Hiroshi Kawano

Ritsumeikan University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (47)122.69 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: β3-Adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) Trp64Arg polymorphism is associated with atherogenic risk factors that include weight gain, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Habitual exercise brings higher cardiorespiratory fitness and results in the amelioration of atherosclerotic risk factors. However, the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness level and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism on the risk of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. A cross-sectional investigation of 877 Japanese men and women (18-75 years old) was performed to clarify the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on the relationship between ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease. Common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and blood lipid profiles were assessed as surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. We measured peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2peak) during incremental cycle ergometer exercise testing. Subjects were divided into groups with high (High-Fit) and low (Low-Fit) levels of cardiorespiratory fitness based on the median value of [Formula: see text]O2peak for sex and decade. Levels of body fat, triglycerides, and plasma glucose were lower and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and [Formula: see text]O2peak were higher in High-Fit subjects than Low-Fit subjects. ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism did not significantly affect ccIMT or blood lipid profiles. In Low-Fit subjects, ccIMT was higher in individuals with the Arg/Arg genotype compared to the Trp/Trp and Trp/Arg genotypes (each P < 0.0001); however, ADRB3 polymorphism had no effect in High-Fit subjects. Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness may attenuate the risk of atherosclerosis associated with ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 03/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether overfeeding and high-intensity physical training increase organ mass. We examined this question using cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in which we measured collegiate male American football players. Freshman (n = 10) and senior players in their second and third years of college (n = 17) participated in the cross-sectional study. The same measurements of the same freshman players (n = 10) were assessed after the one-year weight gain period in the longitudinal study. Fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue mass were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Liver, kidney, brain, and heart volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography. Compared with the freshman players, the senior players had 10.8 kg more FFM, and 0.29 kg, 0.08 kg, and 0.09 kg greater liver, heart, and kidney mass, respectively. In the longitudinal study, FFM, liver, heart, and kidney mass of the freshman players increased by 5.2 kg, 0.2 kg, 0.04 kg, and 0.04 kg, respectively, after one year of overfeeding and physical training. On the other hand, the organ-tissue mass to FFM ratio did not change, except for the brain, in either the cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. Our results indicated that the organ-tissue masses increased with overfeeding and physical training in male collegiate American football players.
    International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 12/2013; 23(6):617-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of arterial elasticity are attenuated in individuals with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Viscosity is another mechanical characteristic of the arterial wall; however, the effects of age and cardiorespiratory fitness have not been determined. We examined the associations among age, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid arterial wall viscosity. A total of 111 healthy men, aged 25-39 years (young) and 40-64 years (middle-aged), were divided into either cardiorespiratory fit or unfit groups on the basis of peak oxygen uptake. The common carotid artery was measured noninvasively by tonometry and automatic tracking of B-mode images to obtain instantaneous pressure and diameter hysteresis loops, and we calculated the effective compliance, isobaric compliance and viscosity index. In the middle-aged men, the viscosity index was larger in the unfit group than in the fit group (2533 vs. 2018 mmHg·s/mm, respectively: P < 0.05), but this was not the case in the young men. In addition, effective and isobaric compliance were increased, and viscosity index was increased with advancing age, but these parameters were unaffected by cardiorespiratory fitness level. These results suggest that the wall viscosity in the central artery is increased with advancing age and that the age-associated increase in wall viscosity may be attenuated in cardiorespiratory fit men.
    Journal of Hypertension 09/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether overfeeding and high-intensity physical training increase organ mass. We examined this question using cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in which we measured collegiate male American football players. Freshman (n = 10) and senior players in their second and third years of college (n = 17) participated in the cross-sectional study. The same measurements of the same freshman players (n = 10) were assessed after the one-year weight gain period in the longitudinal study. Fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue mass were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Liver, kidney, brain, and heart volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography. Compared to the freshman players, the senior players had 10.8 kg more FFM, and 0.29 kg, 0.08 kg, and 0.09 kg greater liver, heart, and kidney mass, respectively. In the longitudinal study, FFM, liver, heart, and kidney mass of the freshman players increased by 5.2 kg, 0.2 kg, 0.04 kg, and 0.04 kg, respectively, after one year of overfeeding and physical training. On the other hand, the organ-tissue mass to FFM ratio did not change except for the brain in neither the cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. Our results indicated that the organ-tissue masses increased with overfeeding and physical training in male collegiate American football players.
    International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: A single bout of exercise can improve acute postprandial glucose metabolism aggravated by short-term low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise on short-term HFD-induced postprandial glucose and incretin metabolism during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). MATERIALS/METHODS: Eleven healthy young men (age [mean±SE] 27±1years; body mass index, 22±1kg/m(2)) performed three, 3-day interventions in randomized order: (1) a normal diet (ND: ~22% fat), (2) an HFD (~69% fat) and (3) an HFD with a single bout of aerobic exercise (HFDEx). The exercise (50% peak oxygen consumption; ~200kcal) was performed on the third day in HFDEx. An OGTT was performed after each 3-day dietary intervention. RESULTS: The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose levels during the OGTT was significantly higher in the HFD and HFDEx trials than in the ND trial (P=0.001). In addition, the iAUC of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level was significantly higher in the HFD trial than in the ND and HFDEx trials (P=0.04). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in the HFD (P=0.01 and 0.002) and HFDEx trials (P=0.05 and 0.008) than in the ND trial. CONCLUSION: A single bout of aerobic exercise did not improve the short-term HFD-induced aggravation of postprandial glucose and insulin metabolism during the OGTT. However, it did normalize the increased postprandial GLP-1 level induced by HFD.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 06/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study determined the changes in appetite and appetite-regulating gut hormones during and following bouts of both rope skipping exercise (weight-bearing) and bicycle ergometer exercise (non-weight-bearing). After a 12-h fast, 15 young men (mean±SD, age 24.4±1.7yrs, maximal oxygen uptake 47.0±6.5mL/kg/min) participated in three 160min trials: (1) rope skipping exercise (295±40kcal, 3 sets×10min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120min); (2) bicycle ergometer exercise (288±36kcal, 3 sets×10min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120min); (3) control (rested for 160min). Ratings of perceived hunger and acylated ghrelin were suppressed and total peptide YY (PYY) were increased during and immediately after exercise in both exercise trials, but glucagon liked peptide-1 was not changed. Furthermore, suppressed hunger during rope skipping exercise was greater than that during bicycle ergometer exercise, but there were no differences in acylated ghrelin and total PYY. These results indicate that weight-bearing exercise has a greater exercise-induced appetite suppressive effect compared with non-weight-bearing exercise, and both forms of exercise lowered acylated ghrelin and increased total PYY, but the changes did not differ significantly between exercise modes.
    Appetite 02/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) Ala54Thr polymorphism is a candidate gene associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Habitual exercise brings higher cardiorespiratory fitness and results in the improvement of cardiovascular disease risk. However, the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness level and FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism on the risk of cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. In the present study, a cross-sectional investigation of 837 Japanese men and women was performed to clarify the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on the relationship between risk of cardiovascular disease and FABP2 Ala54Thr gene polymorphism. The study subjects were divided into high-cardiorespiratory fitness (High-Fit) and low-cardiorespiratory fitness (Low-Fit) groups based on the median value of peak oxygen uptake in each sex and decade. The FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism did not significantly affect carotid β-stiffness or blood pressure. In the Low-Fit group, carotid β-stiffness, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were higher for individuals with the Ala/Ala genotype compared with those with the Ala/Thr or Thr/Thr genotype, whereas no differences were observed in the High-Fit group. Additionally, serum triglyceride and plasma glucose levels were lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in the High-Fit group compared with the Low-Fit group; the FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism did not significantly affect these parameters. These results suggest that the higher cardiorespiratory fitness may attenuate the changes in central arterial stiffness and blood pressure that are associated with the FABP2 genotype.
