Katsumi Yamashita

Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

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Publications (14)68.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cdc25A, which is one of the three mammalian CDK-activating Cdc25 protein phosphatases (Cdc25A, B and C), is degraded through SCF(βTrCP)-mediated ubiquitylation following genomic insult; however, the regulation of the stability of the other two Cdc25 proteins is not well understood. Previously, we showed that Cdc25B is primarily degraded by cellular stresses that activate stress-activated MAPKs, such as Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Here, we report that Cdc25B was ubiquitylated by SCF(βTrCP) E3 ligase upon phosphorylation at two Ser residues in the βTrCP-binding-motif-like sequence D(94)AGLCMDSPSP(104). Point mutation of these Ser residues to alanine (Ala) abolished the JNK-induced ubiquitylation by SCF(βTrCP), and point mutation of DAG to AAG or DAA eradicated both βTrCP binding and ubiquitylation. Further analysis of the mode of βTrCP binding to this region revealed that the PEST-like sequence from E(82)SS to D(94)AG is crucially involved in both the βTrCP binding and ubiquitylation of Cdc25B. Furthermore, the phospho-mimetic replacement of all 10 Ser residues in the E(82)SS to SPSP(104) region with Asp resulted in βTrCP binding. Collectively, these results indicate that stress-induced Cdc25B ubiquitylation by SCF(βTrCP) requires the phosphorylation of S(101)PS(103)P in the βTrCP-binding-motif-like and adjacent PEST-like sequences.
    Journal of Cell Science 08/2011; 124(Pt 16):2816-25. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatases positively regulate the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin complexes. Of the three mammalian Cdc25 isoforms, Cdc25A is phosphorylated by genotoxic stress-activated Chk1 or Chk2, which triggers its SCFbeta-TrCP-mediated degradation. However, the roles of Cdc25B and Cdc25C in cell stress checkpoints remain inconclusive. We herein report that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) induces the degradation of Cdc25B. Nongenotoxic stress induced by anisomycin caused rapid degradation of Cdc25B as well as Cdc25A. Cdc25B degradation was dependent mainly on JNK and partially on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). Accordingly, cotransfection with JNK1, JNK2, or p38 destabilized Cdc25B. In vitro kinase assays and site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the critical JNK and p38 phosphorylation site in Cdc25B was Ser101. Cdc25B with Ser101 mutated to alanine was refractory to anisomycin-induced degradation, and cells expressing such mutant Cdc25B proteins were able to override the anisomycin-induced G2 arrest. These results highlight the importance of a novel JNK/p38-Cdc25B axis for a nongenotoxic stress-induced cell cycle checkpoint.
    Cancer Research 08/2009; 69(16):6438-44. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is generally mitogenic, but, upon strong activation, it causes cell cycle arrest by a not-yet fully understood mechanism. In response to genotoxic stress, Chk1 hyperphosphorylates Cdc25A, a positive cell cycle regulator, and targets it for Skp1/Cullin1/F-box protein (SCF)(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase-dependent degradation, thereby leading to cell cycle arrest. Here, we show that strong ERK activation can also phosphorylate and target Cdc25A for SCF(beta-TrCP)-dependent degradation. When strongly activated in Xenopus eggs, the ERK pathway induces prominent phosphorylation and SCF(beta-TrCP)-dependent degradation of Cdc25A. p90rsk, the kinase downstream of ERK, directly phosphorylates Cdc25A on multiple sites, which, interestingly, overlap with Chk1 phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, ERK itself phosphorylates Cdc25A on multiple sites, a major site of which apparently is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) in Chk1-induced degradation. p90rsk phosphorylation and ERK phosphorylation contribute, roughly equally and additively, to the degradation of Cdc25A, and such Cdc25A degradation occurs during oocyte maturation in which the endogenous ERK pathway is fully activated. Finally, and importantly, ERK-induced Cdc25A degradation can elicit cell cycle arrest in early embryos. These results suggest that strong ERK activation can target Cdc25A for degradation in a manner similar to, but independent of, Chk1 for cell cycle arrest.
