Angel Segura

Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (35)87.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Based on the mechanism of action, combining somatostatin analogues (SSAs) with mTOR inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents may provide synergistic effects for the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Herein, we investigate the use of these treatment combinations in clinical practice. This retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patients with NETs treated with the SSA lanreotide and targeted therapies at 35 Spanish hospitals evaluated the efficacy and safety of lanreotide treatment combinations in clinical practice. The data of 159 treatment combinations with lanreotide in 133 patients was retrospectively collected. Of the 133 patients, with a median age of 59.4 (16-83) years, 70 (52.6 %) patients were male, 64 (48.1 %) had pancreatic NET, 23 (17.3 %) had ECOG PS ≥2, 41 (30.8 %) had functioning tumours, 63 (47.7 %) underwent surgery of the primary tumour, 45 (33.8 %) had received prior chemotherapy, and 115 (86.5 %) had received prior SSAs. 115 patients received 1 lanreotide treatment combination and 18 patients received between 2 and 5 combinations. Lanreotide was mainly administered in combination with everolimus (73 combinations) or sunitinib (61 combinations). The probability of being progression-free was 78.5 % (6 months), 68.6 % (12 months) and 57.0 % (18 months) for patients who only received everolimus plus lanreotide (n = 57) and 89.3 % (6 months), 73.0 % (12 months), and 67.4 % (18 months) for patients who only received sunitinib and lanreotide (n = 50). In patients who only received everolimus plus lanreotide the median time-to-progression from the initiation of lanreotide combination treatment was 25.8 months (95 % CI, 11.3, 40.3) and it had not yet been reached among the subgroup of patients only receiving sunitinib plus lanreotide. The safety profile of the combination treatment was comparable to that of the targeted agent alone. The combination of lanreotide and targeted therapies, mainly everolimus and sunitinib, is widely used in clinical practice without unexpected toxicities and suggests efficacy that should be explored in randomized prospective clinical trials.
    BMC Cancer 07/2015; 15(1):495. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1512-6 · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Oncology 06/2015; 26(suppl 4). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdv233.278 · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with resected gastric cancer. However, difficulties in standardizing an optimal surgical approach and a perceived higher toxicity compared with the perioperative approach have limited its widespread application in Europe. The aim of our study was to assess toxicity and long-term outcomes of adjuvant CRT at our institution. A retrospective review (September 2001-January 2012) was completed of patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant CRT (Macdonald regimen). Adverse events and completion rates, RFS and OS were estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for OS were performed. Eighty-seven patients were included. Most had diffuse (52%) and locally advanced tumors (stage III-IV; 66.7%). D2 lymphadenectomy was performed in 80.5%. The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were gastrointestinal (28%) and stomatitis (20%), with 78.2% completing treatment. With a median follow-up of 115 months, 58.5% had relapsed, most of them distantly. Median RFS and OS were 9 and 24 months, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that performance status, stage and lymph node burden were significant factors for OS. In the multivariate study, only stage and lymph node burden remained as independent OS predictors. Our implementation of the Macdonald regimen achieved worse outcomes than those reported in the INT-0116 trial. The rate of distant relapse remains unacceptably high. Higher rate of positive lymph nodes and of diffuse tumors could explain some differences. The use of perioperative chemotherapy, especially in patients with a poorer prognosis, might improve these results.
    05/2015; DOI:10.5301/tj.5000344
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in the care of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer arise from well-designed clinical trials. In the present document we address specific challenges in the design of clinical trials for metastatic colorectal cancer regarding staging and standard of care according to prognosis, as well as some relevant methodological issues
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cardiac metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma are very uncommon. Their incidence is rising due to improvements in survival and diagnosis; nevertheless, our patient is the fourth case reported up to date. There are no clinical trials available in this scenario. Therefore, treatment choice is made based on clinical experience and case reports; notably, the largest case report series was prior to the approval for using tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in thyroid cancer. Patient A 73-year-old lady had dedifferentiated papillary thyroid cancer with ongoing sorafenib. After 9 months on this treatment, she presented with dyspnea and heart failure. Differential diagnosis included infection, progression of disease and cardiotoxicity. After a comprehensive assessment (echocardiography, computed tomography, PET, magnetic resonance), we found progression of lung disease, and the appearance of heart metastases. Results After recovering from the basal status, she started on second-line treatment with sunitinib, which was well-tolerated. She achieved stable disease with a decrease in tumor marker levels. Conclusions We should include cardiac metastases in the differential diagnosis of heart failure in cancer patients. Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for assessment. Sorafenib is the mainstay of the first-line therapy in metastatic thyroid cancer, achieving long-term disease control with good tolerance. Sunitinib could be a safe second-line treatment option (not cardiotoxicity related) with promising results. Therefore, our report presents a sequence of treatment with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in metastatic thyroid carcinoma with an encouraging outcome, which deserves further investigation.