    Physiological Genomics 01/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that resting energy expenditure (REE) adjusted by fat-free mass (FFM) in male college athletes remains consistent regardless of FFM. The FFM comprises internal organs with high metabolic activity, such as liver and brain, which account for 60 to 80% of REE in adults. The purpose of the present study is to examine the contribution of internal organs to the REE of the FFM fraction among male power athletes. The study included 37 American male college football players. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mass of brain, liver, and kidneys was measured by MRI and mass of heart was estimated by echocardiography. Normal levels of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine: T3) were confirmed in all subjects prior to the analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the influence of FFM, fat mass (FM), T3, and mass of organs on variance of REE. Average body weight and FFM were 81.2±11.3 kg and 67.7±7.4 kg, respectively. The relative contributions of liver, kidneys, and heart to REE were consistent regardless of FFM, while the REE of brain was negatively correlated with FFM (r=-0.672, p<0.001). Only FFM and T3 were found to be independent factors influencing REE. These results suggest that a steady contribution of internal organs other than the brain is the major reason for the consistency of the REE/FFM ratio in male power athletes.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2013; 59(3):224-31. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of acute exercise in hypoxia on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Eight males participated in this study. Two maximal exercise tests were performed using arm cycle ergometry to estimate peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] while breathing normoxic [inspired O(2) fraction (FIO(2)) = 0.21] or hypoxic (FIO(2) = 0.12) gas mixtures. Next, subjects performed submaximal exercise at the same relative exercise intensity [Formula: see text] in normoxia or hypoxia for 30 min. Before (Pre) and after exercise (Post 5, 30, and 60 min), brachial artery FMD was measured during reactive hyperemia by ultrasound under normoxic conditions. FMD was estimated as the percent (%) rise in the peak diameter from the baseline value at prior occlusion at each FMD measurement (%FMD). The area under the curve for the shear rate stimulus (SR(AUC)) was calculated in each measurement, and each %FMD value was normalized to SR(AUC) (normalized FMD). %FMD and normalized FMD decreased significantly (P < 0.05) immediately after exercise in both condition (mean ± SE, FMD, normoxic trial, Pre: 8.85 ± 0.58 %, Post 5: -0.01 ± 1.30 %, hypoxic trial, Pre: 8.84 ± 0.63 %, Post 5: 2.56 ± 0.83 %). At Post 30 and 60, %FMD and normalized FMD returned gradually to pre-exercise levels in both trials (FMD, normoxic trial, Post 30: 1.51 ± 0.68 %, Post 60: 2.99 ± 0.79 %; hypoxic trial, Post 30: 4.57 ± 0.78 %, Post 60: 6.15 ± 1.20 %). %FMD and normalized FMD following hypoxic exercise (at Post 5, 30, and 60) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than after normoxic exercise. These results suggest that aerobic exercise in hypoxia has a significant impact on endothelial-mediated vasodilation.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 06/2012; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postprandial hyperglycemia increases the risks of development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 3-day low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LC/HFD) alters postprandial plasma glucose and incretin levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy men. Nine healthy young men (age (mean ± s.e.), 27 ± 1 years; body mass index, 22 ± 1 kg/m(2)) consumed either a normal diet (ND: energy from ∼22% fat) or a LC/HFD (energy from ∼69% fat) for 3 days each. The total energy intake from each diet was similar. An OGTT was performed after each 3-day dietary intervention. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were determined at rest and during the OGTT. Plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve during the OGTT were significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P=0.024). In addition, increase in GLP-1 levels was significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P=0.025). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P<0.041). These results demonstrate that even short-term LC/HFD increased postprandial plasma glucose and GLP-1 levels in healthy young men. A decrease in first-phase insulin secretion may partially contribute to the short-term LC/HFD-induced increase in postprandial plasma glucose levels.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 06/2012; 66(8):926-31. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little information is available regarding the interactions of sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the risks of these age-associated diseases in women. The present cross-sectional study was performed to investigate whether the coexistence of sarcopenia and MetS further increases the risks of lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese women. Healthy Japanese women (n=533) aged 30-84 participated in this study. MetS was defined as higher body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, systolic or diastolic blood pressure and blood lipid abnormalities. Appendicular muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The criterion of low muscle mass and strength defined median skeletal muscle index (appendicular muscle mass/height(2), kg/m(2)) and handgrip strength. Two-way ANCOVA with adjustment for age, body fat percentage and whole-body lean tissue mass indicated that sarcopenia and MetS interacted to produce a significant effect on HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in Japanese women. The systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in women with coexisting sarcopenia and MetS than in healthy controls or in those with sarcopenia or MetS alone. The HbA1c in the coexisting sarcopenia and MetS group was higher than in healthy controls and sarcopenia subjects. The coexistence of sarcopenia and MetS further increases the risks of cardiovascular diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arterial stiffness and hyperlipidemia even adjustment of age and body composition in adult Japanese women.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 05/2012; 66(10):1093-8. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: When previously sedentary males and females follow the same exercise training programs with ad libitum feeding, males reduced body mass, but females do not, which suggests that females may increase appetite in response to exercise training compared with males. Rope skipping is traditional exercise modality that everyone had experienced during elementary school years in Japan. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a sex difference on appetite after acute rope skipping exercise.Methods and results: Thirteen healthy young males (22.5 ± 0.8 years, 172.2 ± 1.7 cm, 68.8 ± 2.3 kg, 18.4 ± 0.9%) and 13 females (22.9 ± 0.8 years, 160.6 ± 1.5 cm, 52.9 ± 1.6 kg, 25.0 ± 1.0%) participated in this study. Subjects consumed their lunch by 13:00, and performed a total of 20 min rope skipping exercise (2 sets × 10 min with 5 min interval) from 16:00. In females, appetite significantly increased from immediately after the exercise to 30 min after the exercise (from 13 mm to 30 mm), but remained unchanged in males. Although heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, and lactate concentrations increased from baseline to immediately after exercise, there were no differences in the increase between males and females. Blood glucose concentrations at baseline and 30 min after exercise were higher in females than in males.Conclusion: These results indicated that rope skipping exercise induces an increase in appetite in females, but not in males. This increased appetite in females after the rope skipping exercise was induced without change in blood glucose concentrations.
    Obesity Research & Clinical Practice 04/2012; 6(2):e91-e174. · 0.70 Impact Factor
  • Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi Japanese Journal of Geriatrics 01/2012; 49(6):715-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study elucidated the effects of habitual rowing exercise on arterial stiffness and plasma levels of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 and the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in older men. Eleven rowers (68.0 ± 1.6 years) and 11 sedentary control older men (64.9 ± 1.1 years) were studied. Peak oxygen uptake (36.0 ± 1.7 vs. 27.7 ±1.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), leg press power (1346 ± 99 vs. 1077 ± 68 W), and HDL-cholesterol (75 ± 5 vs. 58 ±3 mg · ml(-1)) were higher and triglyceride (78 ± 9 vs. 120 ± 14 mg · ml(-1)) was lower in rowers than in control participants (all P < 0.05). Arterial stiffness indices (carotid β-stiffness and cardio-ankle vascular index) and plasma endothelin-1 and NOx (nitrite + nitrate) levels did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that habitual rowing exercise in older men is associated with high muscle power and aerobic capacity, and favourable blood lipid profile without affecting arterial stiffness or plasma levels of endotheline-1 and NO.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 12/2011; 30(3):241-6. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fat-free mass (FFM) of athletes is typically large, and thus the FFM is often utilized to estimate their resting energy expenditure (REE). While the proportional contribution of organ-tissues to the total influence of FFM on REE is known for untrained individuals and female athletes, the extent to which this is valid for male athletes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the contribution of the components of FFM to REE in male athletes. Fifty-seven male athletes participated in this study. REE was assessed by indirect calorimetry and body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The athletes were equally divided into three groups based on FFM: Small (S), Medium (M), and Large (L). When measured REE (REEm) was compared with REE estimated (REEe) based on the four organ-tissue compartments with set metabolic rates, REEm and REEe had a strong association (r=0.76, p<0.001). In addition, the absolute value of total REE became larger in accordance with body size (S: 1,643±144, M: 1,865±140, and L: 2,060±156 kcal/d) accompanied by increases in mass of all four organ-tissue compartments as body size increased. The consistency of REE/FFM in male athletes in spite of the difference in body size can be explained by the steadiness among the three groups of the relative contribution of each organ-tissue compartment to the FFM. Based on these results, the FFM is the major determinant of REE regardless of body size in male athletes.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2011; 57(6):394-400. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO(2)max) and muscular strength (grip strength) are associated with individual and clustered metabolic risk factors independently of abdominal adiposity in Japanese men (n=110) and women (n=110) aged 20-69 years. Blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were assessed and metabolic risk score was calculated, which is the sum of the z scores for each individual risk factor. Waist circumference was measured and the area of visceral fat was assessed by MRI. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that VO(2)max was inversely associated with TG in men (p<0.05) and grip strength was negatively associated with FPG and metabolic risk score in women (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively), independently of waist circumference. Adjusting for visceral fat instead of waist circumference, similar results were obtained in women (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), but the association between VO(2)max and TG in men was attenuated to nonsignificant. This cross-sectional study demonstrates that muscular strength is inversely associated with plasma glucose levels and clustered metabolic risk factors independently of abdominal adiposity in Japanese women, but not in men.
    Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 01/2011; 30(4):133-9. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The number of lean young women has been increasing. Fear of being fat may induce unnecessary attempts to reduce body weight, which can cause several types of illness. Many investigations have demonstrated dysfunction of the hypothalamus and metabolic differences in patients with anorexia nervosa. However, it is unclear whether there are any differences in physical characteristics between women with lower body weight and no illness compared to those of normal body weight. In this study, we investigated the differences in body composition, biochemical parameters, and resting energy expenditure (REE) between young women with low and normal body mass index (BMI). Twenty lean women (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)) and 20 normal women (18.5≤BMI<25 kg/m(2)) were recruited for this study. Body composition, biochemical parameters, and REE (REEm: measurement of REE) were measured, and the REE (REEe: estimation of REE) was estimated by using a prediction model. Marked differences were found in body composition. All of the values of blood analysis were in the normal ranges in both groups. REEm (kcal/d and kcal/kg BW/d) was significantly lower in lean than in normal women, but there were no significant differences in the REEm to fat free mass (FFM) ratio between the two groups. In addition, there was good agreement between REEm and REEe obtained from the specific metabolic rates of four tissue organs. These data indicate that the lean women without any illness have normal values of biochemical parameters and energy metabolism compared to women with normal BMI.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2011; 57(1):74-9. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Greater venous compliance is associated with attenuation of the tolerance response to orthostatic stress and reduced incidence of venous diseases. Resistance training induces tolerance to orthostatic challenge and the growth of capillaries, which may lead to negative and positive effects on venous compliance, respectively. It has not been confirmed, however, whether habitual resistance training positively or negatively affects venous compliance. We compared the forearm venous compliance in resistance-trained men with age-matched controls. Eleven resistance-trained middle-aged men (37.7 ± 1.5 years) and 12 age-matched sedentary controls (36.7 ± 1.6 years) were studied. Forearm venous compliance was measured in subjects in the supine position by inflating a venous collecting cuff placed around the upper arm to 60 mmHg for 8 min and then decreasing cuff pressure to 0 mmHg at a rate of 1 mmHg/s. Forearm venous compliance was determined using the first derivative of the pressure-volume relation during cuff pressure reduction (compliance = β(1) + 2β(2) × cuff pressure). Forearm venous compliance at 20 mmHg cuff pressure was 16% greater in the resistance-trained group than in the age-matched sedentary controls (0.097 ± 0.005 vs. 0.083 ± 0.004 ml/dl/mmHg, P < 0.05). Forearm venous compliance was positively related to forearm venous volume (r = 0.643, P = 0.0009), but not forearm muscle mass (r = 0.391, P = 0.0648). In conclusion, the present study suggests that (1) the resistance-trained men have greater forearm venous compliance than age-matched controls, and (2) the higher forearm venous compliance in the resistance-trained men may be explained by greater forearm venous capacitance.