    Molecular biology of the cell 03/2009; 20(8):2186-95. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Chk1 kinase is highly conserved from yeast to humans and is well known to function in the cell cycle checkpoint induced by genotoxic or replication stress. The activation of Chk1 is achieved by ATR-dependent phosphorylation with the aid of additional factors. Robust genotoxic insults induce apoptosis instead of the cell cycle checkpoint, and some of the components in the ATR-Chk1 pathway are cleaved by active caspases, although it has been unclear whether the attenuation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway has some role in apoptosis induction. Here we show that Chk1 is activated by caspase-dependent cleavage when the cells undergo apoptosis. Treatment of chicken DT40 cells with various genotoxic agents, UV light, etoposide, or camptothecin induced Chk1 cleavage, which was inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone. The cleavage of Chk1 was similarly observed in human Jurkat cells treated with a non-genotoxic apoptosis inducer, staurosporine. We have determined the cleavage site(s), Asp-299 in chicken and Asp-299 and Asp-351 in human cells. We further show that a truncated form of human Chk1 mimicking the N-terminal cleavage fragment (residues 1-299) possesses strikingly elevated kinase activity. Moreover, the ectopic expression of Chk1-(1-299) in human U2OS cells induces abnormal nuclear morphology with localized chromatin condensation and phosphorylation of histone H2AX. These results suggest that Chk1 is activated by caspase-mediated cleavage during apoptosis and might be implicated in enhancing apoptotic reactions rather than attenuating the ATR-Chk1 pathway.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2008; 283(37):25485-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human histone H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on serine 139 in response to DNA double-strand breaks and plays a crucial role in tethering the factors involved in DNA repair and damage signaling. Replication stress caused by hydroxyurea or UV also initiates H2AX phosphorylation in S-phase cells, although UV-induced H2AX phosphorylation in non-cycling cells has recently been observed. Here we study the UV-induced H2AX phosphorylation in human primary fibroblasts under growth-arrested conditions. This reaction absolutely depends on nucleotide excision repair (NER) and is mechanistically distinct from the replication stress-induced phosphorylation. The treatment of cytosine-beta-D-arabinofuranoside strikingly enhances the NER-dependent H2AX phosphorylation and induces the accumulation of replication protein A (RPA) and ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) at locally UV-damaged subnuclear regions. Consistently, the phosphorylation appears to be mainly mediated by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR), although Chk1 (Ser345) is not phosphorylated by the activated ATR. The cellular levels of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and proliferating cell nuclear antigen are markedly reduced in quiescent cells. We propose a model that perturbed gap-filling synthesis following dual incision in NER generates single-strand DNA gaps and hence initiates H2AX phosphorylation by ATR with the aid of RPA and ATRIP.
    Journal of Cell Science 04/2007; 120(Pt 6):1104-12. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phospho-site adapter protein 14-3-3 binds to target proteins at amino acid sequences matching the consensus motif Arg-X-X-Ser/Thr-X-Pro, where the serine or threonine residue is phosphorylated and X is any amino acid. The dual-specificity phosphatase CDC25B, which is involved in cell cycle regulation, contains five 14-3-3 binding motifs, but 14-3-3 preferentially binds to the motif at Ser309 in CDC25B1 (or Ser323 in CDC25B3). In the present study, we demonstrate that amino acid residues C-terminal to the 14-3-3 binding motif strongly affect the efficiency of 14-3-3 binding. Alanine substitutions at residues downstream of the Ser309 motif dramatically reduced 14-3-3 binding, although phosphorylation of Ser309 was unaffected. We also observed that binding of endogenous 14-3-3 to mutant CDC25B occurred less efficiently than to the wild type. Mutants to which 14-3-3 cannot bind efficiently tend to be located in the nucleus, although not as specifically as the alanine substitution mutant of Ser309. These results indicate that amino acid sequences C-terminal to the consensus binding site have an important role in the efficient binding of 14-3-3 to at least CDC25B, which may partly explain why some consensus sequences are inactive as 14-3-3 binding sites.
    Journal of Biochemistry 05/2006; 139(4):761-9. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dual specificity phosphatase CDC25B positively controls the G2-M transition by activating CDK1/cyclin B. The binding of 14-3-3 to CDC25B has been shown to regulate the subcellular redistribution of CDC25B from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and may be correlated with the G2 checkpoint. We used a FLAG-tagged version of CDC25B to study the differences among the binding sites for the 14-3-3 subtypes, 14-3-3beta, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3sigma, and the relationship between subtype binding and the subcellular localization of CDC25B. All three subtypes were found to bind to CDC25B. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that 14-3-3beta bound exclusively near serine-309 of CDC25B1, which is within a potential consensus motif for 14-3-3 binding. By contrast, 14-3-3sigma bound preferentially to a site around serine-216, and the presence of serine-137 and -309 enhanced the binding. In addition to these binding-site differences, we found that the binding of 14-3-3beta drove CDC25B to the cytoplasm and that mutation of serine-309 to alanine completely abolished the cytoplasmic localization of CDC25B. However, co-expression of 14-3-3sigma and CDC25B did not affect the subcellular localization of CDC25B. Furthermore, serine-309 of CDC25B was sufficient to produce its cytoplasmic distribution with co-expression of 14-3-3beta, even when other putative 14-3-3 binding sites were mutated. 14-3-3epsilon resembled 14-3-3beta with regard to its binding to CDC25B and the control of CDC25B subcellular localization. The results of the present study indicate that two 14-3-3 subtypes can control the subcellular localization of CDC25B by binding to a specific site and that 14-3-3sigma has effects on CDC25B other than the control of its subcellular localization.
    Journal of Cell Science 07/2004; 117(Pt 14):3011-20. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Girolline, an antitumor compound isolated from a sponge, has been reported to inhibit the termination step of protein synthesis in vivo. In this study, we found that girolline induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in several tumor cell lines. Immunochemical analysis revealed that polyubiquitinated p53 was accumulated in girolline-treated cells, while other polyubiquitinated cellular proteins were not accumulated, indicating that the effect of girolline is specific for p53. On the other hand, girolline did not inhibit proteasome activity in vitro, and accumulation of polyubiquitinated p53 was scarcely detected in the presence of leptomycin B, an inhibitor of nuclear export. Based on the above findings, we propose that girolline affects the step of recruitment of polyubiquitinated p53 to the proteasome.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 06/2004; 27(5):699-701. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CDC25B is a dual-specificity phosphatase that activates CDK1/cyclin B. The nuclear exclusion of CDC25B is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 to the nuclear export signal (NES) of CDC25B, which was reported to be amino acids H28 to L40 in the N-terminal region of CDC25B. In studying the subcellular localization of CDC25B, we found a functional NES at V52 to L65, the sequence of which is VTTLTQTMHDLAGL, where bold letters are leucine or hydrophobic amino acids frequently seen in an NES. The deletion of this NES sequence caused the mutant protein to locate exclusively in nuclei, while NES-fused GFP was detected in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the introduction of point mutations at some of the critical amino acids impaired cytoplasmic localization. Treatment with leptomycin B, a potent inhibitor of CRM1/exportin1, disrupted the cytoplasmic localization of both Flag-tagged CDC25B and NES-fused GFP. From these results, we concluded that the sequence we found is a bona fide NES of CDC25B.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2004; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that ectopic expression of the ASY/Nogo-B gene induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Nogo-A, a splice variant of the ASY, has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system. To investigate the mechanism of ASY-induced apoptosis or inhibition of neuronal regeneration, we cloned a cDNA for the ASY-interacting protein from the human cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid method, and obtained a cDNA we designated as ASYIP. The ASYIP protein contains two hydrophobic regions and a double lysine endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif at its C-terminus, which was shown to be identical to RTN3, a reticulon family protein of unknown function. We showed that ASY and ASYIP proteins formed a complex also in human cells. Mutational analysis indicated that both of the hydrophobic regions of the ASYIP protein were required for the association. By immunofluorescence analysis, the ASYIP protein was shown to be co-localized with ASY in the ER. Characterization of the ASYIP gene may be very useful in clarifying the mechanism of ASY-induced apoptosis or Nogo-involved inhibition of neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 09/2003; 196(2):312-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence has confirmed that ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) exhibit antitumoral effects through inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell differentiation in several malignant neoplasms. Recently, we have documented the accumulation of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27(Kip1), as well as an unexpected accumulation in cyclin E in G1-arrested human hepatoma cells treated with the PPARgamma ligand troglitazone. Simultaneous accumulations in both p27(Kip1) and cyclin E are known to be characteristic phenotypes in cells derived from mice lacking Skp2, an F-box protein component of the SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess whether Skp2 might be involved in the down-regulation of p27(Kip1) in troglitazone-treated human hepatoma cells. A striking decrease in Skp2 expression and a reciprocal increase in p27(Kip1) expression were found in troglitazone-treated hepatoma cells but not in those cells treated with other PPARgamma ligands such as pioglitazone and ciglitazone. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that troglitazone down-regulated Skp2 at the mRNA levels. Consistently, ectopic overexpression in Skp2 brought resistance to troglitazone, resulting in a decreased population of arrested cells at the G1 phase compared with that in the mock-transfected cells. In surgically resected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, an increased expression in Skp2 was found in both the moderately differentiated HCCs and the poorly differentiated HCCs. In conclusion, troglitazone attenuated Skp2 expression, thereby promoting p27(Kip1) accumulation in human hepatoma cells. This therapeutic potential of the ligand may lead to new cell-cycle-based antitumor strategies for advanced HCCs.
    Hepatology 06/2003; 37(5):1086-96. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF beta 1)-induced G2 arrest was observed when a proliferation inhibitory function of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was compromised, but the mechanism underlying the G2 arrest was poorly characterized compared with that of G1 arrest. In the present study, we characterized G2 arrest induced by TGF beta1 (1 ng/mL) in the Rb-negative hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) and compared with G1 arrest in the Rb-positive hepatoma cell line (Huh7). Activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 2 and cell division cycle (CDC) 2 were markedly decreased at 24 h, the time when cell-cycle arrest became apparent in both cell lines. However, considerable amounts of inactive CDC2-cyclinB1 complexes were present in the nucleus of G2-arrested Hep3B but were not present in G1-arrested Huh7. The inhibitory phosphorylation of CDC2 on Tyr-15 was significantly elevated at 12-24 h, and its levels gradually declined during G2 arrest in Hep3B. In particular, augmentation of CDK inhibitors p21cip1 and p27kip1 and Wee1 kinase and diminution of CDC25C phosphatase coincided with induced Tyr-15 phosphorylation and inhibition of CDC2. Wee1 in Hep3B was unstable and was degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner, but it became substantially stabilized within 6 h of TGF beta 1 treatment. Moreover, a Wee1 inhibitor, PD0166285, abrogated the TGF beta 1-induced G2 arrest in Hep3B. These findings suggest that TGF beta 1 induced G2 arrest in Hep3B at least in part through stabilization of Wee1 and subsequent increase in Tyr-15 phosphorylation and inhibition of CDC2.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 05/2003; 36(4):171-82. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most cell lines that lack functional p53 protein are arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle due to DNA damage. When the G2 checkpoint is abrogated, these cells are forced into mitotic catastrophe. A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in which p53 was eliminated with the HPV16 E6 gene, exhibited efficient arrest in the G2 phase when treated with adriamycin. Administration of caffeine to G2-arrested cells induced a drastic change in cell phenotype, the nature of which depended on the status of p53. Flow cytometric and microscopic observations revealed that cells that either contained or lacked p53 resumed their cell cycles and entered mitosis upon caffeine treatment. However, transit to the M phase was slower in p53-negative cells than in p53-positive cells. Consistent with these observations, CDK1 activity was maintained at high levels, along with stable cyclin B1, in p53-negative cells. The addition of butyrolactone I, which is an inhibitor of CDK1 and CDK2, to the p53-negative cells reduced the floating round cell population and induced the disappearance of cyclin B1. These results suggest a relationship between the p53 pathway and the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitotic cyclins and possible cross-talk between the G2-DNA damage checkpoint and the mitotic checkpoint.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 05/2003; 412(1):13-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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