    Case Reports in Oncology 05/2014; 7(2):591-9. DOI:10.1159/000366192
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of gemcitabine and erlotinib is a standard first-line treatment for unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. We reviewed our single centre experience to assess its efficacy and toxicity in clinical practice. Clinical records of patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer who were treated with the combination of gemcitabine and erlotinib were reviewed. Univariate survival analysis and multivariate analysis were carried out to indentify independent predictors factors of overall survival. Our series included 55 patients. Overall disease control rate was 47%: 5% of patients presented complete response, 20% partial response and 22% stable disease. Median overall survival was 8.3 months). Cox regression analysis indicated that performance status and locally advanced versus metastatic disease were independent factors of overall survival. Patients who developed acne-like rash toxicity, related to erlotinib administration, presented a higher survival than those patients who did not develop this toxicity. Gemcitabine plus erlotinib doublet is active in our series of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. This study provides efficacy and safety results similar to those of the pivotal phase III clinical trial that tested the same combination.
    JOP: Journal of the pancreas 01/2014; 15(1):19-24.
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    ABSTRACT: Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) are indicated to relieve carcinoid syndrome but seem to have antiproliferative effects on neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). This is the first prospective study investigating tumour stabilisation with the long-acting SSA lanreotide Autogel in patients with progressive NETs. This was a multicentre, open-label, phase II trial conducted in 17 Spanish specialist centres. Patients with well-differentiated NETs and radiologically confirmed progression within the previous 6 months received lanreotide Autogel, 120 mg every 28 days over <=92 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were response rate, tumour biomarkers, symptom control, quality of life (QoL), and safety. Radiographic imaging was assessed by a blinded central radiologist. Of 30 patients included in the efficacy and safety analyses, 40% had midgut tumours and 27% pancreatic tumours; 63% of tumours were functioning. Median PFS time was 12.9 (95% CI: 7.9, 16.5) months, and most patients achieved disease stabilisation (89%) or partial response (4%). No deterioration in QoL was observed. Nineteen patients (63%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, most frequently diarrhoea and asthenia; only one treatment-related adverse event (aerophagia) was severe. Lanreotide Autogel provided effective tumour stabilisation and PFS >12 months in patients with progressive NETs ineligible for surgery or chemotherapy, with a safety profile consistent with the pharmacology of the class.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00326469; EU Clinical Trial Register EudraCT no 2004-002871-18.
    BMC Cancer 09/2013; 13(1):427. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-427 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant 5-FU-based chemoradiotherapy in resectable rectal cancer (RC) is a standard of treatment. The use of oral fluoropyrimidines and new agents such as oxaliplatin may improve efficacy and tolerance. Between 1999 and 2009, 126 RC patients with T3-T4 and/or N+ disease were given three successive protocols: UFT (32), UFT-oxaliplatin (75) and capecitabine-oxaliplatin (19), alongside 45 Gy of radiotherapy; with surgery 4-6 weeks after. Adjuvant treatment was given in all patients. The primary objective was pathologic complete response (pCR). Preoperative therapy was well tolerated, with no toxic deaths and a 15% grade 3-4 toxicity rate. Eighty-five percent of patients received the full chemotherapy dose, 56% had an abdominoperineal resection, 6% reinterventions and 57% received the full adjuvant chemotherapy planned. The pCR rate was 13%. The downstaging rate was 80%; 8% had progression of disease. The relapse rate was 20%, with local relapse in 6%. By 5 years of followup, 92% of relapses had occurred. Median follow-up was 73 months, 5- and 10-year disease-free survival rates were 75% and 50%, and 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 79% and 66% respectively. There was no benefit from the use of oxaliplatin regarding survival or pCR rates. Older patients had worse long-term outcomes. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with oral fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin is feasible and well tolerated. The risk of early progression is low. However, there was no added benefit with the use of oxaliplatin. There were no relapses in patients with pCR. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear.
    Clinical and Translational Oncology 06/2012; 14(6):471-80. DOI:10.1007/s12094-012-0826-y · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although thyroid cancer usually has an excellent prognosis, few therapeutic options are available in the refractory setting. Based on the recent results of phase II studies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, we designed a retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic thyroid cancer treated with sorafenib in seven Spanish referral centers. Consecutive patients with progressive metastatic thyroid cancer (papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic) not suitable for curative surgery, radioactive-iodine therapy, or radiotherapy were treated with sorafenib 400 mg twice a day. The primary end point was objective response rate (RR). Secondary end points included toxicity, median progression-free survival (mPFS), median overall survival (mOS), and correlation between tumor marker levels (thyroglobulin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen) and efficacy. Between June 2006 and January 2010, 34 patients were included in the study. Sixteen patients presented differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) of which seven (21%) were papillary, nine (26%) follicular, 15 (44%) medullary (MTC), and three (9%) were anaplastic (ATC). Eleven (32%) patients achieved partial response and 14 (41%) had stable disease beyond 6 months. Regarding histological subtype, RRs were 47% (seven of 15) for MTC, 19% (three of 16) for DTC, and 33% (one of three) for ATC. With a median follow-up of 11.5 months, mPFS were 13.5, 10.5, and 4.4 months for DTC, MTC, and ATC respectively. Tumor markers were evaluated in 22 patients, and a statistically significant association was observed between RR and decrease in tumor marker levels >50% (P=0.033). In this retrospective trial, sorafenib showed antitumor efficacy in all histological subtypes of thyroid cancer, warranting further development in this setting.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 01/2012; 19(2):209-16. DOI:10.1530/ERC-11-0351 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy before surgery is an option in the treatment of locally advanced resectable oesophageal cancer (EC). However toxicity is substantial and the improvement in overall survival (OS) with this approach is controversial. This was a prospective, single-centre study of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy with CDDP and 5-FU and 50.4 Gy of external radiotherapy before possible radical surgery in patients with locally advanced resectable EC. If surgery was not possible, a second-phase radiotherapy boost of 10 Gy and one cycle of modified dose chemotherapy were used. Seventy-three patients included between 1998 and 2007: 96% males, median age 61, 83% squamous cell carcinomas, 23% lower third tumours, 36% stage II and 54% stage III and 47% local lymph node involvement. Eighty-six percent completed the combined protocol. Main grade 3-4 toxicities: mucositis (19%) and infections (8%); 4 toxic deaths. Clinical response rates: complete response 54%, partial response 27%, stable disease 8%. Twenty-five patients proceeded to surgery, with radical resection in 24. Pathological response rate: complete response 32%, partial response 52%, progression 16%. There were 7 postoperative deaths and 16 of 34 patients that did not have surgery received the second-phase RT boost. Survival analysis: Median follow-up of 64 months (range 6-134 months). Median OS of 10.33 months. 2-year and 5-year OS of 22 and 16%. The only significant prognostic factor in OS is the clinical complete response rate: 13.9 vs. 7.7 months (p=0.0049). Our protocol offers a high rate of clinical activity although it is relatively toxic and seems to increase the postoperative mortality, which would blunt any small improvement in survival. The achievement of a complete response is a powerful prognostic factor.
    Clinical and Translational Oncology 12/2009; 11(12):835-41. DOI:10.1007/s12094-009-0452-5 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary meningeal lymphoma is a rare clinical entity. Central nervous system infiltration by systemic lymphoma should always be excluded. Diagnosis can be difficult, and prognosis is usually poor. Most are of B-cell origin. We present the case of a young man with a primary meningeal lymphoma of T-cell origin. He was treated with systemic chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine and intraventricular chemotherapy. He had a clinical improvement and a complete remission, with a long overall survival. There is no standard treatment for this rare disease. Traditionally, treatment has been based in craniospinal radiation therapy and intrathecal chemotherapy, with poor overall results. More recently, systemic chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate has been advocated, which could avoid the long-term toxicity of craniospinal radiation therapy, and could improve the prognosis of these patients.
    Clinical Lymphoma & Myeloma 10/2007; 7(8):546-9. DOI:10.3816/CLM.2007.n.041 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionLittle has been published regarding clinical predictors of severe toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with combination chemotherapy (CT) with oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan. Material and MethodsWe analyzed retrospectively 142 patients treated between 1996 and 2004 in our center with these regimes with regards to grade 3–4 toxicity and overall survival (OS) rates. Köhne's prognostic classification could be applied in all patients. ResultsKöhne classification: good (54.2%), intermediate (26.8%), and poor prognosis (19%). 50.4% received irinotecan-based CT. Median number of cycles 6 with a total response rate of 38.9%. 23.2% stopped first-line CT due to toxicity. 50.7% suffered grade 3–4 toxicity: digestive (28.2%), hematologic (19.7%), and fatigue (25.4%). 7.7% episodes of neutropenic fever with 4.9% toxic deaths. 70.9% of grade 3–4 episodes occurred in the first four cycles. Median follow-up of 33.9 mo; median OS of 15.9 mo. For Köhne classification: good (20 mo), intermediate (15.8 mo), and poor (6.8 mo). Toxicity analysis: female sex and age>70 yr predicted higher overall grade 3–4 toxicity, with no differences in CT efficacy; age>70 yr and PS>1 predicted higher grade 3–4 fatigue. No relationship could be found between baseline laboratory characteristics and higher toxicity, except baseline hemoglobin and grade 3–4 hematologic toxicity. ConclusionsFemale and elderly patients have a higher grade 3–4 toxicity rate when treated with combination CT with oxaliplatin or irinotecan. Prognostic classifications such as Köhne's can help differentiate subgroups of patients who benefit little with the use of combination CT.
    Medical Oncology 08/2006; 23(3):347-357. DOI:10.1385/MO:23:3:347 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little has been published regarding clinical predictors of severe toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with combination chemotherapy (CT) with oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan. We analyzed retrospectively 142 patients treated between 1996 and 2004 in our center with these regimes with regards to grade 3-4 toxicity and overall survival (OS) rates. Köhne's prognostic classification could be applied in all patients. Köhne classification: good (54.2%), intermediate (26.8%), and poor prognosis (19%). 50.4% received irinotecan-based CT. Median number of cycles 6 with a total response rate of 38.9%. 23.2% stopped first-line CT due to toxicity. 50.7% suffered grade 3-4 toxicity: digestive (28.2%), hematologic (19.7%), and fatigue (25.4%). 7.7% episodes of neutropenic fever with 4.9% toxic deaths. 70.9% of grade 3-4 episodes occurred in the first four cycles. Median follow-up of 33.9 mo; median OS of 15.9 mo. For Köhne classification: good (20 mo), intermediate (15.8 mo), and poor (6.8 mo). Toxicity analysis: female sex and age > 70 yr predicted higher overall grade 3-4 toxicity, with no differences in CT efficacy; age > 70 yr and PS > 1 predicted higher grade 3-4 fatigue. No relationship could be found between baseline laboratory characteristics and higher toxicity, except baseline hemoglobin and grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity. Female and elderly patients have a higher grade 3-4 toxicity rate when treated with combination CT with oxaliplatin or irinotecan. Prognostic classifications such as Köhne's can help differentiate subgroups of patients who benefit little with the use of combination CT.
    Medical Oncology 01/2006; 23(3):347-57. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is frequent in cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, in Spain, of malnutrition in cancer patients with advanced disease and to assess the therapeutic focus. A total of 781 patients were evaluated to determine individual nutritional status using the Scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (Scored PG-SGA) questionnaire. Almost 60% of the patients included were receiving cancer treatment. Patients with the highest weight loss were those with tumours of oesophagus (57%), stomach (50%) and larynx (47%). Serious eating problems were encountered by 68% of the patients; the principal problem being anorexia (42.2%). The median number of symptoms impeding food intake was 2. According to the Scored PG-SGA, 52% of the patients were moderately or severely malnourished and 97.6% required some form of nutritional intervention/recommendation. (a) the majority of patients in the study needed nutritional intervention; (b) more than 50% had moderate or severe malnutrition; (c) the Scored PG-SGA is a useful and simple tool for evaluating nutritional status and contains additional information on nutritional recommendations; (d) nutritional evaluation of the cancer patients needs to be improved so as to offer better treatment of symptoms and to improve the patient's quality of life.
    Clinical Nutrition 11/2005; 24(5):801-14. DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2005.05.001 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to analyze prognostic factors for survival and to assess the applicability of Kohne's classification in patients treated with irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. One hundred forty-two consecutive cases from a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Median patient age was 62 years. Sixty percent were men. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) was 0/1 in 88%. Primary tumor resection (PTR) was performed in 80.6% of patients who initially had stage IV disease. Chemotherapy consisted of fluoropyrimidines or raltitrexed plus irinotecan (50.5%), oxaliplatin (38.5%), or both (11%). Univariate and multivariate analyses for survival were performed using pretreatment patient characteristics. Median follow-up was 33.9 months and median overall survival was 15.9 months. Significantly unfavorable prognostic factors were PTR not being performed, disease involvement of >1 organ, liver metastases, undifferentiated histology, EGOG PS>1, increased serum carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 19.9 levels, hypoalbuminemia, leucocytosis, and elevated alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Only ECOG PS, PTR, increased LDH level, no hypoalbuminemia, and number of organs involved retained prognostic value in the multivariate analysis. The incidence and median survival for Kohne's prognostic groups were as follows: good (54.2%; 20 months), intermediate (26.8%; 15.7 months), and poor (19%; 6.8 months). For patients with stage IV disease at presentation, PTR was associated with a significantly longer survival, mainly in patients with an ECOG PS of 0/1. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS, PTR, serum albumin, increased LDH levels, and organ involvement were the main prognostic indicators in our series. Kohne's prognostic groups, developed in the era of 5-fluorouracil treatment, also seem to be applicable to patients treated with combination chemotherapy. Primary tumor resection should always be considered, especially in patients with an ECOG PS of 0/1. However, the benefit of PTR and multiple-agent chemotherapy is questionable in patients with an ECOG PS of >1.
