk of fatal transportation-related injuries and drowning among boys with a foreign background and a higher risk of fatal burns/fire and falls among girls with a foreign background than among same sex native children. We also found a higher risk of fatal unintentional injuries among children with a foreign background at older ages than among native children at the same ages. Injury prevention work against unintentional injuries among children of foreign origin is more complex than that among native children. We recommend designing specific studies to find out the factors responsible and planning preventive interventions aiming at this particular group of children with a foreign background.
    Injury Prevention 10/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    Omid Beiki, Najmeh Karimi, Reza Mohammadi
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    ABSTRACT: Injury risk during childhood and adolescence vary depending on socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to study if the risk of fatal and non-fatal unintentional injuries among foreign-born children was similar across parental educational level or not. In this retrospective cohort study we followed 907,335 children between 1961 and 2007 in Sweden. We established the cohort by linkage between Swedish national registers including cause of death register and in-patient register, through unique Personal Identification Numbers. The main exposure variable was parental (maternal and paternal) educational level. The cohorts was followed from start date of follow-up period, or date of birth whichever occurred last, until exit date from the cohort, which was date of hospitalization or death due to unintentional injury, first emigration, death due to other causes than injury or end of follow-up, whichever came first. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Overall, we found 705 and 78,182 cases of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries, respectively. Risk of death and hospitalization due to unintentional injuries was statistically significantly 1.48 (95% CI: 1.24-1.78) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12) times higher among children with lowest parental educational level (9 years and shorter years of study) compared to children with highest parental educational level (+13 years of study). We found similar results when stratified our study group by sex of children, by maternal and paternal educational level separately, and injury type (traffic-related, fall, poisoning, burn and drowning). It seems injury prevention work against unintentional injuries is less effective among children with low parental education compared with those with higher parental education. We recommend designing specific preventive interventions aiming at children with low parental education.© 2013 KUMS, All rights reserved.
    Journal of injury & violence research 09/2013; 6(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In the concept of road traffic injury (RTI), mass and speed are properties of all energy that can be transferred during a crash; and the two properties are connected to kinetic (mechanical) energy. The amount of energy interchange is the result of injury severity that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed[1]. It means that the kinetic energy during a collision greatly increases due to velocity rather than its mass and then small increases in vehicle speed will result major increases in the risk of injury[2]. In order to have better insight in the amount of energy, it should be consider that one Joule is about the energy released when a textbook drop to the floor. Speed is well known as a key risk factor in the risk of crash occurrence as well as the severity of an injury [3, 4]. For example, kinetic energy with a motorcycle with an average weight of 150 kg and 60 km/h speed can produce 270 000 joule, while with a speed 120 km/h, can result 1 080 000 joule. This energy can be transferred in a fraction of second and relay why a more increase in speed can be harmful or fatal. Despite the role of speed as the most important critical one in RTIs, the extent of bodily damages, however, depends on the shape of the objects and its rigidity as well as safety equipment[2]. This is why kinetic energy management needs more considerably focus on the speed, which can be an important implication in RTIs prevention. Focusing on pedestrian, a vehicle collision less than 30 km/h with a pedestrian, the bodily damages will be less than 10% injury chance, but with about 50% in an impact at 45 km/h[1]. Even the best vehicle – designed for car riders can provides injury protection around 70 km/h in frontal collision and 50 km/h in side impacts collision for those wearing seat belts [1]. This may why in Vision Zero, a revelation of thinking in RTIs prevention, when implementation of safe transport system deal with challenges, all activity should take place on speed management. This is especially true in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to Vision Zero, in situation with possible conflicts between pedestrians and cars the speed should be limited as 30 km/h; and in situation with possible side impacts between cars it should be limited to 50 km/h. As a matter of fact, driving with a 10 km/h speed means that every second the vehicle rides 2.8 m; in 50 km/h it rides 14 m/s; and in 100 km/h means that the vehicle rides 28 m/s. Just two second ignorance by drivers can result 56 meter driving. Beside of this, the human reaction time should be added on this time. In many LMICs, however, there is still no enough attention on speed limit in the city area; and even drivers ride with speed up to 60 km/h in such area, as a means of 16.8 meter per second. When reaction time, a little as one second[1], added on this time, it implies that the vehicle can ride 40 m/s. Pedestrian cannot be safe if driver ignore just one second with such speed if he or she is closer than this distance. According to Vision Zero "…the speed limits within the road transport system should be determined by the technical standard of vehicles and roads so as not to exceed the level of violence that the human body can tolerate. The safer the roads and vehicles, the higher the speed that can be accepted"[5]. Establishment