[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comprehension of informed consent information has been problematic. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of a shortened explanation of an established consent method and whether customized slide shows improve the understanding of the risks and limitations of orthodontic treatment.
Slide shows for each of the 80 subject-parent pairs included the most common core elements, up to 4 patient-specific custom elements, and other general elements. Group A heard a presentation of the treatment plan and the informed consent. Group B did not hear the presentation of the informed consent. All subjects read the consent form, viewed the customized slide show, and completed an interview with structured questions, 2 literacy tests, and a questionnaire. The interviews were scored for the percentages of correct recall and comprehension responses. Three informed consent domains were examined: treatment, risk, and responsibility. These groups were compared with a previous study group, group C, which received the modified consent and the standard slide show.
No significant differences existed between groups A, B, and C for any sociodemographic variables. Children in group A scored significantly higher than did those in group B on risk recall and in group C on overall comprehension, risk recall and comprehension, and general risks and limitations questions. Children in group B scored significantly higher than did those in group C on overall comprehension, treatment recall, and risk recall. Elements presented first in the slide show scored better than those presented later.
This study suggested little advantage of a verbal review of the consent (except for patients for risk) when other means of review such as the customized slide show were included. Regression analysis suggested that patients understood best the elements presented first in the informed consent slide show. Consequently, the most important information should be presented first to patients, and any information provided beyond the first 7 points should be given as supplemental take-home material.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 02/2012; 141(2):174-86. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compares occlusal and psychosocial outcomes from comprehensive orthodontic treatment in Medicaid (MC) and privately financed (private pay, PP) patients.
Two cohorts received comprehensive orthodontics: MC (n = 66); PP (n = 60). A calibrated, blinded examiner scored dental casts at baseline (pretreatment, T1) and after completing 2 years of treatment (posttreatment, T2) using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) and the Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON). The prevalence of patients in the validated ICON categories for treatment need, complexity, and improvement were calculated. Questionnaires to assess body image (BI) and expectations/experiences were administered. Occlusal measures at T2 were compared after adjustment for baseline characteristics. Psychosocial measures were compared between and within groups. Occlusal and psychosocial associations were evaluated.
MC was 1.3 years younger (P < 0.001) and had worse malocclusions at baseline (PAR 32 versus 25; P < 0.001); (ICON 64 versus 56; P = 0.06). After adjustment for age and initial severity, estimated average differences between groups at T2 (MC-PP) were slight: 1.5 [95 percent confidence interval (CI) -2.9, 5.9] and 2.4 (95 percent CI -4.4, 8.9) for PAR and ICON, respectively. More PP completed treatment under 2 years (85 percent versus 62 percent; P = 0.03). At baseline, both groups needed treatment, but MC malocclusions were more complex (P = 0.05). At T2, both groups were acceptable and there were no differences in ICON improvement categories. Group differences in psychosocial measures and associations between psychosocial and occlusal measures were evident in the "teeth" domain but weak or lacking elsewhere.
Occlusal and psychosocial outcomes from orthodontics in MC and PP were comparable, despite worse MC malocclusions at baseline.
Journal of Public Health Dentistry 10/2011; 72(2):94-103. · 1.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the dental status of Brazilian and Canadian elderly populations with respect to socioeconomic and quality of life factors.
A total of 496 adults aged 60-75 years, having four or more teeth, and physically and cognitively suitable for a clinical oral examination were included. Subjects answered questions concerning their lifestyle and completed the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) questionnaire.
In all populations, the majority were females, aged between 60 and 65 years and married. Although the Canadian New Immigrant population had lower mean income, they had more remaining teeth (23.04 ± 6.1), more functional teeth (sound and restored teeth) (14.92 ± 5.7), more sound teeth (15.40 ± 7.6), but more carious teeth (2.97 ± 3.0). The Brazilian population had higher numbers of restored teeth (12.26 ± 6.8) and fewer remaining teeth (17.80 ± 7.6). In all populations, females, married and younger (60-65 years old) adults were more likely to retain 20 or more teeth. The mean GOHAI scores were similar for Canadians (40.55 ± 5.7) and Canadian New Immigrants (39.28 ± 6.5), but were higher than that among Brazilians (31.97 ± 8.9).
The numbers of remaining teeth were related to greater education and higher income status for Brazilian and Canadian populations. However, Canadian New Immigrants with lower income and education retained more teeth than the other populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients enrolled in Medicaid have limited access to orthodontic services in the United States. No studies are available, to the authors' knowledge, regarding the clinical and psychosocial burdens of malocclusion on these patients from an economic perspective.
The authors conducted a systematic review of the relevant economic literature. They identified issues from the perspectives of the various stakeholders (dentists, patients and parents, Medicaid programs) and developed a conceptual model for studying decision making focused on the strategy of providing early interceptive and preventive treatment rather than, or in addition to, comprehensive care in the patient's permanent dentition.
Medicaid coverage and reimbursement amounts vary nationwide, and decision making associated with obtaining care can be complex. The perspectives of all relevant stakeholders deserve assessment. A conceptual framework of the cost-effectiveness of interceptive orthodontic treatment compared with comprehensive treatment illustrates the issues to be considered when evaluating these strategies.
Policymakers and the dental community should identify creative solutions to addressing low-income families' limited access to orthodontic services and compare them from various perspectives with regard to their relative cost-effectiveness.
Dentists should be aware of the multiple problems faced by low-income families in obtaining orthodontic services and the impact of stakeholder issues on access to care; they also should be proactive in helping low-income patients obtain needed orthodontic services.
Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 10/2010; 141(10):1202-12. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) in adolescents who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison between these adolescents and their age-matched peers who were not seeking orthodontic treatment provided an assessment of the role of OHQOL in treatment seeking.
The sample consisted of 225 subjects, 12 to 15 years of age; 101 had sought orthodontic treatment at a university clinic (orthodontic group), and 124, from a nearby public school, had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHQOL was assessed with the Brazilian version of the short form of the oral health impact profile, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment need.
Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that those who sought orthodontic treatment reported worse OHQOL than did the subjects in the comparison group (P <0.001). They also had more severe malocclusions as shown by the index of orthodontic treatment need (P = 0.003) and greater esthetic impairment, both when analyzed professionally (P = 0.008) and by self-perception (P <0.0001). No sex differences were observed in quality of life impacts (P = 0.22). However, when the orthodontic group was separately evaluated, the girls reported significantly worse impacts (P = 0.05). After controlling for confounding (dental caries status, esthetic impairment, and malocclusion severity), those who sought orthodontic treatment were 3.1 times more likely to have worse OHQOL than those in the comparison group.
Adolescents who sought orthodontic treatment had more severe malocclusions and esthetic impairments, and had worse OHQOL than those who did not seek orthodontic treatment, even though severely compromised esthetics was a better predictor of worse OHQOL than seeking orthodontic treatment.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 08/2010; 138(2):152-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decade, an increasing number of studies focusing on the impact of oral deformities and illnesses on quality of life have been published. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of oral problems on quality of life in 3 groups of adult patients in need of orthognathic-surgical treatment.
A total of 117 patients were recruited from the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the State University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil: 20 in the initial phase, 70 in the presurgical phase (presurgical orthodontic preparation), and 27 in the postsurgical phase. The impact of treatment phase on oral health-related quality of life was evaluated with the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14). OHIP-14 scores were calculated by an additive method, and the participants were divided on the basis of level of impact into 2 groups: high impact (scores, >11) and low impact (scores, < or =11).
Compared with patients in the postsurgical phase, those who needed orthognathic surgical treatment but had not yet begun it and those who were in the presurgical phase of treatment were 6.48 and 3.14 times more likely, respectively, to experience a negative impact of their oral condition.
Among those undergoing or anticipating orthognathic-surgical treatment, orthognathic surgery positively affects the patients' quality of life.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 06/2010; 137(6):790-5. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are disparities in access to orthodontic treatment for children from low-income families. Systematic programs of limited-care interceptive and preventive orthodontics have been proposed as a solution. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to compare dental outcomes and funding eligibility from a group of Medicaid patients randomized to receive interceptive orthodontics (IO) in the mixed dentition or observation (OBS).
One hundred seventy Medicaid-eligible children were randomized to receive IO or OBS and followed for 2 years, when complete data were available on 72 and 74 children, respectively. The 2-year changes in the peer assessment rating (PAR) were compared using the Student t test. The proportions of children no longer eligible for Medicaid funding as defined by handicapping labiolingual deviation (HLD) scores less than 25 at the 2-year follow-up were compared with the chi-square test.
The IO patients had significantly greater decreases in the PAR scores--50%-compared with the OBS subjects, -6% (P <0.001). Negative and positive overjet and maxillary alignment were the components most affected by IO; they decreased by 11.0, 7.2, and 3.7 PAR points, respectively (P <0.001). Overbite showed little change. At the 2-year follow-up, 80% of the IO patients' malocclusions that qualified initially were no longer deemed medically necessary by the HLD index, compared with 6% in the OBS group (P <0.001).
IO significantly reduces the severity of malocclusions and moves most from the "medically necessary" category to elective but does not produce finished results for most patients. Overjet and alignment were most readily corrected by interceptive treatment. Deep overbites were the least susceptible to IO correction.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 03/2010; 137(3):324-33. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is limited information on infectious and host responses distinguishing older people with or without active periodontitis. This study measured bacterial and serum cytokine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in older persons.
Elders (mean age: 67 years), whose periodontal status had declined most or least (20% worst or 20% best) over 5 years, were enrolled. Two years later, they were classified as periodontally declining (active periodontitis [AP]), if they had at least five teeth with probing depth (PD) > or =5 mm, or stable (stable periodontally [SP]), if they did not. Groups were compared with respect to demographics, PD, clinical loss of attachment, subgingival bacteria, serum hsCRP, interleukin (IL)-1beta and -6, and chronic diseases.
Ten AP and 24 SP subjects were identified; 13% of women and 44% of men from the original sample were in the AP group (P <0.05). Most Asians were SP; most whites and all African Americans were classified as having AP (P <0.01). More AP elders had osteoporosis (P <0.01), but the AP and SP groups did not differ with respect to IL-1beta and -6 or hsCRP. Bacterial counts were higher in the AP group for Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros) (7.7 x 10(5) cells versus 3.8 x 10(5) cells; P <0.05), Prevotella intermedia (25.7 x 10(5) cells versus 9.8 x 10(5) cells; P <0.01), Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) (16.2 x 10(5) cells versus 8.0 x 10(5) cells; P <0.05), and Streptococcus mutans (6.2 x 10(5) cells versus 2.0 x 10(5) cells; P <0.01). Three risk factors were most predictive of periodontal decline: PD, osteoporosis, and being white or African American.
Periodontal decline was associated with osteoporosis, ethnicity, PD, gender, serum hsCRP, and levels of four bacterial species.
Journal of Periodontology 10/2008; 79(10):1920-6. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oral-facial region is usually an area of significant concern for the individual because it draws the most attention from other people in interpersonal interactions and is the primary source of vocal, physical, and emotional communication. As a result, patients who seek orthodontic treatment are concerned with improving their appearance and social acceptance, often more than they are with improving their oral function or health. Enhancing these aspects of quality of life is an important motive for undergoing orthodontic treatment. Regardless of age, patients' and their parents' or caregivers' expectations about improvements in oral function, esthetics, social acceptance, and body image are important for both general dentists and orthodontists to consider when advising patients about these procedures and during the treatment process. This review of research on the impact of conventional and surgical orthodontics on quality of life examines the association between oral health-related quality of life and severity and type of malocclusion, as well as the impact of treatment and patient characteristics on quality of life. The article will emphasize the importance of clinicians' having a clear understanding, before initiating treatment, of their patients' quality of life and their expectations about improvements in specific domains of quality of life.
Journal of dental education 09/2008; 72(8):886-94. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) rinsing on the subgingival microbiota is limited. This study tested if intermittent CHX rinsing over 5 years had an impact on the subgingival microbiota.
Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method in a double-blind randomized CHX rinse study.
A total of 210 subjects were included. The mean age of the subjects was 71.7 (+/- 4.1) years, and 56.2% were women. Evidence of alveolar bone loss was found in 39% of subjects. Bacterial loads were not correlated significantly with probing depth. At year 5, subjects in the CHX rinse group with no evidence of bone loss presented with lower total bacterial counts than control subjects with no bone loss. The levels of the following bacteria were significantly lower in the CHX group: Lactobacillus acidophilus (P <0.05), Eikenella corrodens (P <0.05), Fusobacterium nucleatum sp. nucleatum (P <0.01), Treponema denticola (P <0.05), Leptotrichia buccalis (P <0.05), and Eubacterium saburreum (P <0.05). No differences in bacterial loads were found between CHX and control rinse subjects with alveolar bone loss.
Older subjects with or without periodontitis carry a large variety of bacteria associated with periodontitis. Intermittent rinsing with CHX may provide a preventive benefit in reducing levels of bacteria but only in subjects without alveolar bone loss.
Journal of Periodontology 10/2007; 78(9):1751-8. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Facial profile disharmonies in the anteroposterior (AP) position of the mandible are among the most frequent reasons that patients seek orthodontic treatment. Various methods are available for assessing profile preferences, and differences between them could affect treatment decisions. The purposes of this study were to compare and contrast 3 methods of evaluating profile preferences for the AP position of the mandible.
Facial profile preferences of white orthodontists (n = 28) and white (n = 56) and Japanese-American (n = 55) laypeople were evaluated. The esthetic significance of variations in the AP position of the mandible was investigated by using 3 methods: a traditional semantic differential scale, the Perceptometrics method (Health Programs Intl, Wellesley, Mass), and the implicit association test (IAT).
Findings from the semantic differential scale show that, overall, there is a general preference among orthodontists and laypeople for an orthognathic profile (P <.001). Findings from the Perceptometrics method indicate that orthodontists consider the most pleasing profile to be more forward than do lay subjects (P <.001). The IAT results show a positive bias among all 3 groups toward orthognathic profiles and a negative bias toward profiles with mandibular retrognathism or prognathism. The IAT suggested that laypeople were more tolerant of mandibular prognathism in men than in women (P <.01), and more tolerant of mandibular retrognathia in white women than in men (P = .03).
These results support the benefits of using both implicit and explicit methods to assess facial profile preferences.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 10/2006; 130(3):283-91. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies evaluated the perception of laypersons to symmetric alteration of anterior dental esthetics. However, no studies have evaluated the perception of asymmetric esthetic alterations. This investigation will determine whether asymmetric and symmetric anterior dental discrepancies are detectable by dental professionals and laypersons.
Seven images of women's smiles were intentionally altered with a software-imaging program. The alterations involved crown length, crown width, midline diastema, papilla height, and gingiva-to-lip relationship of the maxillary anterior teeth. These altered images were rated by groups of general dentists, orthodontists, and laypersons using a visual analog scale. Statistical analysis of the responses resulted in the establishment of threshold levels of attractiveness for each group.
Orthodontists were more critical than dentists and laypeople when evaluating asymmetric crown length discrepancies. All 3 groups could identify a unilateral crown width discrepancy of 2.0 mm. A small midline diastema was not rated as unattractive by any group. Unilateral reduction of papillary height was generally rated less attractive than bilateral alteration. Orthodontists and laypeople rated a 3-mm distance from gingiva to lip as unattractive.
Asymmetric alterations make teeth more unattractive to not only dental professionals but also the lay public.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 09/2006; 130(2):141-51. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper examines recent studies in behavioral science and health services aspects of geriatric dentistry. With the increased focus on special needs of older patients, researchers have become concerned with psychological and sociocultural factors that influence older people's oral health status, behavior, and attitudes. Studies of dental service utilization patterns among subgroups of the elderly, including those in long-term care settings, will be reviewed. Research on methods to improve oral health care behaviors will be discussed, with their implications for developing oral health promotion and service delivery programs. The special oral health needs of cognitively impaired and frail elderly will be reviewed. Studies of clinical decision-making in geriatric dentistry have been conducted. These studies have revealed significant gaps in dental professionals' knowledge and attention to the special needs of older patients. This and other aspects of behavioral research suggest the need for better methods to disseminate research findings in geriatric dentistry to clinical practice in this field. The presentation will discuss ways of improving dissemination and transfer of research findings to the clinical management of aged patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The segment of our society over age 65 is growing, and many more of these people are keeping their teeth for a longer period of time. This suggests that there will be additional need for periodontal therapy in the future, but it also implies that disease-related events must be distinguished from age-related changes. Changes in the periodontium with aging are reviewed, and periodontal disease management strategies in the older patient are discussed.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 05/2006; 129(4 Suppl):S50-4. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the growth of orthodontic intervention at younger ages and increased interest in improving dentofacial appearance among the general public, it is important to assess whether demand for treatment is uniform across ethnic and socioeconomic groups.
This study compared 3 groups of children who varied by location, payment source, and ethnicity. The sample consisted of 150 children in the Bronx, NY, and 100 in Seattle, Wash, who were undergoing or anticipating orthodontic treatment in publicly funded dental clinics. Ethnic minorities comprised 69% and 92%, respectively, of these groups. The third group consisted of 84 children in Seattle, Anchorage (Alaska), and Chicago who had sought treatment by private practitioners; ethnic minorities comprised 22% of this group. Data were collected from children and parents or guardians by questionnaires.
Desire for treatment was higher among children in the publicly funded clinics and among black children than whites or Asian Americans. Children in publicly funded clinics rated themselves as having worse occlusions as determined by anterior crowding, overbite, overjet, diastema, and open bite. Children in the Bronx clinic accepted a wider range of occlusion as attractive. Stage of treatment affected judgments of attractiveness. Vicarious experience with orthodontics through parents or siblings made children more tolerant of dentofacial disharmony, with more favorable ratings of malocclusion in this group than among children who had no family experience with orthodontics. Hispanic and mixed-ethnicity children rated themselves more negatively on all dimensions.
These results suggest that both socioeconomic status and ethnicity play roles in children's desire for treatment, self-assessed need, and judgments of esthetics. A clinician's sensitivity to such differences can improve patient cooperation with treatment.
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 12/2005; 128(5):575-82. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The theme of the Elders' Oral Health Summit is older adults' access to dental care and how this situation can be improved for future cohorts. A major question is whether older adults today, as well as baby boomers who will be entering their seventies within the next decade, will demand dental care as part of their overall well-being. The current cohort of elders varies widely in its use of dental services, from regular preventive users to non-users who report that they have not been to a dentist in more than twenty years. In 1999, 53.5 percent of older adults reported that they had visited a dentist, the lowest rate of any age group beyond eighteen. This article examines some determinants of older persons' dental service utilization, both barriers and enablers, as a means of understanding why some people continue seeking preventive dental care throughout their lives while others are lifelong irregular users and still others discontinue regular use after retirement or relocation to a new community or long-term care facility. Based on the epidemiological and psychosocial literature available on this topic, barriers and enablers include cohort and age, race and ethnicity, income and education, availability of dental and medical insurance, urban vs. rural residence, physical access to a dental office, and systemic and functional health. Attitudes toward oral health and dental care and other psychosocial variables may override some of these demographic and structural variables. Research in medical and dental service utilization offers insights into the relative predictive ability of these variables. Dental providers can also be potent enablers or barriers to older adults' access to dental care. Each of these factors plays a role in older adults' use of dental services. Under different situations some serve as both barriers and enablers.
Journal of dental education 10/2005; 69(9):975-86. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the association between periodontitis risk, gender, and marital status in older adults. The purpose of this study was to assess if the oral health status of older subjects could be explained by differences in: 1) marital status; 2) gender; and 3) ethnicity.
Clinical and radiographic periodontal oral conditions were studied in 701 older subjects from the TEETH clinical trial. Medical conditions as well as ethnic and marital status and smoking habits were considered.
A total of 89 married couples were identified; 40.7% of these were of European descent and 48.1% of Chinese descent. The mean age was 67.7 years (SD +/- 4.7). The men were older than the women (mean difference: 1.5 years, SD +/- 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5 to 2.5, P<0.01). No significant differences in periodontal conditions were found between spouses or by marital status. Chinese descent was associated with a higher risk for periodontitis, regardless of marital status (odds ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.04, P<0.03).
1) Married couples have similar social habits, similar oral health perceptions, and similar patterns of periodontal disease. 2) Dental studies including married couples do not bias data for married subjects as such. 3) Marital status has a limited impact on periodontal health but may have a greater impact on several systemic conditions, especially in widowed, divorced, or never married women. 4) Older Chinese subjects perceive themselves as being at lower risk for periodontitis but have more objective signs of periodontitis than older subjects of European descent.
Journal of Periodontology 06/2004; 75(6):817-23. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the results of a cross-national survey of orthodontists' preferences regarding initiating treatment at various dentition stages. Previous research has demonstrated high acceptance of early intervention by parents and children, and, in many cases, better compliance with treatment protocols among younger children than among adolescents.
The current study questioned orthodontists in three countries. The identical survey, translated from English to Turkish and Italian, was administered to 137 American, 104 Italian, and 62 Turkish orthodontists. These orthodontists represented a wide cross-section of their specialty in years of experience, gender, and type of practice.
The three groups agreed on the ideal dentition stage only for some occlusal and skeletal conditions. The Italian sample was most likely to intervene at the youngest age for 14 of the 41 conditions, whereas American orthodontists chose treatment at a significantly younger age than the others for 10 conditions. For most conditions, Turkish orthodontists tended to postpone treatment longer than the other two groups. Italian orthodontists reported more 2-phase treatment than either of the other two groups; 1.6 times more than Americans and 1.9 times more than Turkish orthodontists (P < .001). American and Turkish orthodontists reported that their most frequently treated age group was teens (44.4% and 46.5%, respectively), with less than 10% aged 6 to 8 years. In contrast, Italian respondents reported an average 17% caseload in the youngest group (P < .001).
The results highlight variations in treatment philosophies, despite extensive international communication among orthodontists.