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 11/2010; 110(4):769-77. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is independently associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Carotid arterial remodeling, which is derived from the interplay between carotid luminal dilation and wall thickening, is also an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that high CRF may be associated with reduced age-related carotid arterial remodeling. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationships between CRF and age-related luminal dilation and wall thickening. A total of 771 adults (180 men and 591 women), under age 40 (young), 40-59 (middle-aged), and over age 60 (older) participated in this study. Subjects in each age category were divided into either high (fit) or low (unfit) CRF groups based on VO(2peak). Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and lumen diameter were measured on ultrasound images. Carotid wall mass was calculated as ρL(πRe(2)-Ri(2)). Two-way ANOVA indicated a significant interaction (p < 0.01) between age and CRF in determining IMT, lumen diameter, and wall mass. In older subjects, IMT, lumen diameter, and wall mass were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the fit than in the unfit group (IMT, 0.69±0.01 vs. 0.74±0.01 mm; lumen diameter, 5.99±0.06 vs. 6.28±0.06 mm; wall mass, 7.41±0.25 vs. 8.71±0.25 mm(3)). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the value of VO(2peak) was independently correlated with carotid IMT, lumen diameter and wall mass. The present study indicated that a high level of CRF is associated with reduced age-related wall thickening and luminal dilation in the carotid artery.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 11/2010; 18(3):248-54. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The TT genotype of C677T polymorphism in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) induces elevation of homocysteine level and leads to atherosclerosis and arterial stiffening. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness level is also associated with arterial stiffness. In the present study, a cross-sectional investigation of 763 Japanese men and women (18-70 yr old) was performed to clarify the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on the relationship between arterial stiffness and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid beta-stiffness with ultrasonography and tonometry. The study subjects were divided into high-cardiorespiratory fitness (High-Fit) and low-cardiorespiratory fitness (Low-Fit) groups based on the median value of peak oxygen uptake in each sex and decade. The plasma homocysteine level was higher in the TT genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism compared with CC and CT genotype individuals. MTHFR C677T polymorphism showed no effect on carotid beta-stiffness, but there was a significant interaction effect between fitness and MTHFR C677T polymorphism on carotid beta-stiffness (P = 0.0017). In the Low-Fit subjects, carotid beta-stiffness was significantly higher in individuals with the TT genotype than the CC and CT genotypes. However, there were no such differences in High-Fit subjects. In addition, beta-stiffness and plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated in Low-Fit subjects with the TT genotype (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001), but no such correlations were observed in High-Fit subjects. In CC and CT genotype individuals, there were also no such correlations in either fitness level. These results suggest that the higher cardiorespiratory fitness may attenuate central artery stiffening associated with MTHFR C677T polymorphism.
    Physiological Genomics 07/2010; 42(2):259-65. · 2.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

400 Citations
122.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Ritsumeikan University
      • College of Sport and Health Sciences
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2010–2013
    • Waseda University
      • • Faculty of Sport Sciences
      • • Graduate School of Sport Sciences
      • • Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2010
    • National Institute of Health and Nutrition
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kawasaki Medical University
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
  • 2009
    • University of North Texas
      Denton, Texas, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Toronto
      • Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada