Thomas A Bunch

Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (29)127.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We examined over 50 mutations in the Drosophila βPS integrin subunit that alter integrin function in situ for their ability to bind a soluble monovalent ligand, TWOW-1. Surprisingly, very few of the mutations, which were selected for conditional lethality in the fly, reduce the ligand binding ability of the integrin. The most prevalent class of mutations activates the integrin heterodimer. These findings emphasize the importance of integrin affinity regulation and point out how molecular interactions throughout the integrin molecule are important in keeping the integrin in a low affinity state. Mutations strongly support the controversial deadbolt hypothesis, where the CD loop in the β tail domain acts to restrain the I domain in the inactive, bent conformation. Site-directed mutations in the cytoplasmic domains of βPS and αPS2C reveal different effects on ligand binding from those observed for αIIbβ3 integrins and identify for the first time a cytoplasmic cysteine residue, conserved in three human integrins, as being important in affinity regulation. In the fly, we find that genetic interactions of the βPS mutations with reduction in talin function are consistent with the integrin affinity differences measured in cells. Additionally, these genetic interactions report on increased and decreased integrin functions that do not result in affinity changes in the PS2C integrin measured in cultured cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(35):30981-93. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Morphogenesis of the adult structures of holometabolous insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones and involves cell-cell interactions mediated in part by the cell surface integrin receptors and their extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands. These adhesion molecules and their regulation by hormones are not well characterized. We describe the gene structure of a newly described ECM molecule, tenectin, and demonstrate that it is a hormonally regulated ECM protein required for proper morphogenesis of the adult wing and male genitalia. Tenectin's function as a new ligand of the PS2 integrins is demonstrated by both genetic interactions in the fly and by cell spreading and cell adhesion assays in cultured cells. Its interaction with the PS2 integrins is dependent on RGD and RGD-like motifs. Tenectin's function in looping morphogenesis in the development of the male genitalia led to experiments that demonstrate a role for PS integrins in the execution of left-right asymmetry.
    Developmental Biology 02/2010; 340(2):504-17. · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • Thomas A Bunch
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    ABSTRACT: Integrin alphaIIbbeta3 affinity regulation by talin binding to the cytoplasmic tail of beta3 is a generally accepted model for explaining activation of this integrin in Chinese hamster ovary cells and human platelets. Most of the evidence for this model comes from the use of multivalent ligands. This raises the possibility that the activation being measured is that of increased clustering of the integrin rather than affinity. Using a newly developed assay that probes integrins on the surface of cells with only monovalent ligands prior to fixation, I do not find increases in affinity of alphaIIbbeta3 integrins by talin head fragments in Chinese hamster ovary cells, nor do I observe affinity increases in human platelets stimulated with thrombin. Binding to a multivalent ligand does increase in both of these cases. This assay does report affinity increases induced by either Mn(2+), a cytoplasmic domain mutant (D723R) in the cytoplasmic domain of beta3, or preincubation with a peptide ligand. These results reconcile the previously observed differences between talin effects on integrin activation in Drosophila and vertebrate systems and suggest new models for talin regulation of integrin activity in human platelets.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2009; 285(3):1841-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Integrin-mediated cell adhesion is essential for development of multicellular organisms. In worms, flies, and vertebrates, talin forms a physical link between integrin cytoplasmic domains and the actin cytoskeleton. Loss of either integrins or talin leads to similar phenotypes. In vertebrates, talin is also a key regulator of integrin affinity. We used a ligand-mimetic Fab fragment, TWOW-1, to assess talin's role in regulating Drosophila alphaPS2 betaPS affinity. Depletion of cellular metabolic energy reduced TWOW-1 binding, suggesting alphaPS2 betaPS affinity is an active process as it is for vertebrate integrins. In contrast to vertebrate integrins, neither talin knockdown by RNA interference nor talin head overexpression had a significant effect on TWOW-1 binding. Furthermore, replacement of the transmembrane or talin-binding cytoplasmic domains of alphaPS2 betaPS with those of human alphaIIb beta3 failed to enable talin regulation of TWOW-1 binding. However, substitution of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of alphaPS2 betaPS with those of alphaIIb beta3 resulted in a constitutively active integrin whose affinity was reduced by talin knockdown. Furthermore, wild-type alphaIIb beta3 was activated by overexpression of Drosophila talin head domain. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of talin's integrin/cytoskeleton linkage function, talin is not sufficient to regulate Drosophila alphaPS2 betaPS affinity because of structural features inherent in the alphaPS2 betaPS extracellular and/or transmembrane domains.
    Molecular biology of the cell 06/2008; 19(8):3589-98. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The control of gene expression by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) requires its translocation into the nucleus. In Drosophila S2 cells nuclear accumulation of diphospho-ERK (dpERK) is greatly reduced by interfering double-stranded RNA against Drosophila importin-7 (DIM-7) or by the expression of integrin mutants, either during active cell spreading or after stimulation by insulin. In both cases, total ERK phosphorylation (on Westerns) is not significantly affected, and ERK accumulates in a perinuclear ring. Tyrosine phosphorylation of DIM-7 is reduced in cells expressing integrin mutants, indicating a mechanistic link between these components. DIM-7 and integrins localize to the same actin-containing peripheral regions in spreading cells, but DIM-7 is not concentrated in paxillin-positive focal contacts or stable focal adhesions. The Corkscrew (SHP-2) tyrosine phosphatase binds DIM-7, and Corkscrew is required for the cortical localization of DIM-7. These data suggest a model in which ERK phosphorylation must be spatially coupled to integrin-mediated DIM-7 activation to make a complex that can be imported efficiently. Moreover, dpERK nuclear import can be restored in DIM-7-deficient cells by Xenopus Importin-7, demonstrating that ERK import is an evolutionarily conserved function of this protein.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 11/2007; 18(10):4190-9. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila alphaPS2 integrin subunit is found in two isoforms. alphaPS2C contains 25 residues not found in alphaPS2m8, encoded by the alternative eighth exon. Previously, it was shown that cells expressing alphaPS2C spread more effectively than alphaPS2m8 cells on fragments of the ECM protein Tiggrin, and that alphaPS2C-containing integrins are relatively insensitive to depletion of Ca(2+). Using a ligand mimetic probe for Tiggrin affinity (TWOW-1), we show that the affinity of alphaPS2CbetaPS for this ligand is much higher than that of alphaPS2m8betaPS. However, the two isoforms become more similar in the presence of activating levels of Mn(2+). Modeling indicates that the exon 8-encoded residues replace the third beta strand of the third blade of the alpha subunit beta-propeller structure, and generate an exaggerated loop between this and the fourth strand. alphaPS2 subunits with the extra loop structure but with an m8-like third strand, or subunits with a C-like strand but an m8-like short loop, both fail to show alphaPS2C-like affinity for TWOW-1. Surprisingly, a single C > m8-like change at the third strand-loop transition point is sufficient to make alphaPS2C require Ca(2+) for function, despite the absence of any known cation binding site in this region. These data indicate that alternative splicing in integrin alpha subunit extracellular domains may affect ligand affinity via relatively subtle alterations in integrin conformation. These results may have relevance for vertebrate alpha6 and alpha7, which are alternatively spliced at the same site.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 10/2007; 102(1):211-23. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila alphaPS2betaPS integrin is required for diverse development events, including muscle attachment. We characterized six unusual mutations in the alphaPS2 gene that cause a subset of the null phenotype. One mutation changes a residue in alphaPS2 that is equivalent to the residue in alphaV that contacts the arginine of RGD. This change severely reduced alphaPS2betaPS affinity for soluble ligand, abolished the ability of the integrin to recruit laminin to muscle attachment sites in the embryo and caused detachment of integrins and talin from the ECM. Three mutations that alter different parts of the alphaPS2 beta-propeller, plus a fourth that eliminated a late phase of alphaPS2 expression, all led to a strong decrease in alphaPS2betaPS at muscle ends, but, surprisingly, normal levels of talin were recruited. Thus, although talin recruitment requires alphaPS2betaPS, talin levels are not simply specified by the amount of integrin at the adhesive junction. These mutations caused detachment of talin and actin from integrins, suggesting that the integrin-talin link is weaker than the ECM-integrin link.
