[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clonogenicity gives important information about the cellular reproductive potential following ionizing irradiation, but an abortive colony that fails to continue to grow remains poorly characterized. It was recently reported that the fraction of abortive colonies increases with increasing dose. Thus, we set out to investigate the production kinetics of abortive colonies using a model of branching processes.
We firstly plotted the experimentally determined colony size distribution of abortive colonies in irradiated normal human fibroblasts, and found the linear relationship on the log-linear or log-log plot. By applying the simple model of branching processes to the linear relationship, we found the persistent reproductive cell death (RCD) over several generations following irradiation. To verify the estimated probability of RCD, abortive colony size distribution (≤15 cells) and the surviving fraction were simulated by the Monte Carlo computational approach for colony expansion. Parameters estimated from the log-log fit demonstrated the good performance in both simulations than those from the log-linear fit. Radiation-induced RCD, i.e. excess probability, lasted over 16 generations and mainly consisted of two components in the early (<3 generations) and late phases. Intriguingly, the survival curve was sensitive to the excess probability over 5 generations, whereas abortive colony size distribution was robust against it. These results suggest that, whereas short-term RCD is critical to the abortive colony size distribution, long-lasting RCD is important for the dose response of the surviving fraction.
Our present model provides a single framework for understanding the behavior of primary cell colonies in culture following irradiation.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e70291. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypoxic microenvironment is closely associated with the radiation resistance of tumor cells. Hypoxia induces several genes such as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to promote tumor cell growth and survival. The up-regulated expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF in tumor cells also correlate with their resistance to radiation, suggesting that these genes are potential therapeutic targets for strategies designed to enhance radiation effects. To further investigate this possibility, we investigated the effects of suppressing these genes upon the radiation sensitivity of cancer cells. We conducted these experiments using multicellular spheroids as a three-dimensional in vitro tumor model and RNA interference as the method of gene suppression.
SQ5 human lung carcinoma cells were treated with HIF-1/VEGF siRNA and/or radiation. Reversed transfection methods were employed for the spheroids. Gene expression was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Cell toxicity was qualified by colony formation assay.
Compared with monolayer cells, spheroids showed up-regulated expression of HIF-1 and increased radiation resistance. Hypoxic conditions elevated the expression of HIF-1 and VEGF and enhanced the surviving fraction of spheroids after exposure to radiation. However, when the expression of HIF-1 and VEGF was down-regulated by transfection of targeting siRNA, this did not influence the cytotoxic effects of the radiation under either normoxic or hypoxic conditions.
We have established a method to transfect siRNA into spheroid cells. Our current data indicate that the functions of HIF-1 or VEGF are independent of radiation sensitivity in spheroids under either normoxic or hypoxic conditions.
Journal of Radiation Research 12/2009; 51(1):47-55. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-free plasma DNA is elevated in cancer patients and decreases in response to effective treatments. Consequently, these nucleic acids have potential as new tumor markers. In our current study, we investigated whether the plasma DNA concentrations in patients with cancer are altered during the course of radiation therapy. To first determine the origin of cell-free plasma DNA, plasma samples from mice bearing transplanted human tumors were analyzed for human-specific and mouse-specific cell-free DNA. Human-specific DNA was detectable only in plasma from tumor-bearing mice. However, mouse-specific plasma DNA was significantly higher in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice, suggesting that cell-free plasma DNA originated from both tumor and normal cells. We measured the total cell-free plasma DNA levels by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 15 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy and compared these values with healthy control subjects. The cancer patients showed higher pretreatment plasma DNA concentrations than the healthy controls. Eleven of these patients showed a transient increase of up to eightfold in their cell-free plasma DNA concentrations during the first or second week of radiation therapy, followed by decreasing concentrations toward the end of treatment. In two other cancer patients, the cell-free plasma DNA concentrations only decreased over the course of the treatment. The total cell-free plasma DNA levels in cancer patients thus show dynamic changes associated with the progression of radiation therapy. Additional prospective studies will be required to elucidate the potential clinical utility and biological implications of dynamic changes in cell-free plasma DNA during radiation therapy.
Cancer Science 03/2009; 100(2):303-9. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phase 0 clinical studies, which are known as microdose trials, are expected to promote drug development and reduce development costs. The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system is expected to play an important role in the microdosing tests, as it is a highly sensitive measurement system that can be used to determine the drug concentrations in these tests. Using the AMS system, we measured the background (14)C-concentration in human blood and evaluated the data for use as a reference in microdose studies that administer (14)C-labeled compounds in humans.
Blood samples of five healthy Japanese volunteers (three men, two women, median age 40.4 +/- 9.8 years) were collected around the same time and just prior to when the subjects ate a meal (between 12:00 noon and 2:00 pm). Centrifugal separations of blood that was allowed to clot and the plasma were performed at 503 g for 2 min at 4 degrees C. Background (14)C-concentration for each of the samples was measured using the AMS system. The Institute of Accelerator Analysis, which is the first contract research organization in Japan that is capable of providing AMS analysis services for carbon dating and bioanalysis work, performed the AMS analysis.
The mean (14)C-concentration in blood was 1.613 +/- 0.125 dpm/ml (men 1.668 +/- 0.114 dpm/ml, women 1.514 +/- 0.076 dpm/ml), in clots 2.373 +/- 0.087 dpm/ml (men 2.381 +/- 0.101 dpm/ml, women 2.357 +/- 0.060 dpm/ ml), and in plasma 0.648 +/- 0.049 dpm/ml (men 0.647 +/- 0.059 dpm/ml, women 0.649 +/- 0.032 dpm/ml). The coefficient variation (CV) for blood was 7.8% (men 6.9%, women 5.0%), for clots 3.7% (men 4.3%, women 2.5%), and for plasma 7.6% (men 9.1%, women 4.9%). The (14)C-concentrations of the clot and blood were higher than those of plasma. The (14)C-concentrations in the blood and plasma were slightly different between individuals when compared with the values for the clot, although the differences were quite small, with a CV value less than 7.8%.
Even though the (14)C-concentration differed only slightly between individuals, (14)C-concentrations of the clot and blood were higher than those of the plasma. Therefore, the variation and difference of the background data for blood and plasma might be of use as a reference for microdosing test evaluations.
Annals of Nuclear Medicine 01/2009; 22(10):883-9. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first study to demonstrate that the small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 renders human cervical cancer cells and their Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant counterparts, but not normal fibroblasts, more susceptible to heavy ions. Thus, Bcl-2 may be an attractive target for improving the efficacy of heavy-ion therapy.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 10/2008; 89(2):227-30. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of the cell-cycle regulatory protein p53 or overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is associated with resistance to radiation in several types of cancer cells. Flavopiridol, a synthetic flavone, inhibits the growth of malignant tumors cells in vitro and in vivo through multiple mechanisms. The purpose of the present study is to clarify whether flavopiridol enhances the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells that contain dysfunction p53 or that overexpress Bcl-2.
A human glioma cell line (A172/mp53) stably transfected with a plasmid containing mutated p53 and a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa/bcl-2) transfected with a bcl-2 expression plasmid were used. Cells were incubated with flavopiridol for 24 h after radiation, and then cell viability was determined by a colony formation assay. Foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX were also evaluated as a sensitive indicator of DNA double-strand breaks.
Compared with the parental wild-type cells, both transfected cell lines were more resistant to radiation. Post-treatment with flavopiridol increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in both transfected cell lines, but not in their parental wild-type cell lines. Post-treatment with flavopiridol inhibited sublethal damage repair as well as the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in response to radiation.
Flavopiridol enhanced the cytotoxic effect of radiation in radioresistant tumor cells that harbor p53 dysfunction or Bcl-2 overexpression. A combination treatment of flavopiridol with radiation has the potential to conquer the radioresistance of malignant tumors induced by the genetic alteration of p53 or bcl-2.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/2008; 71(5):1485-95. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we investigated the cell killing effectiveness of heavy-ion radiation in Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant tumor cells. First, irradiated cells underwent primary colony formation. Radioresistance decreased with increasing linear energy transfer (LET), indicating that heavy ions may be a promising therapeutic modality for Bcl-2 overexpressing tumors. Second, cells in primary colonies were reseeded for secondary colony formation. The incidence of delayed reproductive death increased with LET irrespective of Bcl-2 overexpression, suggesting that Bcl-2 overexpression may not facilitate heavy ion-induced genomic instability.