of safe transport system usually is a big challenge in many LMICs, however, with regard to of Vision Zero indeed the most activities for road user safety should take place on speed management. As a system approach on RTIs prevention[6], in fact harmful road traffic injury is the result of "energy interchange"[1, 3]. Understanding the role of kinetic energy is important for all stakeholders in road traffic injury preventive activities. This will help them to develop measures to decrease the generation, distribution, transfer and effect of this energy during a road traffic crash[1]. In conclusion, in order to meet "road user safety" and considering mixed types of vehicles in most LMICs "the kinetic energy management" needs to be considered in all road traffic injury preventive activities[7]. References [1] Global Road Safety Partnership. Speed management: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Geneva: Global Road Safety Partnership 2008. [2] Christoffel T, Gallagher SS. Injury prevention and public health : practical knowledge, skills, and strategies. 2nd ed. ed. Sudbury, Mass. ; London: Jones and Bartlett 2006. [3] Haddon W, Jr. Energy damage and the ten countermeasure strategies. The Journal of trauma. 1973 Apr;13(4):321-31. [4] De Haven H. Mechanical analysis of survival in falls from heights of fifty to one hundred and fifty feet. 1942. Inj Prev. 2000 Mar;6(1):62-8. [5] Claes Tingvall, Haworth N. Vision Zero -An ethical approach to safety and mobility. Tthe 6th ITE International Conference Road Safety & Traffic Enforcement. Melbourne: Monash University 2000. [6] Khorasani-Zavareh D. System versus traditional approach in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action. J Inj Violence Res. Jul;3(2):61. [7] Khorasani-Zavareh D, Mohammadi R, Khankeh HR, Laflamme L, Bikmoradi A, Haglund BJ. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:486.
  • Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Reza Mohammadi
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to map out some epidemiological aspects of unintentional burn injuries among Iranian victims using a national injury registry data. METHODS: Injury data were taken from a national injury surveillance system over the period 2000-2002. The study population comprised 31.5% of Iran's population. Burn-injury cases were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: Of all the grossly 307,000 home injuries reported during the years 2000-2002 in Iran, about 125,000 cases (41%) were unintentional burn injuries. Women comprised 58% of the unintentional burn victims. The mean age among burn victims was 19.18±19 (standard deviation, SD) years. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates showed that children had a much higher incidence of domestic burns but the elderly suffered higher fatality in spite of lower incidence in this age group. Overall, 65.2% of the domestic burn injuries occurred in the living rooms or bedrooms followed by 27% in the kitchen. The hands and fingers were injured in 43.6% followed by the lower limbs in 37.6%. According to injury mechanism, scalds were the most common type of burn injuries comprising 77.7% of all burns. Of all the burn victims, 791 died, 48 victims became disabled and the remaining improved or were undergoing therapy when reported. CONCLUSION: Burns form a major health problem in Iran. Due to high mortality rate, the elderly need specific attention regarding burn prevention and treatment in this age group. Moreover, in spite of lower fatality, any prevention programme should have a focus on childhood burns mainly due to the overwhelming distribution of burns in children and the young population of Iran.
    Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 05/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Alireza Moghisi, Reza Mohammadi, Leif Svanström
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of safe community interventions on motorcyclists' safety. Two cross sectional observations were conducted in 14 cities (five safe community practicing and nine safe community non-practicing cities) independently on 2005 and 2007. Ten percent of registered motorcycles were observed and interviewed (n=1114 in each observation). 87.9% used motorcycle for commercial purposes. All motorcyclists were male and mostly aged 18-29 years old. Death rate significantly rose from 122 to 254 per 100000 motorcyclists in Fars province since the first observation (p < 0.0001). Helmet usage rate was constant (13%). Recorded crashes increased from 16.4% to 23.1% in safe community setting (p < 0.0001). 11% carried more than one pillion. Heat disturbances, embarrassment, hearing blockage, and negligence were the most mentioned excuses for not using helmet. Law enforcement, public education, accessibility to helmets on discount rate, new legislation and, finally, access to new designed helmet were the most suggestions made by motorcyclists to promote helmet usage. No significant effect was noticed between two settings except in injury registration system in safe community. Community involvement in the safety programs could ensure sustainability of initiatives and continuity of interventions in safe communities.
    International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 03/2013; · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viability of probiotic bacteria during the production and storage of fermented milks is the most important topic of discussion in the dairy industry. Addition of microalgae into milk for the production of fermented milk in order to enhance the viability of probiotics has been the subject of recent research. Spirulina and Chlorella are the most widely noted microalgae for fermented milks. They affect not only the viability of probiotics in final product but also the sensory attributes of them. Incorporation of microalgae into probiotic fermented milks along with enhancing the viability of probiotics would increase their functional characteristic. This is because they contain a wide range of nutrients and nutraceuticals and are considered as “functional food.” This article reviews the effects of supplementation of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris into probiotic fermented milks on their different quality characteristics.