    Developmental Biology 09/2007; 308(2):294-308. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    Emily A Smith, Thomas A Bunch, Danny L Brower
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    ABSTRACT: A method for measuring the microclustering of a class of cell surface receptors called integrins is reported. Integrins are proteins involved in bidirectional signaling across the cell membrane and are important in cell adhesion, growth, and survival. Their activity is regulated by changes in protein conformation and protein clustering. The developed in vivo clustering assay uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and has the benefit of requiring a single cloning step to generate FRET donors and acceptors that can be used to measure the clustering of a series of integrin mutants. The FRET reporters contain extracellular donor or acceptor fluorescent protein attached to native integrin cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains, and these are expressed along with wild-type or mutant integrins. Expression of the FRET reporters has no affect on the ligand binding properties of coexpressed integrins. FRET values are calculated for cell lines spreading on ligand coated surfaces, and these values are independent of fluorescent protein expression. No FRET is observed in cell lines expressing the reporters in the absence of integrins. Integrin-dependent FRET values increase approximately 2-3-fold when the integrins contain mutations that result in increased ligand binding affinities.
    Analytical Chemistry 05/2007; 79(8):3142-7. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a ligand-mimetic antibody Fab fragment specific for Drosophila alphaPS2betaPS integrins to probe the ligand binding affinities of these invertebrate receptors. TWOW-1 was constructed by inserting a fragment of the extracellular matrix protein Tiggrin into the H-CDR3 of the alphavbeta3 ligand-mimetic antibody WOW-1. The specificity of alphaPS2betaPS binding to TWOW-1 was demonstrated by numerous tests used for other integrin-ligand interactions. Binding was decreased in the presence of EDTA or RGD peptides and by mutation of the TWOW-1 RGD sequence or the betaPS metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif. TWOW-1 binding was increased by mutations in the alphaPS2 membrane-proximal cytoplasmic GFFNR sequence or by exposure to Mn2+. Although Mn2+ is sometimes assumed to promote maximal integrin activity, TWOW-1 binding in Mn2+ could be increased further by the alphaPS2 GFFNR --> GFANA mutation. A mutation in the betaPS I domain (betaPS-b58; V409D) greatly increased ligand binding affinity, explaining the increased cell spreading mediated by alphaPS2betaPS-b58. Further mutagenesis of this residue suggested that Val-409 normally stabilizes the closed head conformation. Mutations that potentially reduce interaction of the integrin beta subunit plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) and stalk domains have been shown to have activating properties. We found that complete deletion of the betaPS PSI domain enhanced TWOW-1 binding. Moreover the PSI domain is dispensable for at least some other integrin functions because betaPS-DeltaPSI displayed an enhanced ability to mediate cell spreading. These studies establish a means to evaluate mechanisms and consequences of integrin affinity modulation in a tractable model genetic system.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2006; 281(8):5050-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a genetic screen for mutations in myospheroid, the gene encoding the Drosophila betaPS integrin subunit, and identified point mutants in all of the structural domains of the protein. Surprisingly, we find that mutations in very strongly conserved residues will often allow sufficient integrin function to support the development of adult animals, including mutations in the ADMIDAS site and in a cytoplasmic NPXY motif. Many mutations in the I-like domain reduce integrin expression specifically when betaPS is combined with activating alphaPS2 cytoplasmic mutations, indicating that integrins in the extended conformation are unstable relative to the inactive, bent heterodimers. Interestingly, the screen has identified alleles that show gain-of-function characteristics in cell culture, but have negative effects on animal development or viability. This is illustrated by the allele mys(b58); available structural models suggest that the molecular lesion of mys(b58), V409>D, should promote the "open" conformation of the beta subunit I-like domain. This expectation is supported by the finding that alphaPS2betaPS (V409>D) promotes adhesion and spreading of S2 cells more effectively than does wild-type alphaPS2betaPS, even when betaPS is paired with alphaPS2 containing activating cytoplasmic mutations. Finally, comparisons with the sequence of human beta8 suggest that evolution has targeted the "mys(b58)" residue as a means of affecting integrin activity.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 08/2004; 15(8):3829-40. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Thomas A Bunch, Steven W Miller, Danny L Brower
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    ABSTRACT: Integrin-ligand interactions can be influenced by the sequence in a disulfide-bridged loop between the 8th and 9th beta subunit cysteines. Previous experiments are consistent with C8-C9 loop residues being involved in direct ligand-integrin interactions and/or being important in heterodimer regulation. In betaPS from Drosophila melanogaster and three other dipterans, the C8-C9 loop consists of only two amino acids, and exists in two forms that arise by differential splicing of exon 4. In these species, the betaPS4A isoform has an acidic residue in the first loop position (C8+1), with an alanine or proline in the corresponding position of betaPS4B. Mutations in both isoforms (in combination with alphaPS2) can reduce cell spreading during normal growth, but function is generally restored under conditions that enhance integrin activation. Replacement of the betaPS4A acidic residue with a basic lysine has relatively modest effects on integrin function. Spread cells bearing C8-C9 mutations tend to become less elongated, with reduced frequencies of actin stress fibers. The results indicate that even a minimal, two-residue C8-C9 loop contains structural information that can differentially regulate integrin activity and/or integrin signaling, and that this regulation does not rely on direct molecular interactions involving the variable C8+1 side chains.
    Experimental Cell Research 04/2004; 294(1):118-29. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification and functional studies of DM domain-containing proteins Doublesex, MAB-3, and DMRT1 indicated that flies, nematodes, and humans share at least some of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination. We identified a gene, AmDM1, from the coral Acropora millepora that encodes a homologous DM domain-containing protein. Molecular analyses show that the AmDM1 primary transcript is processed to generate four different messenger RNAs. Alternative use of two polyadenylation sites produces transcripts that vary only in the 3' untranslated regions, whereas alternative splicing generates transcripts with and without the region coding for the DM domain. All the transcripts include a second motif, the DMA domain, which is found in a number of other proteins containing a DM domain. Hermaphroditic A. millepora differentiates sexual cells seasonally before the spring spawn, and Northern blot analysis shows that the AmDM1 transcripts are present at higher levels during sexual differentiation. The non-DM domain-containing messages are also present at significant levels in late embryos, but DM domain transcripts are extremely rare at this stage. These data suggest that the association of DM domain proteins and sexual determination or differentiation predates the separation of the Cnidaria from the rest of the Metazoa.
    Evolution & Development 01/2003; 5(3):251-8. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila PS1 and PS2 integrins are required to maintain the connection between the dorsal and ventral wing epithelia. If alphaPS subunits are inappropriately expressed during early pupariation, the epithelia separate, causing a wing blister. Two lines of evidence indicate that this apparent loss-of-function phenotype is not a dominant negative effect, but is due to inappropriate expression of functional integrins: wing blisters are not generated efficiently by misexpression of loss-of-function alphaPS2 subunits with mutations that inhibit ligand binding, and gain-of-function, hyperactivated mutant alphaPS2 proteins cause blistering at expression levels well below those required by wild-type proteins. A genetic screen for dominant suppressors of wing blisters generated null alleles of a gene named moleskin, which encodes the protein DIM-7. DIM-7, a Drosophila homolog of vertebrate importin-7, has recently been shown to bind the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase homolog Corkscrew and to be important in the nuclear translocation of activated D-ERK. Consistent with this latter finding, homozygous mutant clones of moleskin fail to grow in the wing. Genetic tests suggest that the moleskin suppression of wing blisters is not directly related to inhibition of D-ERK nuclear import. These data are discussed with respect to the possible regulation of integrin function by cytoplasmic ERK.
    Genetics 10/2002; 162(1):285-96. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed a set of new and existing strong mutations in the myospheroid gene, which encodes the betaPS integrin subunit of Drosophila. In addition to missense and other null mutations, three mutants behave as antimorphic alleles, indicative of dominant negative properties. Unlike null alleles, the three antimorphic mutants are synthetically lethal in double heterozygotes with an inflated (alphaPS2) null allele, and they fail to complement very weak, otherwise viable alleles of myospheroid. Two of the antimorphs result from identical splice site lesions, which create a frameshift in the C-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of betaPS. The third antimorphic mutation is caused by a stop codon just before the cytoplasmic splice site. These mutant betaPS proteins can support cell spreading in culture, especially under conditions that appear to promote integrin activation. Analyses of developing animals indicate that the dominant negative properties are not a result of inefficient surface expression, or simple competition between functional and nonfunctional proteins. These data indicate that mutations disrupting the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of integrin beta subunits can have dominant negative effects in situ, at normal levels of expression, and that this property does not necessarily depend on a specific new protein sequence or structure. The results are discussed with respect to similar vertebrate beta subunit cytoplasmic mutations.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 05/2002; 13(4):1352-65. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The PS1 and PS2 integrins are required for morphogenesis of the adult Drosophila wing. Clonal analysis experiments have shown that both integrins are necessary to maintain adhesion between the dorsal and ventral wing epithelia. We have found that early in wing morphogenesis, the integrins are also required for a regulatory event, and this may explain why PS1 and PS2 must be expressed on opposite surfaces of the wing at the onset of pupariation. Overexpression of integrin subunits during this early phase can lead to separation of dorsal and ventral surfaces, and we present evidence here that this dominant phenotype (the Blistermaker phenotype) results from a gain of integrin function, as opposed to negative interference from free integrin subunits. A possible model for an integrin signaling requirement in the wing is discussed.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11/1998; 857:99-109. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new potential ligands of the Drosophila PS2 integrins have been characterized by functional interaction in cell culture. These potential ligands are a new Drosophila laminin alpha2 chain encoded by the wing blister locus and Ten-m, an extracellular protein known to be involved in embryonic pattern formation. As with previously identified PS2 ligands, both contain RGD sequences, and RGD-containing fragments of these two proteins (DLAM-RGD and TENM-RGD) can support PS2 integrin-mediated cell spreading. In all cases, this spreading is inhibited specifically by short RGD-containing peptides. As previously found for the PS2 ligand tiggrin (and the tiggrin fragment TIG-RGD), TENM-RGD induces maximal spreading of cells expressing integrin containing the alphaPS2C splice variant. This is in contrast to DLAM-RGD, which is the first Drosophila polypeptide shown to interact preferentially with cells expressing the alphaPS2 m8 splice variant. The betaPS integrin subunit also varies in the presumed ligand binding region as a result of alternative splicing. For TIG-RGD and TENM-RGD, the beta splice variant has little effect, but for DLAM-RGD, maximal cell spreading is supported only by the betaPS4A form of the protein. Thus, the diversity in PS2 integrins due to splicing variations, in combination with diversity of matrix ligands, can greatly enhance the functional complexity of PS2-ligand interactions in the developing animal. The data also suggest that the splice variants may alter regions of the subunits that are directly involved in ligand interactions, and this is discussed with respect to models of integrin structure.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1998; 273(29):18235-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tiggrin is a novel extracellular matrix ligand for the Drosophila PS2 integrins. We have used flanking P elements to generate a precise deletion of tiggrin. Most flies lacking tiggrin die as larvae or pupae. A few adults do emerge and these appear to be relatively normal, displaying only misshapen abdomens and a low frequency of wing defects. Examination of larvae shows that muscle connections, function and morphology are defective in tiggrin mutants. Muscle contraction waves that extend the length of the larvae are much slower in tiggrin mutants. Direct examination of bodywall muscles shows defects in muscle attachment sites, where tiggrin is specifically localized, and muscles appear thinner. Transgenes expressing tiggrin are capable of rescuing tiggrin mutant phenotypes. Transgenes expressing a mutant tiggrin, whose Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin recognition sequence has been mutated to Leu-Gly-Ala (LGA) show much reduced, but significant, rescuing ability. Cell spreading assays detect no interactions of this mutant tiggrin with PS2 integrins. Therefore, while the RGD sequence is critical for PS2 interactions and full activity in the whole fly, the mutant tiggrin retains some function(s) that are probably mediated by interactions with other ECM molecules or cell surface receptors
    Development 05/1998; 125(9):1679-89. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The integrins are a family of transmembrane heterodimeric proteins that mediate adhesive interactions and participate in signaling across the plasma membrane. In this study we examine the functional significance of the cytoplasmic domains of the alphaPS1, alphaPS2 and betaPS subunits of the Drosophila Position Specific (PS) integrin family by analyzing the relationship between cytoplasmic domain structure and function in the context of a developing organism. By examining the ability of ssPS molecules lacking the cytoplasmic domain to rescue embryonic abnormalities associated with PS integrin loss, we find that although many embryonic events require the betaPS cytoplasmic domain, this portion of the molecule is not required for at least two processes requiring PS integrins: formation of midgut constrictions and maintaining germband integrity. Furthermore, our studies demonstrate that mutant proteins affecting four highly conserved amino acid residues in the cytoplasmic tail function with different efficiencies during embryonic development, suggesting that interaction of PS integrins with cytoplasmic ligands is developmentally modulated during embryogenesis. We have also examined the ability of alphaPS1 and alphaPS2 to function without their cytoplasmic domains. By analyzing the ability of transgenes producing truncated alphaPS molecules to rescue abnormalities associated with integrin loss, we find that the cytoplasmic tail of alphaPS2 is essential for both embryonic and postembryonic processes, while this portion of alphaPS1 is not required for function in the wing and in the retina. Furthermore, temperature-shift experiments suggest roles for the alphaPS2 cytoplasmic domain in signaling events occurring in the developing wing.
    Development 03/1998; 125(4):701-11. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : The PS1 and PS2 integrins are required for morphogenesis of the adult Drosophila wing. Clonal analysis experiments have shown that both integrins are necessary to maintain adhesion between the dorsal and ventral wing epithelia. We have found that early in wing morphogenesis, the integrins are also required for a regulatory event, and this may explain why PS1 and PS2 must be expressed on opposite surfaces of the wing at the onset of pupariation. Overexpression of integrin subunits during this early phase can lead to separation of dorsal and ventral surfaces, and we present evidence here that this dominant phenotype (the Blistermaker phenotype) results from a gain of integrin function, as opposed to negative interference from free integrin subunits. A possible model for an integrin signaling requirement in the wing is discussed.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/1998; 857:99-109. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At the onset of pupariation in the Drosophila wing, the PS1 and PS2 integrins are expressed preferentially on the dorsal and ventral wing epithelia, respectively. Clonal analysis experiments have indicated that integrins are required to maintain the tight association of the wing surfaces. Surprisingly, we find that even in clones of cells lacking integrins the wing layers become apposed early in metamorphosis. However, following the normal period of wing separation, large integrin mutant clones do not become re-apposed in the pupa, and integrins are not organized in basal plaques in cells opposite a mutant clone. Paradoxically, our experiments indicate that at least one integrin function requires different integrins on the dorsal and ventral wing surfaces, however in some cases both alphaPS subunits can function to some degree on each wing surface. Finally, overexpression of an alphaPS subunit throughout the wing leads to a dominant wing blister phenotype, and the critical period for this phenotype is the beginning of pupariation. These data indicate that integrin requirements in wing morphogenesis can be separated into early (prepupal) and late (pupal) functions. The late function seems to reflect the traditional view of integrins as cell-matrix adhesion proteins. The early requirement, which probably requires dorsoventral segregation of PS1 and PS2, suggests functions for PS1 and PS2 in signaling events that regulate morphogenesis.
    Development 11/1996; 122(10):3307-17. · 6.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

583 Citations
127.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2011
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1992–2010
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Iowa State University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Ames, IA, United States
    • Arizona Research Center
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States