[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Bacillus subtilis, the expression of genes encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in purine de novo synthesis and salvage is affected by purine bases and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). The transcription of the genes belonging to the PurR regulon is negatively regulated by the PurR protein and PRPP. The expression of the genes belonging to the G-box (XptR) regulon, including the pbuE gene, is negatively regulated by a riboswitch-controlled transcription termination mechanism. The G-box regulon effector molecules are hypoxanthine and guanine. pbuE encodes a purine base efflux pump and is now recognized as belonging to a third purine regulon. The expression of the pbuE gene is positively regulated by a riboswitch that recognizes adenine. Here we show that the expression of pbuE'-lacZ transcriptional fusions are induced by adenine to the highest extent in mutants which do not express a functional PbuE pump. In a mutant defective in the metabolism of adenine, the ade apt mutant, we found a high intracellular level of adenine and constitutive high levels of PbuE. A growth test using a purine auxotroph provided further evidence for the role of PbuE in lowering the intracellular concentration of purine bases, including adenine. Purine analogs also affect the expression of pbuE, which might be of importance for the protection against toxic analogs. In a mutant that overexpresses PbuE, the expression of genes belonging to the PurR regulon was increased. Our findings provide further evidence for important functions of the PbuE protein, such as acting as a pump that lowers the purine base pool and affects the expression of the G-box and PurR regulons, including pbuE itself, and as a pump involved in protection against toxic purine base analogs.
Journal of Bacteriology 02/2005; 187(2):791-4. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Bacillus subtilis expression of genes or operons encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in purine synthesis is affected by purine bases and nucleosides in the growth medium. The genes belonging to the PurR regulon (purR, purA, glyA, guaC, pbuO, pbuG, and the pur, yqhZ-folD, and xpt-pbuX operons) are controlled by the PurR repressor, which inhibits transcription initiation. Other genes are regulated by a less-well-described transcription termination mechanism that responds to the presence of hypoxanthine and guanine. The pur operon and the xpt-pbuX operon, which were studied here, are regulated by both mechanisms. We isolated two mutants resistant to 2-fluoroadenine in which the pur operon and the xpt-pbuX operon are expressed at increased levels in a PurR-independent manner. The mutations were caused by deletions that disrupted a potential transcription terminator structure located immediately upstream of the ydhL gene. The 5' part of the ydhL leader region contained a 63-nucleotide (nt) sequence very similar to the 5' ends of the leaders of the pur and xpt-pbuX operons. Transcripts of these regions may form a common tandem stem-loop secondary structure. Two additional genes with potential leader regions containing the 63-nt sequence are pbuG, encoding a hypoxanthine-guanine transporter, and yxjA, which was shown to encode a purine nucleoside transporter and is renamed nupG. Transcriptional lacZ fusions and mutations in the 63-nt sequence encoding the possible secondary structures provided evidence that expression of the pur and xpt-pbuX operons and expression of the ydhL, nupG, and pbuG genes are regulated by a common mechanism. The new pur regulon is designated the XptR regulon. Except for ydhL, the operons and genes were negatively regulated by hypoxanthine and guanine. ydhL was positively regulated. The derived amino acid sequence encoded by ydhL (now called pbuE) is similar to the amino acid sequences of metabolite efflux pumps. When overexpressed, PbuE lowers the sensitivity to purine analogs. Indirect evidence indicated that PbuE decreases the size of the internal pool of hypoxanthine. This explains why the hypoxanthine- and guanine-regulated genes are expressed at elevated levels in a mutant that overexpresses pbuE.
Journal of Bacteriology 10/2003; 185(17):5200-9. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2003; 100(8):4678-83. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the P3 promoter of the Bacillus subtilis ureABC operon is activated during nitrogen-limited growth by PucR, the transcriptional regulator of the purine-degradative genes. Addition of allantoic acid, a purine-degradative intermediate, to nitrogen-limited cells stimulated transcription of ure P3 twofold. Since urea is produced during purine degradation in B. subtilis, regulation of ureABC expression by PucR allows purines to be completely degraded to ammonia. The nitrogen transcription factor TnrA was found to indirectly regulate ure P3 expression by activating pucR expression. The two consensus GlnR/TnrA binding sites located in the ure P3 promoter region were shown to be required for negative regulation by GlnR. Mutational analysis indicates that a cooperative interaction occurs between GlnR dimers bound at these two sites. B. subtilis is the first example where urease expression is both nitrogen regulated and coordinately regulated with the enzymes involved in purine transport and degradation.