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 03/2013; 12(2). · 5.05 Impact Factor
  • Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 01/2013; · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Vegetables is one of the most important expose sources of nitrite and nitrate in human's diet. The aim of this study is evaluation of boiling and freezing process on nitrite and nitrate levels in commonly consumed vegetables. Materials and methods: It was the descriptive – analyzed study. 180 vegetable samples were taken from Kermanshah markets, randomly. Nitrite and nitrate concentration was determined by Greece- Ilosoay method. Then, freezing and boiling process were carried out on samples and again, nitrite and nitrate levels were measurement. The mean differences were analyzed by using ANOVA and SPSS program. Results: The amounts of nitrite and nitrate in many samples had significant differences (p<0.05), depending on type of process and product. Increase in time of freeze storage from 1 to 3 month resulted in increase in amounts of nitrate and nitrite in many samples while, 9 month freezing storage decreased nitrate and nitrite levels. Boiling process increased nitrate and nitrite levels in several vegetables, such as scallion and decreased it for instance, in garlic chives. Conclusion: Long term freezing process is a suitable method to reduce nitrate and nitrite levels in vegetables. Regarding to daily consume of vegetables and its positive effects on public health, quality control of this product and studying the other food processing is very important.
    Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology. 01/2013; 8(3):209-215.
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the feasibility of a drowning intervention package in northern Islamic Republic of Iran. A quasi-experimental design used pre- and post-observations among residents and tourists in waterrecreation beach areas of intervention and control regions by the Caspian Sea and in residents near the Caspian Sea coastline. The fatal drowning rate in the studied resident population in the provinces fell from 4.24 per 100 000 residents at baseline to 3.04 per 100 000 residents at endline. The risk of death from drowning in the intervention areas in the water-recreation area was greater during the pre-intervention (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.66-2.01) than the implementation period (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15-0.37). The risk of drowning can be reduced by implementing increased supervision and raising community awareness.
    01/2013; 19(7):629-637.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aflatoxins are hazardous fungal toxin that produces in sufficient moisture, heat and preservation unfit condition and could brought about serious hazards to consumer health. The aim of this study was systematic review on the Aflatoxin M1 level in raw, pasteurized and UHT milk in Iran. Articles, guidelines and specific databases such as SID, PubMed, Scirus, Elsevier, Science Direct, WHO were searched for related topics cited since 2000. Early season definition, and other variables such as sample size, study location and comunity, means and range contamination were analyzed. According to the results, there was a lack of methodological consistency and standard inconsistent unit in the literature, and draw conclusions were difficult. Results about Aflatoxin M1 level higher than standard in type of milk were different. Contamination in cold season was higher than heat season. Milk is one of the most complete foods and its contamination is serious risk for public health. Notify Aflatoxin M1 reduction methods in milk and dairy products are necessary.
    Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology. 01/2013; 7(5):599-612.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and Objective: Meat products are one of the major protein resources for human nutrition and the consumption of these products is increasing in societies. The aim of this study is determining microbiological and chemical characterization of the meat products consumed in Kermanshah 2012. Materials and Methods: The method of study is descriptive – analytical. 100 samples were taken from different meat products randomly. Microbiological and chemical experiments were performed according to the Institute of Standard and Industrial Investigations of Iran. The mean differences were analyzed using ANOVA statistical test. Results: The results of the microbiological analysis were in below: 100% Yeasts and Moulds, 58% Coliform, 53% Staphylococcus, 17% E. coli and 3% Salmonella. In 3% samples presented whole microorganisms. The range of Protein was 8.3 to 19.1 g/100g, Fat 9. 5 to 26.8, Salt 0. 58 to 4.67 and Ash 0.94 to 5.56. Except of Fat and Salmonella, did not show significant changes (P>0.05). Conclusion: Meat products have a significant role in food diet. More rigid regulatory monitoring of them for gain health and optimum quality is necessary.
    Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology. 01/2013; 7(5):281-287.

Publication Stats

344 Citations
59.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Tehran University of Medical Sciences
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
    • Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
      Bākhtarān, Kermānshāh, Iran
  • 2011–2013
    • Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
      • School of Health and Nutrition
      Tebriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    • University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
      • Department of Nursing
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 2010–2013
    • Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Food Science and Technology
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 2009–2013
    • Urmia University of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Public Health
      Rezâiyye, Āz̄ārbāyjān-e Gharbī, Iran
  • 2005–2013
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Public Health Sciences
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2012
    • National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute of Iran
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran