Kenya Shitara

KYOWA HAKKO BIO Co., Ltd., Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (77)320 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an attractive target for treatment of prostate cancer. Using the PSMA-recognizing mouse monoclonal antibody 2C9 obtained in our previous study, the biological activities of PSMA antibody were evaluated. Mouse-human chimeric IgG1 of 2C9 (KM2777) showed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity against PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells in the presence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To increase lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity of KM2777, C-terminus interleukin-2 (IL-2)-fused KM2777 (KM2812) was constructed. KM2812 retained binding activity to PSMA and exhibited growth-stimulating activity equivalent to IL-2 on the IL-2-dependent T-cell line CTLL-2. Moreover, KM2812 exhibited enhanced cytotoxic activity against PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells in the presence of PBMCs compared with KM2777. In a xenograft tumor model using PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells, KM2812 exhibited marked antitumor activity, accompanied by complete regression of tumor in some of the KM2812-treated mice. These results suggest that KM2812 has a therapeutic potential for prostate cancer by stimulating lymphocyte-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity.
    Anticancer research 01/2014; 34(1):89-97. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endocrine resistance is a critical issue in managing patients with prostate cancer. This study is undertaken to search for a potential molecular target connected with this process using a model system of androgen-dependent and androgen-unresponsive SC-3 and SC-4 cells. Expression profiles, actin stress fiber organization, and the levels of activated Rho GTPases were compared between SC-4 and SC-3 cells using an oligonucleotide microarray, phalloidin staining, and a Rho activation assay. The cell viability was analyzed with a Rho inhibitor or by stable transfection with either a dominant-negative (DN) form of RhoC or a mutant form of NET1 (mutNET1). The expressions of RhoC, NET1, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were immunohistochemically analyzed in human prostate cancer specimens after short-term endocrine therapy and in an untreated condition. SC-4 cells exhibited mesenchymal phenotypes with activation of Rho signals. Treatment with a Rho inhibitor suppressed the cell viability in SC-4 cells, but not in SC-3 cells. The cell viability of SC-4 cells stably expressing DN-RhoC and mutNET1 was also attenuated. In the immunohistochemical analysis, NET1 and the EMT marker of N-cadherin were expressed at higher levels in prostate cancers after short-term endocrine therapy than in untreated tumors, and RhoC expression was maintained after short-term endocrine therapy. Rho signaling is involved in the cell survival of SC-4 cells. The higher expressions of RhoC and NET1 in human prostate cancers after short-term endocrine therapy suggest that RhoC and NET1 may become therapeutic targets during endocrine therapy.
    The Prostate 11/2011; 72(10):1071-9. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family and plays a pivotal role in tumor progression in ovarian cancer. We developed an anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) and investigated its antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo to evaluate its potential as a therapeutic antibody against ovarian cancer. We prepared mAbs from HB-EGF null mice immunized with recombinant human soluble HB-EGF and evaluated their binding and neutralizing activity against HB-EGF. Next, we generated a mouse-human chimeric antibody and examined its in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities. Two murine anti-HB-EGF mAbs were developed, and one of them, KM3566, was revealed to have a high binding reactivity for membrane-anchored HB-EGF (pro-HB-EGF) expressed on the cell surface, as well as neutralizing activity against growth promoting activity of soluble HB-EGF. The mouse-human chimeric counterpart for KM3566 (cKM3566) induced dose-dependent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against cancer cells expressing HB-EGF in vitro, and significantly inhibited tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient mice inoculated with MCAS or ES-2 human ovarian cancer cells. A novel anti-HB-EGF chimeric antibody, cKM3566, with two antitumor mechanisms, neutralization and ADCC, exhibits potent in vivo antitumor activity. These results indicate that cKM3566 is a promising antiovarian cancer therapeutic antibody.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2011; 17(21):6733-41. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) play important roles in intestinal tumorigenesis. To investigate the effectiveness of IGF-targeting strategies, we conducted an in vivo study using anti-mouse neutralizing antibodies IGF-I (KM3168) and IGF-II (KM1468). Six- and 10-week-old Apc(+/-) mice were given KM3168 and/or KM1468 i.p. at two doses (0.01 or 0.1 microg/g weight) once or twice weekly for 4 weeks. To clarify the source of IGFs in vivo, we evaluated the expression levels of IGFs in the liver, normal small intestine, and polyps of the small intestine of Apc(+/-) mice. The phosphorylation status of IGF signal-related molecules was examined using immunostaining to understand the mechanism underlying the effects of IGF-neutralizing antibody. The plasma half-life was 168 for KM3168 and 85 hours for KM1468. In two lineages of Apc(+/-) mice (Apc(1309) and Apc(Min/+)), a low dose (0.01 microg/g weight) of KM3168 and KM1468 significantly reduced the number of polyps when given once and twice weekly, respectively. Combined administration of the effective dose of each antibody had an additive effect. The liver was the main source of IGF-I, whereas the polyps of the small intestine and normal small intestine were the main source of IGF-II. IGF-neutralizing antibodies decreased the phosphorylation of IGF type 1 receptor and inhibited the signal transduction of the Akt pathway. These results suggest that IGF-I and IGF-II play important roles in polyp formation in Apc(+/-) mice and that specific antibodies to IGF-I and IGF-II may be promising antitumor agents.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 02/2010; 9(2):419-28. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) has a very poor prognosis. We have developed the humanized defucosylated anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) monoclonal antibody KW-0761 as a next generation immunotherapeutic agent. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the antitumor activity of KW-0761 would likely be sufficient for therapeutic clinical application against ATLL. The second aim was to fully elucidate the mechanism of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by this defucosylated monoclonal antibody. The antitumor activity of KW-0761 against ATLL cell lines was evaluated in vitro using human cells and in mice in vivo. Primary ATLL cells from 23 patients were evaluated for susceptibility to autologous ADCC with KW-0761 by two independent methods. KW-0761 showed potent antitumor activity against ATLL cell lines both in vitro and in the ATLL mouse model in vivo. In addition, KW-0761 showed potent antitumor activity mediated by highly enhanced ADCC against primary ATLL cells both in vitro and ex vivo in an autologous setting. The degree of KW-0761 ADCC against primary ATLL cells in an autologous setting was mainly determined by the amount of effector natural killer cells present, but not the amount of the target molecule CCR4 on the ATLL cell surface. KW-0761 should be sufficiently active for therapeutic clinical application for ATLL. In addition, combination treatment strategies that augment natural killer cell activity should be promising for amplifying the effect of KW-0761. In the near future, the actual efficacy of KW-0761 will be established in pivotal clinical trials.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2010; 16(5):1520-31. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major issues in current antibody therapy is insufficient efficacy. Various biological factors relating to the host's immune system or tumor cells have been suggested to reduce the efficacy of anti-CD20 therapy in B-cell malignancies. In this study, we characterized the in vitro anti-lymphoma activity of anti-CD20 antibodies having a novel engineered heavy chain with enhanced complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Anti-CD20 antibodies having a variant heavy constant region of mixed IgG1/IgG3 isotype, which have previously been found to enhance CDC, were investigated for their in vitro CDC against lymphoma cells and whole blood B-cell depletion activity. Use of the variant constant region greatly increased the CDC of an anti-CD20 antibody having variable regions identical to those of rituximab to the level shown by an IgG1 antibody of ofatumumab. Although the whole blood assay showed different cytotoxicity patterns among individual blood donors, the CDC-enhancing variant of rituximab showed higher activity than the parent IgG1 and consistently showed maximized activity when further combined with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-enhancing modification by fucose removal from Fc-linked oligosaccharides. In addition, the rituximab variant showed potent CDC against transfectant cells with lower CD20 expression and chronic lymphocytic leukemia-derived cell lines with higher complement regulatory proteins. These findings suggest that CDC enhancement, both alone and in combination with ADCC enhancement, increases the anti-lymphoma activity of anti-CD20 antibodies irrespective of individual differences in effector functions, and renders current anti-CD20 therapy capable of overcoming the potential resistance mechanisms.
    Cancer Science 08/2009; 100(12):2411-8. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, more than 20 therapeutic antibodies have been approved for clinical use and many others are now at the clinical and preclinical stage of development. Fragment crystallizable (Fc)-dependent antibody functions, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and a long half-life, have been suggested as important clinical mechanisms of therapeutic antibodies. These functions are primarily triggered through direct interaction of the Fc domain with its corresponding receptors: FcgammaRIIIa for ADCC, C1q for CDC, and neonatal Fc receptor for prolongation of the clearance rate. However, current antibody therapy still faces the critical issues of insufficient efficacy and the high cost of the therapeutic agents. A possible solution to these issues could be to engineer antibody molecules to enhance their antitumor activity, leading to improved therapeutic outcomes and reduced doses. Here, we review advanced Fc engineering approaches for the enhancement of effector functions, some of which are now ready for evaluation of their effectiveness in clinical trials.
    Cancer Science 06/2009; 100(9):1566-72. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, we have shown that acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells with specific chromosome abnormalities are dependent on VEGF/VEGFR system. AML with t(8;21) is the most dependent subtype on VEGF with both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. t(15;17)AML cells depend on VEGF with VEGFR1. AML cells with 11q23 abnormalities showed variable dependence on VEGF. The growth of t(11;19)AML cells are most extensively inhibited by anti-VEGFR1 antibody. Then, the growth of Kasumi-1, a t(8;21) cell line was suppressed by either anti-VEGFR1 antibody (p=0.0022) or anti-VEGFR2 antibody (p=0.0029) in a dose-dependent manner. The growth of NB4, a t(15;17) cell line was more potently suppressed by anti-VEGFR1 antibody (p=0.0111) than by anti-VEGFR2 antibody (p=0.0477). These results are quite concordant with the results of clinical samples with t(8;21) or t(15;17). In addition, anti-VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody significantly potentiated the growth inhibitory effect of idarubicin for Kasumi-1. As for downstream signals, we have shown that VEGFR2 transduce growth and survival signals through phosphorylation of Akt and MEK in leukemia cells (Kasumi-1). However, VEGFR1 transduce growth and survival signals through pathways other than MEK and Akt (NB4), although Akt phosphorylation may account for some of the VEGFR1 signals (Kasumi-1). Finally, our data suggested that autocrine pathway of VEGF and VEGFRs observed in AML cells with specific chromosomal translocations have contributed to leukemogenesis as activated signaling of receptor tyrosine kinase.
    Leukemia research 04/2009; 33(12):1650-7. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by natural killer cells via leukocyte receptor IIIa (FcgammaRIIIa) is greatly enhanced by the absence of the core fucose of Fc oligosaccharides, and is closely related to the clinical efficacy of anticancer processes in humans in vivo. Here, we focused on the physiological functions of nonfucosylated anti-CD20 IgG1 rituximab, in particular those functions mediated by human neutrophils, which highly express FcgammaRIIIb, a highly homologous FcgammaR to FcgammaRIIIa. After treatment with anti-CD20, the response of neutrophils to fluorescently labeled CD20(+) B-cell lymphoma in human whole blood was quantitatively analyzed by measuring their activities of antibody-dependent phagocytosis and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression on the phagocytotic neutrophils using flow cytometry. In human whole blood, most of the added CD20(+) B-cell lymphoma died shortly, within 4 hours, irrespective of the presence or absence of anti-CD20. Neutrophils were not directly concerned in the death because depletion of neutrophils from human whole blood did not affect the phenomenon. However, neutrophils aggressively phagocytosed newly dead lymphoma cells, and the nonfucosylated anti-CD20 effectively enhanced neutrophil phagocytosis solely by enhancing binding for the phagocytosis coreceptor FcgammaRIIIb. Noteworthy, more increased expression of MHC class II was also observed on the phagocytotic neutrophils than those observed on spontaneous and fucosylated anti-CD20 stimulated phagocytotic neutrophils. Our data showed that antibody therapy composed of nonfucosylated rituximab can activate human neutrophil functions involving phagocytosis and MHC class II expression, which may favorably potentiate the adaptive immune response in cancer patients.
