Edwin Stephen

Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

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Publications (27)26.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose : To report the initial use of antegrade transseptal ascending aortic access to perform transcatheter embolization of a proximal type I endoleak associated with bird-beak configuration of an endograft in the proximal aortic arch. Case Report : A 61-year-old man underwent endovascular repair of a large, symptomatic aortic arch aneurysm located distal to the left common carotid artery using a fenestrated endograft. Completion angiography showed bird-beak configuration of the proximal endograft and a large type Ia endoleak. In a separate procedure, the endoleak was embolized with cyanoacrylate glue via an antegrade ascending aortic access obtained through a transseptal sheath stabilized by an indwelling arteriovenous wire loop. This approach provided straight-line access into the endoleak with requisite catheter support, and complete thrombosis of the aneurysm sac was achieved. The patient's symptoms abated, and at 1-year follow-up, there was no endoleak, and the aneurysm sac had shrunken markedly. Conclusion : Antegrade transseptal ascending aortic access facilitates transcatheter embolization of type Ia endoleak in the proximal aortic arch.
    Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists. 12/2014; 21(6):805-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular complications in closed clavicular fractures are uncommon, with an incidence of only 0.4%. Subclavian artery injury can present acutely or can have a delayed presentation with arm ischemia. We report the case of an undetected subclavian pseudoaneurysm in a patient with a nonunion fracture clavicle who was referred with persistent ischemia following attempted brachial embolectomy at another center, along with a review of literature to support the hypothesis that in addition to repair of the aneurysm, treatment of the psuedarthrosis by fixation of the clavicle is essential.
    Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 05/2014; 48(3):329-31. · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 12/2013; 29(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose : To report the bench-top evaluation and initial clinical use of an instrument for on-site fenestration of aortic stent-grafts. Methods : A stainless steel thermal cautery instrument was designed to create circular stent-graft fenestrations from 3 to 10 mm in diameter. Three operators independently bench-tested the instrument on thoracic stent-graft samples to evaluate size, shape, location, and quality of fenestrations created. For clinical use, on-site fenestration was performed 2 days before the endovascular procedure in a sterile room without access to supplemental oxygen. A fenestrator 1 or 2 mm smaller in diameter than the target vessel was used; the edges of the fenestrations were strengthened using flexible radiopaque nitinol wire. The aortic stent-graft was then re-sheathed and sterilized for added safety. Eighteen patients (17 men; mean age 51 years, range 18-80) with a variety of thoracic and juxtarenal pathologies were treated using Zenith TX2, Valiant Captivia, Zenith AAA, and Endurant stent-grafts modified in this manner. Results : After successful bench testing, the instrument was used to create 34 fenestrations in aortic stent-grafts deployed in the 18 patients. Size and location of fenestrations obtained were as desired. Subsequent catheterization of the fenestration/target vessel and covered stent deployment were successfully achieved in 31 (91%) fenestrations; 2 fenestrations had type III endoleaks and 1 fenestration was unused. There was no perioperative mortality, stroke, embolization, vessel dissection, renal failure, or graft infection. Follow-up to 1 year in the majority of patients has revealed no new fenestration-related problems. Conclusion : This simple-to-use instrument makes on-site creation of aortic stent-graft fenestrations easy, accurate, and precise. The instrument is inexpensive, robust, and easily sterilized.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 10/2013; 20(5):638-646. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose : To report the initial use of a transseptal snare-assisted pull-down technique to facilitate stent-graft passage in the aortic arch. Case Report : A 27-year-old man with Takayasu arteritis presented with large aneurysms in the aortic arch and descending aorta. During thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), stent-graft passage through the aortic arch was impossible due to recurrent upward prolapse of the delivery system in the arch aneurysm. The problem was resolved in two steps. First, antegrade ascending aortic access was obtained through a transseptal sheath. The sheath was stabilized by an indwelling transseptal guidewire held taut by a snare in the descending aorta. Next, simultaneously pushing inward on the stent-graft system from the groin and pulling down on the stiff delivery guidewire using another snare introduced through the transseptal sheath moved the wire/delivery system as a unit through the arch. Both aneurysms were successfully excluded; flow into the aortic arch branches was preserved using chimney grafts. Conclusion : Use of antegrade ascending aortic access through a stabilized transseptal sheath and snare-assisted pull down of the delivery system to facilitate retrograde stent-graft passage in the aortic arch made it possible to complete the TEVAR procedure in difficult arch anatomy.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 04/2013; 20(2):223-30. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory carotid pseudotumor is a rare differential of a unilateral neck swelling in the carotid triangle. A 48-year-old man presented with a firm non-tender gradually progressive left neck swelling for five months. Computed tomography angiogram revealed a mass encasing the common carotid. Patient underwent excision; histopathology was reported as inflammatory pseudotumor. Patient had a recurrence after eight months. Steroids were prescribed with which the swelling resolved, patient remained recurrence free at two-year follow-up.
    Vascular 03/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor
  • Indrani Sen, Edwin Stephen, Sunil Agarwal
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    ABSTRACT: Aortoiliac arterial occlusive (AIOD) disease is common in India. The clinical presentation and etiology are different than in the West. Intervention is frequently required for advanced lower extremity ischemia, but the results have not been systemically evaluated. We studied the clinical profile and midterm results of patients undergoing aortobifemoral bypass for AIOD at a tertiary care center in south India. Clinical data of patients undergoing aortobifemoral bypass for AIOD over a 6-year period from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical presentation and factors affecting outcome were evaluated. Graft patency and mortality were included as study end points. Ninety-nine patients (mean age, 52 years) with AIOD who underwent aortobifemoral bypass were included. Etiology included atherosclerosis in 79 patients, thromboangiitis obliterans in 15, Takayasu's arteritis in two, and hematological conditions in 3. Smoking (82%), hypertension (40%), and diabetes (30%) were the most common risk factors; ischemic heart disease (4%), obesity (2%), and dyslipidemia (3%) were rare. Eighty-one percent of patients presented with critical limb ischemia. Mean duration of symptoms was 22 months (range, 4 months to 9 years). Concomitant infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease was identified in 81%, but intervened upon in only 2%. In-hospital mortality was 3%. Causes of death included myocardial infarction in two and colon ischemia in one. Major morbidity included nonfatal myocardial infarction (3%), pneumonia/atelectasis (5%), and renal dysfunction (2%). Groin wound complications occurred in 20%, seroma/lymph leak in 13%, infection in 7%, and anastomotic hemorrhage in 2%. Multidrug-resistant and polymicrobial infections were common. Early graft thrombosis (30 days) occurred in 15 patients; 8 of 11 reintervened grafts were salvaged. Four more grafts thrombosed during a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 0-5 years) and two became infected. Overall study major limb loss rate was 10% (primary, 2%; secondary, 8%). Delayed presentation and smoking were more common in patients developing complications. There was no significant difference in overall complication rates between patients with thromboangiitis obliterans and atherosclerosis (P = .66). Despite earlier age at presentation, atherosclerosis remains the predominant etiology of aortoiliac arterial occlusive disease in Indian patients. Results of open revascularization are comparable to those in the Western literature. Thromboangiitis obliterans is the underlying pathology in a minority of patients with no significant difference in operative outcome. Patients frequently present late with critical limb ischemia, but this does not affect outcome.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 02/2013; 57(2 Suppl):20S-5S. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carotid body tumors are considered rare. However, there has been an increase in the number of these tumors managed at our center in recent years. Delayed presentation with large tumors is common. We studied the clinical profile, interventions, and outcomes of these tumors and assessed the factors influencing operative neurological morbidity and recurrence. This retrospective study was conducted at the Christian Medical College in Vellore, a tertiary care center in south India. We analyzed the inpatient and outpatient records of patients diagnosed to have carotid body tumors undergoing excision from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2011. Patients diagnosed to have vagal paragangliomas were excluded. Thirty-four of 48 tumors were excised from 32 patients (11 female, 21 male). Average age at presentation was 38.2 years, and three patients had familial bilateral tumors. All patients presented with a painless neck mass. There were 27 Shamblin group III, six Shamblin group II, and one Shamblin group I tumor. Eleven Shamblin group II/III tumors were associated with transient cranial nerve palsy or paresis (32.3%). Two Shamblin group III tumors were associated with perioperative stroke (5.8%). Preoperative embolization was done in 17 tumors, 12 of which were associated with neurological complications (two stroke, nine nerve palsy, one hemianopia). One patient underwent thrombolysis for a middle cerebral artery thrombus and recovered completely on follow-up, and another with a capsuloganglionic infarct managed conservatively had minimal persistent disability. Three patients had persistent nerve palsy (8.8%). Although complications were more common in patients with higher Shamblin group tumors, the difference was not statistically significant. The overall rate of neurological complications is higher with tumors of higher Shamblin groups. Preoperative embolization was not effective in reducing neurological complications. The rates of postoperative stroke and permanent cranial nerve palsy after resection of large tumors are acceptable.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 02/2013; 57(2 Suppl):64S-8S. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the clinical presentation and endovascular management of a patient who presented with massive hemoptysis secondary to a large pseudoaneurysm of left subclavian artery. Relevant literature is discussed.
    Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology. 01/2013; 20(1):90-92.
  • Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2012; 31(4):208-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe a family with hereditary paraganglioma due to a disease-causing mutation in the SDHD gene.Methods: We present the clinical findings, diagnostic test results, treatment, and genetic test results in a family with hereditary paraganglioma.Results: Three siblings with bilateral carotid body tumors presented at different time points and with varied clinical presentations. While the proband, a 20-year-old man, was not hypertensive and had normal urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine levels, his sister and brother had a more severe clinical picture, with hypertension in both and elevated normetanephrine levels in his brother (his brother had pheochromocytoma and 2 intra-abdominal paragangliomas). Mean age at presentation was 24 years. A 4-base pair frameshift mutation, c.337-340delGACT, was detected in exon 4 of the SDHD gene in all 3 patients.Conclusion: This is the first report of the c.337-340delGACT mutation being associated with hereditary paraganglioma; this report emphasizes the need to screen all at-risk first-degree relatives for the disease-causing SDHD mutation once it has been identified in an affected family member.
    Endocrine Practice 03/2012; 18(5):e106-10. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the endovascular treatment of a rare complication of iatrogenic inferior vena cava stenosis following a right live donor nephrectomy. This report highlights the clinical presentation, imaging, and management of such a case. VASCULAR DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2012:
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have compared the accuracy of color Doppler (CD) with that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, only a few have looked at the influence of these diagnostic tests on the treatment decision in PAD. This study evaluated the differences in treatment decisions that were based on CD and with those based on DSA findings. Findings from CD and DSA studies obtained in 40 patients were entered on line diagrams by two radiologists working separately. These were randomized and sent to three experienced clinicians - two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist. The treatment decisions of the clinicians based on each proforma were collected and analyzed to look for the degree of agreement between Doppler-based and DSA-based decisions. There was fair to moderate agreement between CD-based and DSA-based decisions for all three clinicians, with some improvement in agreement with the addition of clinical data. The vascular surgeons showed better agreement with each other on treatment decisions compared to the interventional radiologist who showed a fair-to-moderate level of agreement with the vascular surgeons, which did not significantly change with the addition of clinical data. There is a fair to moderate agreement between treatment decisions based on CD findings and those based on DSA findings. We conclude that CD along with clinical data is sufficient to make decisions in the treatment of PAD.
    The Indian journal of radiology and imaging 10/2011; 21(4):294-7.
  • Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 03/2011; 22(3). · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To identify and compare the existence of similar and other risk factors in the perspective of an Indian population.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 01/2010; 3(5):407-409. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 22-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of a pulsatile swelling in the right supraclavicular region. A CT angiogram revealed an aneurysm arising from the distal right subclavian artery. At surgery, the subclavian artery was almost entirely replaced by a well-vascularized tumor mass. The vascular tumor along with the native vessel was excised and replaced with a vascular prosthesis. Biopsy was suggestive of an epithelioid hemangioma (EH). In conclusion, an EH is a rare vascular tumor. The presence of vascular hyperplasia with plump endothelial cells protruding into the lumen is the most important discriminator in establishing the diagnosis of EH. Vascular neoplasms presenting as aneurysms should be considered, especially if other etiologies can be excluded.
    Vascular Medicine 11/2009; 14(4):377-9. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery is considered to be the treatment of choice for vascular injuries caused by trauma. However, endovascular techniques are emerging as an alternative means of treatment. In this article, we describe three patients with posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulae in different body regions that were managed using endovascular techniques. Each case had its unique set of associated problems requiring innovative methods and a multidisciplinary approach. While the short-term results are encouraging, long-term follow-up of posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulae that have been treated with endovascular techniques is still required.
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 08/2009; 32(5):1042-52. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present two cases of segmental arterial mediolysis, which can present with dissecting aneurysms or thrombosis of the visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) causes ischemic bowel disease and has characteristic CT and angiographic features.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2009; 28(2):72-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and potentially life threatening condition. It continues to be under diagnosed and undertreated. Awareness among Indians regarding this potentially life-threatening disease is low. Contrary to earlier belief, the incidence of VTE in Asia and India is comparable to that in Western countries. The risk of VTE is especially high in hospitalized patients, in a majority of whom it is clinically silent. It is one of the commonest causes of unplanned readmission and preventable death. In the United States, it is responsible for more deaths than accidents. Thromboprophylaxis is highly effective in reducing the incidence of VTE without any increase in clinically significant bleeding. It is worth emphasizing that prevention of VTE is much easier and cheaper than its treatment.
    Indian Journal of Urology 02/2009; 25(1):11-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Henoch The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative embolization in the management of carotid body tumours. Of the 15 patients admitted to the Department of Vascular Surgery (General Surgery Unit II), Christian Medical College, Vellore, from January 1st 2002 to December 31st 2006 for management of carotid body tumours, 4 patients underwent preoperative embolization and were grouped together. Of the remaining 9 patients who underwent surgical excision, there were 5 with comparable tumour size and these were grouped together into the control group. Surgical outcome of both the groups were compared in terms of operating time, intraoperative blood loss, nerve injury, postoperative morbidity and mortality. There was statistically significant reduction in blood loss and duration of surgery in patients who underwent preoperative embolization. In conclusion, the preoperative embolization is effective in the management of Shamblin type III carotid body tumours.
    Central European Journal of Medicine 01/2009; 4(3):337-339. · 0.26 Impact Factor