Cancer Letters 05/2008; 268(1):76-81. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of Bcl-2 is frequent in human cancers and has been associated with radioresistance. Here we investigated the potential impact of heavy ions on Bcl-2 overexpressing tumors.
Bcl-2 cells (Bcl-2 overexpressing HeLa cells) and Neo cells (neomycin resistant gene-expressing HeLa cells) exposed to gamma-rays or heavy ions were assessed for the clonogenic survival, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution.
Whereas Bcl-2 cells were more resistant to gamma-rays (0.2keV/microm) and helium ions (16.2keV/microm) than Neo cells, heavy ions (76.3-1610keV/microm) yielded similar survival regardless of Bcl-2 overexpression. Carbon ions (108keV/microm) decreased the difference in the apoptotic incidence between Bcl-2 and Neo cells, and prolonged G(2)/M arrest that occurred more extensively in Bcl-2 cells than in Neo cells.
High-LET heavy ions overcome tumor radioresistance caused by Bcl-2 overexpression, which may be explained at least in part by the enhanced apoptotic response and prolonged G(2)/M arrest. Thus, heavy-ion therapy may be a promising modality for Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant tumors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 04/2008; 89(2):231-6. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation-induced genomic instability has been demonstrated in a variety of endpoints such as delayed reproductive death, chromosome instability and mutations, which occurs in the progeny of survivors many generations after the initial insult. Dependence of these effects on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation is incompletely characterized; however, our previous work has shown that delayed reductions in clonogenicity can be most pronounced at LET of 108 keV/microm. To gain insight into potential cellular mechanisms involved in LET-dependent delayed loss of clonogenicity, we investigated morphological changes in colonies arising from normal human diploid fibroblasts exposed to gamma-rays or energetic carbon ions (108 keV/microm). Exposure of confluent cultures to carbon ions was 4-fold more effective at inactivating cellular clonogenic potential and produced more abortive colonies containing reduced number of cells per colony than gamma-rays. Second, colonies were assessed for clonal morphotypic heterogeneity. The yield of differentiated cells was elevated in a dose- and LET-dependent fashion in clonogenic colonies, whereas differentiated cells predominated to a comparable extent irrespective of radiation type or dose in abortive colonies. The incidence of giant or multinucleated cells was also increased but much less frequent than that of differentiated cells. Collectively, our results indicate that carbon ions facilitate differentiation more effectively than gamma-rays as a major response in the progeny of irradiated fibroblasts. Accelerated differentiation may account, at least in part, for dose- and LET-dependent delayed loss of clonogenicity in normal human diploid cells, and could be a defensive mechanism that minimizes further expansion of aberrant cells.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 02/2008; 637(1-2):190-6. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An analysis of ionizing radiation-induced damage in peripheral lymphocytes has been employed to predict the prognosis of radiotherapy in terms of toxicity in normal tissues. Therefore, understanding the sensitivity of lymphocytes to high linear energy transfer (LET)-charged particles would be indispensable for utilizing charged particle therapy in veterinary medicine. However, the availability of such information is very limited. This study aimed to compare the radiosensitivity of feline T lymphocytes to gamma-rays (0.2 keV/microm) and 4 different types of charged particles with LET values ranging from 2.8 to 114 keV/microm. It was observed that the relative biological effectiveness, inactivation cross-section, and isodose-induced apoptosis increased in an LET-dependent manner. On the other hand, no difference in apoptosis frequency was observed in the cells exposed to an isosurvival dose of all the radiation types tested. This is the first study that demonstrates the LET dependence of cell killing and apoptosis induction in feline T lymphocytes. Our results suggest that lymphocytes can be effectively used to predict the prognosis of charged-particle therapy in cat patients.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 07/2007; 69(6):605-9. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence indicates that ionizing radiation induces biological effects in non-irradiated bystander cells that have received signals from adjacent or distant irradiated cells. This phenomenon, which has been termed the ionizing radiation-induced bystander effect, challenges the long-standing paradigm that radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is a prerequisite to elicit genetic damage or a biological response. Bystander effects have been observed in a number of experimental systems, and cells whose nucleus or cytoplasm is irradiated exert bystander responses. Bystander cells manifest a multitude of biological consequences, such as genetic and epigenetic changes, alterations in gene expression, activation of signal transduction pathways, and delayed effects in their progeny. Several mediating mechanisms have been proposed. These involve gap junction-mediated intercellular communication, secreted soluble factors, oxidative metabolism, plasma membrane-bound lipid rafts, and calcium fluxes. This paper reviews briefly the current knowledge of the bystander effect with a focus on proposed mechanisms. The potential benefit of bystander effects to cancer radiotherapy will also be discussed.
Journal of Radiation Research 04/2007; 48(2):87-95. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis frequently shows elevated expression in human tumors, thus resulting in resistance to radiation therapy. Therefore, inhibiting Bcl-2 function may enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Tetrocarcin A (TC-A) and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides exhibit antitumor activity by inhibiting Bcl-2 function and transcription, respectively. We investigated whether these antitumor agents would enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2.
We used HeLa/bcl-2 cells, a stable Bcl-2-expressing cell line derived from wild-type HeLa (HeLa/wt) cells. Cells were incubated with TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides for 24 h after irradiation, and cell viability was then determined. Apoptotic cells were quantified by flow cytometric assay.
The HeLa/bcl-2 cells were more resistant to radiation than HeLa/wt cells. At concentrations that are not inherently cytotoxic, both TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, but not in HeLa/wt cells. However, in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, additional treatment with TC-A in combination with radiation did not significantly increase apoptosis.
The present results suggest that TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides reduce radioresistance of tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Therefore, a combination of radiotherapy and Bcl-2 inhibitors may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach for treating tumors that overexpress Bcl-2.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 03/2005; 61(2):517-28. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) is one of the important xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. It was reported that GSTP1 was overexpressed in malignant tissues, and its expression level was associated with resistance to chemotherapeutics. We carried out transfection of GSTP1 sense and antisense vectors to examine effects of GSTP1 on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by camptothecin in HeLa cells. Transfection of GSTP1 antisense vector induced apoptosis. Camptothecin-induced S- or G2/M arrest was intensified by transfection of GSTP1 antisense vector, and subsequent apoptosis was attenuated by transfection of GSTP1 sense vector. These results suggest that GSTP1 has protective effects against camptothecin-induced cytotoxicity.
Cancer Letters 02/2004; 203(2):199-207. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNase II is involved in DNA fragmentation induced by a variety of treatments. However, according to past reports DNase II does not directly generate TUNEL (in situ DNA end labeling)-positive cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation of acid phosphatase in the generation of TUNEL-positive cells. DNase II-like proteins, whose molecular weights were 32-kDa, were detected in nuclear extracts of HL60 human myeloid leukemia cells post gamma-irradiation by SDS-PAGE and immunohistochemistry. Acidic nuclease activity was especially active in 32-kDa bands TUNEL assay was positive post gamma-irradiation. From measurements of the activity of acid phosphatase, the activity in nuclear extracts increased remarkably post gamma-irradiation. Gamma-irradiation can directly or indirectly activate DNase II. Once DNase II and acid phosphatase have been translocated from lysosomes into the nuclei, DNase II generates TUNEL reactive ends in combination with acid phosphatase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A telomere consists of the short tandem DNA repeats of (T2AG3)n localized to the distal ends of chromosomes. Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) has been implicated in the protection of chromosome ends. Recently, it has been reported that the loss of TRF2 induces apoptosis by various stimuli or genetic technique, however, the effects of radiation are not known. Therefore, this study investigated the interaction between TRF2 and radiation.
Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and a DNA fragmentation assay for the detection of apoptosis were performed. The interaction between elastase and TRF2 was also investigated in vitro.
Western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry showed that gamma-rays induce the temporary accumulation and subsequent loss of TRF2 protein in the nuclei of irradiated HL60 cells. Following DNA fragmentation, the loss of TRF2 could be detected. TRF2 was broken down by elastase, which was translocated into the nucleus before the loss of TRF2.
The results of the study showed that irradiation first induces activation of TRF2, consequently protecting the end of the chromosome. Subsequently, translocation of elastase into the nucleus results in the breakdown of TRF2 after DNA fragmentation has occurred.