    Experimental hematology 04/2009; 37(3):309-21. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has recently been identified as one of the critical mechanisms underlying the clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies, especially anticancer antibodies. Therapeutic antibodies fully lacking the core fucose of the Fc oligosaccharides have been found to exhibit much higher ADCC in humans than their fucosylated counterparts. However, data which show how fully non-fucosylated antibodies achieve such a high ADCC in human whole blood have not yet been disclosed. The precise mechanisms responsible for the high ADCC mediated by fully non-fucosylated therapeutic antibodies, even in the presence of human plasma, should be explained based on direct evidence of non-fucosylated antibody action in human blood. Using a human ex vivo B-cell depletion assay with non-fucosylated and fucosylated anti-CD20 IgG1s rituximab, we monitored the binding of the therapeutic agents both to antigens on target cells (target side interaction) and to leukocyte receptors (FcgammaR) on effector cells (effector side interaction), comparing the intensities of ADCC in human blood. In the target side interaction, down-modulation of CD20 on B cells mediated by anti-CD20 was not observed. Simple competition for binding to the antigens on target B cells between fucosylated and non-fucosylated anti-CD20s was detected in human blood to cause inhibition of the enhanced ADCC of non-fucosylated anti-CD20 by fucosylated anti-CD20. In the effector side interaction, non-fucosylated anti-CD20 showed sufficiently high FcgammaRIIIa binding activity to overcome competition from plasma IgG for binding to FcgammaRIIIa on natural killer (NK) cells, whereas the binding of fucosylated anti-CD20 to FcgammaRIIIa was almost abolished in the presence of human plasma and failed to recruit NK cells effectively. The core fucosylation levels of individual serum IgG1 from healthy donors was found to be so slightly different that it did not affect the inhibitory effect on the ADCC of fucosylated anti-CD20. Our results demonstrate that removal of fucosylated antibody ingredients from antibody therapeutics elicits high ADCC in human blood by two mechanisms: namely, by evading the inhibitory effects both of plasma IgG on FcgammaRIIIa binding (effector side interaction) and of fucosylated antibodies on antigen binding (target side interaction).
    BMC Cancer 03/2009; 9:58. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    Kenya Shitara
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), a lytic attack on antibody-targeted cells, is triggered upon binding of lymphocyte receptors (FcgammaRs) to the antibody constant region. ADCC is considered to be a major therapeutic function of antibodies. ADCC requires the presence of oligosaccharides in the Fc region and is sensitive to change in the oligosaccharide structure. We have demonstrated that fucose is the most critical IgG1 oligosaccharide component, and the removal of fucose from IgG1 oligosaccharides results in a very significant enhancement of ADCC and anti-tumor activity in vivo. Many therapeutic antibodies approved or clinical development are produced using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express high level of alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase and consequently produce highly fucosylated antibodies. We have established the fucosyltransferase knockout CHO cells which could stably produce non-fucosylated antibodies, designated as Potelligent antibodies. Potelligent antibodies show potent ADCC upon target cells through the effective and antigen-specific activation of NK cells due to augmented binding to FcgammaRIIIa. Moreover, Potelligent antibodies can evade the inhibitory effect of plasma IgG on ADCC through its high FcgammaRIIIa binding. Thus, the application of Potelligent antibodies is expected to be a promising approach as next-generation therapeutic antibodies with improved efficacy, even when administered at low doses in humans in vivo.
    Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 02/2009; 129(1):3-9. · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte receptor IIIa (Fc gamma RIIIa) plays an important role in mediating therapeutic antibodies' antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which is closely related to the clinical efficacy of anticancer processes in humans in vivo. The removal of the core fucose from oligosaccharides attached to the Fc region of antibodies improves Fc gamma RIIIa binding, allowing the antibodies to enhance dramatically the antibody effector functions of ADCC. In this study, the contribution of Fc gamma RIIIa oligosaccharides to the strength of the Fc gamma RIIIa/antibody complex was analyzed using a serial set of soluble human recombinant Fc gamma RIIIa lacking the oligosaccharides. A nonfucosylated antibody IgG1 appeared to have a significantly higher affinity to the wild-type Fc gamma RIIIa fully glycosylated at its five N-linked oligosaccharide sites than did the fucosylated IgG1, and this increased binding was almost abolished once all of the Fc gamma RIIIa glycosylation was removed. Our gain-of-function analysis in the Fc gamma RIIIa oligosaccharide at Asn-162 (N-162) confirmed that N-162 is the element required for the high binding affinity to nonfucosylated antibodies, as previously revealed by loss-of-function analyses. Interestingly, beyond our expectation, the Fc gamma RIIIa modified by N-162 alone showed a significantly higher binding affinity to nonfucosylated IgG1 than did the wild-type Fc gamma RIIIa. Attachment of the other four oligosaccharides, especially the Fc gamma RIIIa oligosaccharide at Asn-45 (N-45), hindered the high binding affinity of Fc gamma RIIIa to nonfucosylated IgG1. Our data clearly demonstrated that N-45 is an inhibitory element for the high Fc gamma RIIIa binding affinity mediated by N-162 to nonfucosylated antibodies. This information can be exploited for the structural-based functional study of Fc gamma RIIIa.
    Glycobiology 11/2008; 19(2):126-34. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tn-antigen (alpha-N-acetyl-galactosamine(GalNAc)-Ser/Thr) is a cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen expressed in various epithelial and hematological cancers, and although a number of anti-Tn IgG and IgM antibodies have been generated, they have not been fully validated for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we generated a novel murine anti-Tn IgG1 monoclonal antibody, KM3413, by immunization of mucins purified from a culture supernatant of LS180: a human colon cancer cell line. The binding of KM3413 was detected against consecutive Tn-antigens (Tn3 and Tn2), but not against monovalent antigens (Tn1). The affinity (K(D)) of KM3413 was determined to be about 10(-7) M with BIAcore. Cross-reactivity against type-A blood antigen, which shares a sugar residue, alpha-linked GalNAc, with Tn-antigen, was not detected. Next, we generated mouse-human chimeric IgG1 of KM3413 (cKM3413) and evaluated its anti-tumor activities against Jurkat: a human T-lymphoid leukemia cell line. In vitro assay revealed that cKM3413 induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and direct killing activity with cross-link antibody. Furthermore, treatment of cKM3413 (1 or 10 mg/kg) showed significantly better survival of Jurkat-inoculated C.B-17/lcr-scid Jcl mice compared with controls using PBS treatment (p<0.001). These results suggest that humanized antibody against clustered Tn-antigens is a promising therapeutic antibody against Tn-positive cancers.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 10/2008; 31(9):1739-44. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Mitsuo Satoh, Kenya Shitara, Nobuo Hanai
    Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme 09/2008; 53(12 Suppl):1683-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 8-isoform b (FGF8b) has been detected in human clinical sex-organ related cancers including hormone-refractory prostate cancer. There are, however, few relevant experimental models. A murine monoclonal anti-FGF8 antibody, KM1334, has been shown to neutralize FGF8b and inhibit the growth of androgen-dependent mouse mammary SC-3 cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of KM1334 against androgen-dependent and -independent progression of FGF8b-expressing human prostate cancer xenografts. FGF8b cDNA was transfected into androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, and its xenograft tumors were established subcutaneously in SCID mice with or without castration. KM1334 at the dose of 400 microg/head was injected twice weekly. FGF8b-expressing LNCaP cells secreted FGF8b, showed enhanced level of Erk1/2 phosphorylation, and showed more potent growth properties than mock-expressing cells in vitro and in vivo. KM1334 reduced these properties in vitro, inhibited tumorigenecity in vivo (T/C=0.33), and showed anti-tumor activity against established tumors (T/C=0.47) of FGF8b-expressing cells. FGF8b-expressing LNCaP tumors were androgen-dependent. However, they recurred as androgen-independent FGF8b positive tumors after castration. KM1334 also inhibited the growth of established FGF8b-expressing tumors in the androgen-independent states (T/C=0.47). These results indicate that humanized monoclonal antibodies, conserving the paratope of KM1334, are a promising candidate for therapy of FGF8b-expressing clinical prostate cancers. Follow-up studies using xenograft models with clinical FGF8b-expressing tumors are required to validate these early findings.
    The Prostate 06/2008; 68(6):640-50. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhancement of multiple effector functions of an antibody may be a promising approach for antibody therapy. We have previously reported that fucose removal from Fc-linked oligosaccharides greatly enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of therapeutic antibodies. Here, we report a unique approach to enhance complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), another important effector function of antitumor antibodies, by using engineered constant region of human IgG1/IgG3 chimeric isotypes. We systematically shuffled constant domains of IgG1 and IgG3 to generate a comprehensive set of mixed chimeric isotypes of anti-CD20 antibodies. Among these, the variant 1133, consisting of the CH1 and the hinge each from IgG1 and the Fc from IgG3, was unexpectedly found to exhibit markedly enhanced CDC that exceeded wild-type levels. However, it lacked protein A-binding capacity, an important feature for the industrial production. To eliminate this deficiency, a portion in COOH-terminal CH3 domain of 1133 was substituted with IgG1, resulting in full recovery of protein A binding without compromising the enhanced CDC and ADCC activities. The CDC-enhancing effect using a chimeric isotype was also shown in CD52 antigen/antibody system. The ADCC activity of the variants was also maximized by the absence of fucose from its carbohydrate structure, a phenomenon that has previously been observed for wild-type antibodies. Enhanced cytotoxicity of a variant was confirmed in a cynomolgus monkey model. These findings suggest that the variant antibodies with IgG1/IgG3 chimeric constant regions and nonfucosylated oligosaccharides that possess dual-enhanced cytotoxic functions may be an improvement for the next generation of therapeutic antitumor antibodies.
    Cancer Research 06/2008; 68(10):3863-72. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cleavage of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteolysis unmasks cryptic sites and generates novel fragments with biological activities functionally distinct from those of the intact ECM molecule. The laminin G-like (LG)4-5 fragment has been shown to be excised from the laminin alpha4 chain in various tissues. However, the functional role of this fragment has remained unknown to date. To investigate this, we prepared alpha4 LG1-3 and alpha4 LG4-5 fragments by elastase digestion of recombinant alpha4 LG1-5, and examined their effects on de novo adipogenesis in mice at the site of injection of basement membrane extract (Matrigel) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Although the addition of whole alpha4 LG1-5 suppressed adipogenesis to some extent, the alpha4 LG4-5 fragment could strongly suppress adipogenesis at a concentration of less than 20 nm. Addition of the alpha4 LG4 module, which contains a heparin-binding region, had a suppressive effect, but this was lost in mutants with reduced heparin-binding activity. In addition, antibodies against the extracellular domain of syndecan-2 and -4, which are known receptors for the alpha4 LG4 module, suppressed adipogenesis. Thus, these results suggest that the cryptic alpha4 LG4-5 fragment derived from the laminin alpha4 chain inhibits de novo adipogenesis by modulating the effect of FGF-2 through syndecans.
    Embryologia 03/2008; 50(2):97-107. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic antibody IgG1 has two N-linked oligosaccharide chains bound to the Fc region. The oligosaccharides are of the complex biantennary type, composed of a trimannosyl core structure with the presence or absence of core fucose, bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), galactose, and terminal sialic acid, which gives rise to structural heterogeneity. Both human serum IgG and therapeutic antibodies are well known to be heavily fucosylated. Recently, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), a lytic attack on antibody-targeted cells, has been found to be one of the critical effector functions responsible for the clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies such as anti-CD20 IgG1 rituximab (Rituxan((R))) and anti-Her2/neu IgG1 trastuzumab (Herceptin((R))). ADCC is triggered upon the binding of lymphocyte receptors (FcgammaRs) to the antibody Fc region. The activity is dependent on the amount of fucose attached to the innermost GlcNAc of N-linked Fc oligosaccharide via an alpha-1,6-linkage, and is dramatically enhanced by a reduction in fucose. Non-fucosylated therapeutic antibodies show more potent efficacy than their fucosylated counterparts both in vitro and in vivo, and are not likely to be immunogenic because their carbohydrate structures are a normal component of natural human serum IgG. Thus, the application of non-fucosylated antibodies is expected to be a powerful and elegant approach to the design of the next generation therapeutic antibodies with improved efficacy. In this review, we discuss the importance of the oligosaccharides attached to the Fc region of therapeutic antibodies, especially regarding the inhibitory effect of fucosylated therapeutic antibodies on the efficacy of non-fucosylated counterparts in one medical agent. The impact of completely non-fucosylated therapeutic antibodies on therapeutic fields will be also discussed.
    Cytotechnology 01/2008; 55(2-3):109-14. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, removal of core fucose from the Fc oligosaccharides of therapeutic antibodies is widely recognized as being of great importance for the effector function of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and alpha-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) knockout cells have been generated as an ideal host cell line for manufacturing such therapeutics. Here, we attempted to identify genes other than FUT8 that could be targeted for the manufacture of non-fucosylated therapeutics. Loss-of-function analyses using siRNAs against three key genes involved in oligosaccharide fucosylation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells revealed that there was a positive correlation between the Fc oligosaccharide fucosylation and the mRNA expression through the origin in the cases of both GDP-fucose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and FUT8, but not for the GDP-fucose transporter, suggesting that there is no functional redundancy in GMD and FUT8. GMD knockout CHO/DG44 cells were successfully established, and were confirmed to be devoid of intracellular GDP-fucose and to produce completely non-fucosylated antibodies. GMD knockout cells recovered their fucosylation capability through the salvage pathway upon addition of l-fucose into the culture medium, and exhibited equable morphology, growth kinetics and recombinant protein productivity, demonstrating that loss of oligosaccharide fucosylation has no impact on these cellular phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that GMD knockout is a new strategy applicable to the manufacture of non-fucosylated therapeutic antibodies, and completely O-fucose-negative therapeutics as well.
    Journal of Biotechnology 07/2007; 130(3):300-10. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Removal of the fucose residue from the oligosaccharides attached to Asn297 of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) results in a significant enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) via improved IgG1 binding to Fcgamma receptor IIIa. To provide structural insight into the mechanisms of affinity enhancement, we determined the crystal structure of the nonfucosylated Fc fragment and compared it with that of fucosylated Fc. The overall conformations of the fucosylated and nonfucosylated Fc fragments were similar except for hydration mode around Tyr296. Stable-isotope-assisted NMR analyses confirmed the similarity of the overall structures between fucosylated and nonfucosylated Fc fragments in solution. These data suggest that the glycoform-dependent ADCC enhancement is attributed to a subtle conformational alteration in a limited region of IgG1-Fc. Furthermore, the electron density maps revealed that the traces between Asp280 and Asn297 of our fucosylated and nonfucosylated Fc crystals were both different from that in previously reported isomorphous Fc crystals.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 06/2007; 368(3):767-79. · 3.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
320.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2011
    • KYOWA HAKKO BIO Co., Ltd.
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2003
    • Kyowa Hakko Kirin
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998–2001
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute of Medical Science
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2000
    • Tohoku University
      • Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
      Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, Japan
  • 1996
    • National Defense Medical College
      • Division of Pathology
      Tokorozawa, Saitama-ken, Japan