Journal of Bacteriology 12/2002; 184(21):6060-4. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PucR protein of Bacillus subtilis has previously been suggested to regulate the expression of 15 genes, pucABCDE, pucFG, pucH, pucI, pucJKLM, pucR, and gde, all of which encode proteins involved in purine catabolism. When cells are grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions, the expression of these genes is induced and intermediary compounds of the purine catabolic pathway affect this expression. By using pucR deletion mutants, we have found that PucR induces the expression of pucFG, pucH, pucI, pucJKLM, and gde while it represses the expression of pucR and pucABCDE. Deletions in the promoters of the five induced operons and genes combined with bioinformatic analysis suggested a conserved upstream activating sequence, 5'-WWWCNTTGGTTAA-3', now named the PucR box. Potential PucR boxes overlapping the -35 and -10 regions of the pucABCDE promoter and located downstream of the pucR transcription start point were also found. The positions of these PucR boxes are consistent with PucR acting as a negative regulator of pucABCDE and pucR expression. Site-directed mutations in the PucR box upstream of pucH and pucI identified positions that are essential for the induction of pucH and pucI expression, respectively. Mutants with decreased pucH or increased pucR expression obtained from a library of clones containing random mutations in the pucH-to-pucR intercistronic region all contained mutations in or near the PucR box. The induction of pucR expression under nitrogen-limiting conditions was found to be mediated by the global nitrogen-regulatory protein TnrA. In other gram-positive bacteria, we have found open reading frames that encode proteins similar to PucR located next to other open reading frames encoding proteins with similarity to purine catabolic enzymes. Hence, the PucR homologues are likely to exert the same function in other gram-positive bacteria as PucR does in B. subtilis.
Journal of Bacteriology 07/2002; 184(12):3232-41. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA microarrays were used to analyze the changes in gene expression in Bacillus subtilis strain 168 when nitrogen limiting (glutamate) and nitrogen excess (ammonium plus glutamate) growth conditions were compared. Among more than 100 genes that were significantly induced during nitrogen starvation we detected the comG, comF, comE, nin-nucA and comK transcription units together with recA. DNA was added to B. subtilis grown in minimal medium with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source and it was demonstrated that the cells were competent. Based on these observations we propose a simplification of previously designed one-step transformation procedures for B. subtilis strain 168.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of the pur operon, which encodes enzymes of the purine biosynthetic pathway in Bacillus subtilis, is subject to control by the purR gene product (PurR) and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. This control is also exerted on the purA and purR genes. A consensus sequence for the binding of PurR, named the PurBox, has been suggested (M. Kilstrup, S. G. Jessing, S. B. Wichmand-Jørgensen, M. Madsen, and D. Nilsson, J. Bacteriol. 180:3900-3906, 1998). To determine whether the expression of other genes might be regulated by PurR, we performed a search for PurBox sequences in the B. subtilis genome sequence and found several candidate PurBoxes. By the use of transcriptional lacZ fusions, five selected genes or operons (glyA, yumD, yebB, xpt-pbuX, and yqhZ-folD), all having a putative PurBox in their upstream regulatory regions, were found to be regulated by PurR. Using a machine-learning algorithm developed for sequence pattern finding, we found that all of the genes identified as being PurR regulated have two PurBoxes in their upstream control regions. The two boxes are divergently oriented, forming a palindromic sequence with the inverted repeats separated by 16 or 17 nucleotides. A computerized search revealed one additional PurR-regulated gene, ytiP. The significance of the tandem PurBox motifs was demonstrated in vivo by deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the two PurBox sequences located upstream of glyA. All six genes or operons encode enzymes or transporters playing a role in purine nucleotide metabolism. Functional analysis showed that yebB encodes the previously characterized hypoxanthine-guanine permease PbuG and that ytiP encodes another guanine-hypoxanthine permease and is now named pbuO. yumD encodes a GMP reductase and is now named guaC.
Journal of Bacteriology 12/2001; 183(21):6175-83. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hidden Markov model of sigma(A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma(A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists at the initiation site of transcription in both types of promoters than previously thought. When tested on the entire B. subtilis genome, the model predicts that approximately half of the sigma(A) recognition sites are of the extended type. Some of the response-regulator aspartate phosphatases were among the predictions of promoters containing extended sites. The expression of rapA and rapB was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis to depend on the extended -10 region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis has developed a highly controlled system for the utilization of a diverse array of low-molecular-weight compounds as a nitrogen source when the preferred nitrogen sources, e.g., glutamate plus ammonia, are exhausted. We have identified such a system for the utilization of purines as nitrogen source in B. subtilis. Based on growth studies of strains with knockout mutations in genes, complemented with enzyme analysis, we could ascribe functions to 14 genes encoding enzymes or proteins of the purine degradation pathway. A functional xanthine dehydrogenase requires expression of five genes (pucA, pucB, pucC, pucD, and pucE). Uricase activity is encoded by the pucL and pucM genes, and a uric acid transport system is encoded by pucJ and pucK. Allantoinase is encoded by the pucH gene, and allantoin permease is encoded by the pucI gene. Allantoate amidohydrolase is encoded by pucF. In a pucR mutant, the level of expression was low for all genes tested, indicating that PucR is a positive regulator of puc gene expression. All 14 genes except pucI are located in a gene cluster at 284 to 285 degrees on the chromosome and are contained in six transcription units, which are expressed when cells are grown with glutamate as the nitrogen source (limiting conditions), but not when grown on glutamate plus ammonia (excess conditions). Our data suggest that the 14 genes and the gde gene, encoding guanine deaminase, constitute a regulon controlled by the pucR gene product. Allantoic acid, allantoin, and uric acid were all found to function as effector molecules for PucR-dependent regulation of puc gene expression. When cells were grown in the presence of glutamate plus allantoin, a 3- to 10-fold increase in expression was seen for most of the genes. However, expression of the pucABCDE unit was decreased 16-fold, while expression of pucR was decreased 4-fold in the presence of allantoin. We have identified genes of the purine degradation pathway in B. subtilis and showed that their expression is subject to both general nitrogen catabolite control and pathway-specific control.
Journal of Bacteriology 07/2001; 183(11):3293-302. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus subtilis can utilize the purine bases adenine, hypoxanthine and xanthine as nitrogen sources. The utilization of guanine as a nitrogen source is reported here. The first step is the deamination of guanine to xanthine catalysed by guanine deaminase (GDEase). To isolate mutants defective in GDEase activity, a collection of mutant strains was screened for strains unable to use guanine as a nitrogen source. The strain BFA1819 (yknA) showed the expected phenotype and no GDEase activity could be detected in this strain. A new name for yknA, namely gde, is proposed. The gde gene encodes a 156 amino acid polypeptide and was preceded by a promoter sequence that is recognized by the sigma(A) form of RNA polymerase. High levels of GDEase were found in cells grown with purines and intermediary compounds of the purine catabolic pathway as nitrogen sources. Allantoic acid, most likely, is a low molecular mass inducer molecule. The level of GDEase was found to be subjected to global nitrogen control exerted by the GlnA/TnrA-dependent signalling pathway. The two regulatory proteins of this pathway, TnrA and GlnR, indirectly and positively affected gde expression. This is the first instance of a gene whose expression is positively regulated by GlnR. The GDEase amino acid sequence shows no homology with the mammalian enzyme. In agreement with this are the different physiological roles for the two enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the Bacillus subtilis dra-nupC-pdp operon is subject to catabolite repression by glucose. It was shown that a cis-acting catabolite-responsive element (CRE) sequence located 64 bp downstream of the transcription-start site mediated catabolite repression of the dra-nupC-pdp operon as it does for many other B. subtilis genes. Point mutations in the CRE sequence caused the loss of catabolite repression of the operon. Catabolite repression of dra-nupC-pdp expression was relieved in a ccpA mutant and was found to be dependent on both HPr and the HPr-like protein Crh. Furthermore, a transcription-repair coupling factor, Mfd, was also found to be involved in the glucose repression of dra-nupC-pdp expression. By the use of in vitro gel mobility shift analysis, a specific HPr-P dependent binding of CcpA to the dra CRE site was demonstrated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis dra-nupC-pdp operon is repressed by the DeoR repressor protein. The DeoR repressor with an N-terminal His tag was overproduced with a plasmid under control of a phage T5 promoter in Escherichia coli and was purified to near homogeneity by one affinity chromatography step. Gel filtration experimental results showed that native DeoR has a mass of 280 kDa and appears to exist as an octamer. Binding of DeoR to the operator DNA of the dra-nupC-pdp operon was characterized by using an electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay. An apparent dissociation constant of 22 nM was determined for binding of DeoR to operator DNA, and the binding curve indicated that the binding of DeoR to the operator DNA was cooperative. In the presence of low-molecular-weight effector deoxyribose-5-phosphate, the dissociation constant was higher than 1,280 nM. The dissociation constant remained unchanged in the presence of deoxyribose-1-phosphate. DNase I footprinting exhibited a protected region that extends over more than 43 bp, covering a palindrome together with a direct repeat to one half of the palindrome and the nucleotides between them.
Journal of Bacteriology 05/2000; 182(7):1916-22. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yexA gene encodes an 84 amino acid reading frame; in Bacillus subtilis it is positioned between the purC and purQ genes of the purine biosynthetic operon. Disruption of yexA resulted in a purine-auxotrophic phenotype. When yexA was expressed in trans it was able to complement a yexA mutation. Growth experiments and enzyme analysis of yexA mutant strains revealed a defective phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase (FGAM synthetase). In the organisms in which FGAM synthetase has been studied a single polypeptide is responsible for activity. In some organisms two separate genes - in B. subtilis the purL and purQ genes - encode polypeptides with similarity to the N-terminal and the C-terminal region, respectively, of the single-polypeptide FGAM synthetase. Thus, active FGAM synthetase in B. subtilis requires the yexA gene product in addition to the purL and purQ gene products. Open reading frames with sequence similarity to yexA are found in other Gram-positive organisms, in a cyanobacterium and in methanogenic archaea. The designation purS is proposed for this novel function in purine biosynthesis in B. subtilis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Bacillus subtilis, nucleosides are readily taken up from the growth medium and metabolized. The key enzymes in nucleoside catabolism are nucleoside phosphorylases, phosphopentomutase, and deoxyriboaldolase. The characterization of two closely linked loci, drm and pupG, which encode phosphopentomutase (Drm) and guanosine (inosine) phosphorylase (PupG), respectively, is reported here. When expressed in Escherichia coli mutant backgrounds, drm and pupG confer phosphopentomutase and purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity. Northern blot and enzyme analyses showed that drm and pupG form a dicistronic operon. Both enzymes are induced when nucleosides are present in the growth medium. Using mutants deficient in nucleoside catabolism, it was demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass effectors of this induction most likely were deoxyribose 5-phosphate and ribose 5-phosphate. Both Drm and PupG activity levels were higher when succinate rather than glucose served as the carbon source, indicating that the expression of the operon is subject to catabolite repression. Primer extension analysis identified two transcription initiation signals upstream of drm; both were utilized in induced and non-induced cells. The nucleoside-catabolizing system in B. subtilis serves to utilize the base for nucleotide synthesis while the pentose moiety serves as the carbon source. When added alone, inosine barely supports growth of B. subtilis. This slow nucleoside catabolism contrasts with that of E. coli, which grows rapidly on a nucleoside as a carbon source. When inosine was added with succinate or deoxyribose, however, a significant increase in growth was observed in B. subtilis. The findings of this study therefore indicate that the B. subtilis system for nucleoside catabolism differs greatly from the well-studied system in E. coli.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deoR gene located just upstream the dra-nupC-pdp operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes the DeoR repressor protein that negatively regulates the expression of the operon at the level of transcription. The control region upstream of the operon was mapped by the use of transcriptional lacZ fusions. It was shown that all of the cis-acting elements, which were necessary for full DeoR regulation of the operon, were included in a 141-bp sequence just upstream of dra. The increased copy number of this control region resulted in titration of the DeoR molecules of the cell. By using mutagenic PCR and site-directed mutagenesis techniques, a palindromic sequence located from position -60 to position -43 relative to the transcription start point was identified as a part of the operator site for the binding of DeoR. Furthermore, it was shown that a direct repeat of five nucleotides, which was identical to the 3' half of the palindrome and was located between the -10 and -35 regions of the dra promoter, might function as a half binding site involved in cooperative binding of DeoR to the regulatory region. Binding of DeoR protein to the operator DNA was confirmed by a gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Moreover, deoxyribose-5-phosphate was shown to be a likely candidate for the true inducer of the dra-nupC-pdp expression.
Journal of Bacteriology 04/1999; 181(6):1719-27. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 3135 bp DNA segment downstream of the spl gene on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. An open reading frame capable of encoding a putative protein of 654 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 72.1 kDa was identified. The deduced amino acid sequence was similar to the McpA and McpB proteins of B. subtilis. McpA and McpB encode different methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). A mutant strain containing an antibiotic resistance DNA cassette inserted into the region containing the MCP-like reading frame suffered a complete loss of taxis to the amino acids cysteine, proline, threonine, glycine, serine, lysine, valine and arginine. The open reading frame was designated mcpC. The wild-type and an mcpC mutant strain were analysed for their content of methylated proteins and it was found that mcpC encodes a methylated membrane protein that has previously been designated H3. These results show that mcpC encodes a third MCP in B. subtilis. The transcription start site upstream of the mcpC gene was determined by primer extension analysis and it was found to be preceded by a potential promoter sequence that is recognized by the sigma D form of RNA polymerase. The level of beta-galactosidase expressed from a transcriptional mcpC-lacZ fusion was increased threefold when cells entered the stationary phase. No beta-galactosidase could be detected in a sigD genetic background.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The xpt and pbuX genes from Bacillus subtilis were cloned, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The xpt gene encodes a specific xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, and the pbuX gene encodes a xanthine-specific purine permease. The genes have overlapping coding regions, and Northern (RNA) blot analysis indicated an operon organization. The translation of the second gene, pbuX, was strongly dependent on the translation of the first gene, xpt. Expression of the operon was repressed by purines, and the effector molecules appear to be hypoxanthine and guanine. When hypoxanthine and guanine were added together, a 160-fold repression was observed. The regulation of expression was at the level of transcription, and we propose that a transcription termination-antitermination control mechanism similar to the one suggested for the regulation of the purine biosynthesis operon exists. The expression of the xpt-pbuX operon was reduced when hypoxanthine served as the sole nitrogen source. Under these conditions, the level of the hypoxanthine- and xanthine-degrading enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase, was induced more than 80-fold. The xanthine dehydrogenase level was completely derepressed in a glnA (glutamine synthetase) genetic background. Although the regulation of the expression of the xpt-pbuX operon was found to be affected by the nitrogen source, it was normal in a glnA mutant strain. This result suggests the existence of different signalling pathways for repression of the transcription of the xpt-pbuX operon and the induction of xanthine dehydrogenase.
Journal of Bacteriology 05/1997; 179(8):2540-50. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The isolation of mutants defective in adenine metabolism in Bacillus subtilis has provided a tool that has made it possible to investigate the role of adenine deaminase in adenine metabolism in growing cells. Adenine deaminase is the only enzyme that can deaminate adenine compounds in B. subtilis, a reaction which is important for adenine utilization as a purine and also as a nitrogen source. The uptake of adenine is strictly coupled to its further metabolism. Salvaging of adenine is inhibited by the stringent response to amino acid starvation, while the deamination of adenine is not. The level of adenine deaminase was reduced when exogenous guanosine served as the purine source and when glutamine served as the nitrogen source. The enzyme level was essentially the same whether ammonia or purines served as the nitrogen source. Reduced levels were seen on poor carbon sources. The ade gene was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence and mRNA analyses revealed a single-gene operon encoding a 65-kDa protein. By transductional crosses, we have located the ade gene to 130 degrees on the chromosomal map.
Journal of Bacteriology 03/1996; 178(3):846-53. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genes encoding deoxyriboaldolase (dra), nucleoside uptake protein (nupC), and pyrimidine nucleoside sequences were determined. Sequence analysis showed that the genes were localized immediately downstream of the hut operon. Insertional gene disruption studies indicated that the three genes constitute an operon with the gene order dra-nupC-pdp. A promoter mapping immediately upstream of the dra gene was identified, and downstream of the pdp gene the nucleotide sequence indicated the existence of a factor-independent transcription terminator structure. In wild-type cells growing in succinate minimal medium, the pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase and deoxyriboaldolase levels were five- to eightfold higher in the presence of thymidine and fourfold higher in the presence of deoxyadenosine. By the use of lacZ fusions, the regulation was found to be at the level of transcription. The operon expression was subject to glucose repression. Upstream of the dra gene an open reading frame of 313 amino acids was identified. Inactivation of this gene led to an approximately 10-fold increase in the levels of deoxyriboaldolase and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase, and no further induction was seen upon the addition of deoxyribonucleosides. The upstream gene most likely encodes the regulator for the dra-nupC-pdp operon and was designated deoR (stands for deoxyribonucleoside regulator).
Journal of Bacteriology 02/1996; 178(2):424-34. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purT gene from Bacillus subtilis encoding the formate-dependent glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase T was cloned by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli purN purT double mutant. The nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame of 384 amino acids. The purT amino acid sequence showed similarity to the enzyme phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase encoded by the purK gene but not to the N10-formyltetrahydrofolate-dependent glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase N enzyme encoded by the purN gene. The glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase T level was repressed in cells grown in rich medium compared to minimal-medium-grown cells. However, when the culture entered the stationary-growth phase the enzyme level increased in rich medium and decreased in minimal medium. By comparing the deduced amino acid sequence of the B. subtilis purT gene product with translated nucleotide sequences in various databanks, evidence for the existence of putative purT genes in the Gram-negative bacteria Pasteurella haemolytica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was obtained.