    Clinical Colorectal Cancer 09/2005; 5(3):197-202. DOI:10.3816/CCC.2005.n.031 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT), prior to radical radiotherapy (RT), in the treatment of high-grade gliomas may offer several advantages over standard adjuvant CT. The addition of tamoxifen, which can circumvent P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated chemo-resistance, also merits attention. We have evaluated the neoadjuvant regimen of cisplatin and etoposide after surgery of grade III-IV gliomas and prior to radical RT, with regard to response rates (RRs), overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). The synergistic activity between etoposide and tamoxifen was also studied. Forty-four patients were included. CT regime: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on day +1 and etoposide 100 mg/m2 on days +1 to +3 every 3 weeks for 3 cycles. The initial 24 were also treated with high-dose tamoxifen, 275 mg/m2 on days -3 to +3. An immunohistochemical analysis of P-gp, p53, vascular endothelial growth factor, Ki67 and bcl-2 was also performed. Median follow-up was 11.57 months. In the 16 patients with measurable disease after surgery, a RR of 12.5% was seen, with 37.5% of disease stabilizations and 31.25% of progressions. The median OS and TTP were 11.3 and 5.7 months. Excluding the three deaths possibly related to tamoxifen, grade 3-4 was low, mainly emesis. Favorable prognostic factors were age less than 60 years, extent of surgery, absence of measurable disease, and the absence of radiological necrosis and ring enhancement. Only high p53 expression was associated with better OS. We conclude that neoadjuvant cisplatin and etoposide is a feasible regime, although any real advantage over standard adjuvant CT is dubious. Short-course high-dose tamoxifen should not be used alongside primary CT.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 04/2005; 16(3):323-9. DOI:10.1097/00001813-200503000-00012 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of solid malignancies, especially in colorectal cancer. A characteristic note seen with its use is the considerable interindividual variation in the incidence and severity of the toxicities seen among patients. We report the case of a 55-year old woman who presented with severe, lethal toxicity to standard doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid. We discuss the known clinical determinants of toxicity. We also discuss the possible molecular factors implicated in the variable toxicity seen to 5-FU, especially in regards to dihiyropyrimidine dehydrogenase, a pivotal enzyme in the metabolism of 5-FU.
    Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 01/2005; 16(6):599-603. DOI:10.1179/joc.2004.16.6.599 · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • Ángel Segura · Lorena Pellín · Carmen Gil
    Medicina Clínica 12/2004; 122(1):40. DOI:10.1016/S0025-7753(04)74136-6 · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Leukemia and Lymphoma 05/2004; 45(4):853-5. DOI:10.1080/10428190310001615648 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The case of a 55-yr-old male with a right pleural effusion and multiple bilateral nodules is reported. A diagnostic thoracothomy was necessary to obtain a definitive histological diagnosis. During the postoperative course, the subject's neurological condition deteriorated and multiple cerebral mass lesions were discovered. The pathological analysis of both lung and cerebral tumours revealed an atypical endothelial cell proliferation; vascular immunohistochemical markers, such as factor VIII and CD34, were strongly positive. His general condition remained poor and the patient died 18 months after the initial diagnosis. The final diagnosis was pulmonary epitheloid haemangioendothelioma with synchronous central nervous system dissemination, the first time the authors believe that association has been reported. Little is known of the prognosis and treatment of these tumours, due to their rarity. Negative prognostic factors appear to be the presence of symptoms, pleural effusion or multifocal presentations. Treatment should include surgical resection if possible; chemotherapy appears to have little effect. Watchful waiting is an acceptable option, especially in asymptomatic patients.
    European Respiratory Journal 04/2004; 23(3):483-6. DOI:10.1183/09031936.04.00060104 · 7.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

323 Citations
87.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe
      • • Department of Medical Oncology
      • • Medical Oncology Unit
      • • Servicio de Oncología Médica
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
    • Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain