Jorge L Gross

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (249)872.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate associations of dietary fat composition with the development of cardiac events in patients with type 2 diabetes, without ischemic heart disease who were followed for at least 12 months.
    Atherosclerosis 06/2014; 236(1):31-38. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-defined risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The impact of antecedent hyperglycemia and body size on mortality in critical ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may vary across their range of values. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between in-hospital mortality and preexisting hyperglycemia and body size in critically ill ICU patients to understand how mortality varied among normal, overweight, and obese patients and those with low, intermediate, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels.
    BMC Endocrine Disorders 06/2014; 14(1):50. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • JAMA Internal Medicine 06/2014; 174(6):1005-1006. · 10.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Higher intake of dietary fiber is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease, the leading cause of mortality among people with type 1 diabetes. The protective effect includes the anti-inflammatory properties of some foods. Population-based studies have shown an inverse association between some nutritional habits and high sensitive -C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). This study aimed to ascertain the association between fiber intake and hs-CPR levels in patients with type 1 diabetes.
    Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 01/2014; 6:66. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) aimed to analyze the effect of fiber intake on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Databases were searched up to November 2012 using the following medical subject headings: diabetes, fiber, and randomized controlled trial. Absolute changes in glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose were reported as differences between baseline and end-of-study measures. Pooled estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Of the 22,046 articles initially identified, 11 (13 comparisons; range of duration, 8-24 weeks) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, providing data from 605 patients. High-fiber diets, including diets with foods rich in fiber (up to 42.5 g/day; four studies) or supplements containing soluble fiber (up to 15.0 g/day; nine studies), reduced absolute values of glycated hemoglobin by 0.55% (95% CI -0.96 to -0.13) and fasting plasma glucose by 9.97 mg/dL (95% CI -18.16 to -1.78). In conclusion, increased fiber intake improved glycemic control, indicating it should be considered as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Nutrition Reviews 11/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term insulin independence after islet transplantation depends on engraftment of a large number of islets. However, the yield of pancreatic islets from brain-dead donors is negatively affected by the up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. Brain death is also believed to increase tissue factor (TF) expression, contributing to a low rate of engraftment. We conducted a case-control study to assess brain death-induced inflammatory effects in human pancreas. Seventeen brain-dead patients and 20 control patients undergoing pancreatectomy were studied. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL) 6, IL-1β, interferon (IFN) γ, and TF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Gene expressions of these cytokines and TF were evaluated by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein quantification was performed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded pancreas sections. Brain-dead patients had higher serum concentrations of TNF and IL-6 and increased TNF protein levels compared to controls. The groups had similar TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ messenger RNA levels in pancreatic tissue. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed TF messenger RNA up-regulation in controls. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that brain-dead patients had increased TNF protein levels compared to controls. Brain death induces inflammation evidenced by the up-regulation of TNF in serum and pancreatic tissue. Blocking the expression of key inflammatory mediators in brain-dead donors should be evaluated as a new approach to improve the outcomes of islet transplantation.
    Transplantation 10/2013; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension frequently coexists with type 2 diabetes (DM), and increases the risk of cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of the study was to obtain/maintain blood pressure (BP) goals (ADA/JNC 7) according to a stepwise algorithm using the medication supplied by the Brazilian government. A one-year, single-arm interventional study conducted with type 2 diabetes patients. Intervention consisted of intensification of lifestyle changes and sequential prescription of drugs: diuretic; ACE inhibitors; beta-adrenergic blocking agent and calcium channel blocking agent if BP >130/80 mmHg. Seventy-eight patients completed the trial. During intervention, the number of antihypertensive tablets rose (3.6 +/- 3.5 vs. 5.9 +/- 3.5 pills/patient; p <0.001), as the number of antihypertensive classes increased (1.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.70 +/- 1.2; p < 0.01) and the overall drop of BP was 11 mmHg for SBP (145.0 +/- 22.8 vs. 133.7 +/- 20.9 mmHg; p < 0.01) and 5 mmHg for DBP (78.7 +/- 11.5 vs. 73.7 +/- 10.5 mmHg; p = 0.001). Although the number of patients with BP in target almost doubled [14 (18.7%) vs. 30 (38.5%) p = 0.008], less than 40% of the patients achieved the proposed goals. A BP algorithm applied to type 2 diabetic and hypertensive patients is able to lower BP, however more than half of the patients did not achieve the ADA/JNC 7 targets demonstrating the complexity of BP control in this population.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT06260.
    Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 09/2013; 5(1):52. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brazil is expected to have 19.6 million patients with diabetes by the year 2030. A key concept in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is establishing individualized glycemic goals based on each patient's clinical characteristics, which impact in the choice of antihyperglycemic therapy. Targets for glycemic control, including fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C), are often not reached solely with antihyperglycemic therapy, and insulin therapy is often required. Basal insulin is considered an initial strategy; however, premixed insulins are convenient and are equally or more effective, especially for patients who require both basal and prandial control but desire a more simplified strategy involving fewer daily injections than a basal/bolus regimen. Most physicians are reluctant to transition patients to insulin treatment due to inappropriate assumptions and insufficient information. We conducted a nonsystematic review in PubMed and identified the most relevant and recently published articles that compared the use of premixed insulin versus basal insulin analogues used alone or in combination with rapid-acting insulin analogues before meals in patients with T2DM. These studies suggest that premixed insulin analogues are equally or more effective in reducing A1C compared to basal insulin analogues alone in spite of the small increase in the risk of nonsevere hypoglycemic events and the nonclinically significant weight gain. Premixed insulin analogues can be used in insulin-naive patients, in patients already on basal insulin therapy, and those using basal-bolus who are noncompliant with blood glucose self-monitoring and titration of multiple insulin doses. We additionally provide practical aspects related to titration for the specific premixed insulin analogue formulations commercially available in Brazil.
    Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 09/2013; 5(1):50. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Education plays an important role in diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment, as it enables patients to manage their disease. There is a wide range of tested educational interventions, and, to date, no universal model that can be standardized and recognized as effective for all individuals with the disease has been defined. This article aims to review the effect of different types of educational interventions for self-management of glycemic control in patients with DM type 2, in addition to define general recommendations for this treatment strategy.
    Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 07/2013; · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G>C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G>C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G>C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G>C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.
    Experimental Eye Research 07/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The common polymorphism in the FTO gene (rs9939609) has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and appetite regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible associations of FTO rs9939609 with dietary factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 236 patients with type 2 diabetes (age 60.0 ± 10.3 years; diabetes duration 12.7 ± 8.2 years; 53.4% females) who were genotyped for FTO rs9939609. Patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations and 3-day weighed diet records. Data on dietary intake were categorized as high or low, based on median values. Results: The AA genotype in the FTO gene was positively associated with high fat (>34% energy; OR = 2.17; 95% CI 1.02-4.63) and low fiber intakes (<16 g/day; OR = 2.42; 95% CI 1.05-5.57), adjusted for gender, BMI, total energy intake, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c. When gender was taken into account, AA females had higher fat (37.4 ± 5.3 vs. 32.6 ± 7.5 and 32.2 ± 6.2% energy; p = 0.005) and lower fiber intakes (12.4 ± 4.4 vs. 15.1 ± 6.3 and 16.7 ± 5.6 g/day; p = 0.023) than patients with TT and AT genotypes. Multiple logistic regression models confirmed female associations for high fat (OR = 9.73; 95% CI 2.12-44.66) and low fiber intakes (OR = 4.28; 95% CI 1.14-16.06; p < 0.05 for all models). Conclusions: Patients with type 2 diabetes, who were carriers of the AA genotype of the FTO rs9939609, had increased fat and decreased fiber consumption, independently of BMI.
    Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics 05/2013; 6(2):97-106. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A diet rich in fibre seems to protect against the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but there is scarce information about the role of fibre intake in patients with the MetS and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of soluble fibre from partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) on the MetS and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present randomised controlled clinical trial, forty-four patients with type 2 diabetes (males 38·6 %, age 62 (sd 9) years, diabetes duration 14·2 (sd 9·6) years) and the MetS underwent clinical, laboratory and dietary evaluations at baseline, 4 and 6 weeks. All patients followed their usual diet and the intervention group (n 23) received an additional 10 g/d of PHGG. In the intervention group, waist circumference (WC), glycated Hb (HbA1c), 24 h urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and serum trans-fatty acids (FA) were reduced in comparison with baseline after 4 and 6 weeks: WC 103·5 (sd 9·5) to 102·1 (sd 10) to 102·3 (sd 9·7) cm; HbA1c 6·88 (sd 0·99) to 6·64 (sd 0·94) to 6·57 (sd 0·84) %; 24 h UAE 6·8 (interquartile range 3·0-17·5) to 4·5 (interquartile range 3·0-10·5) to 6·2 (interquartile range 3·0-9·5) mg; trans-FA 71 (interquartile range 46-137) to 67 (interquartile range 48-98) to 57 (interquartile range 30-110) mg/l (P< 0·05 for all). The only change in the control group was weight reduction: 77·0 (sd 13·5) to 76·2 (sd 13·3) to 76·1 (sd 13·4) kg (P= 0·005). Other MetS components (blood pressure, TAG, HDL-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose), total and LDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and endothelin-1 did not change in either group. In patients with type 2 diabetes and the MetS, the addition of PHGG to the usual diet improved cardiovascular and metabolic profiles by reducing WC, HbA1c, UAE and trans-FA.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Management of type 2 diabetes with metformin often does not provide adequate glycemic control, thereby necessitating add-on treatment. In a 24-week clinical trial, dapagliflozin, an investigational sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, improved glycemic control in patients inadequately controlled with metformin. The present study is an extension that was undertaken to evaluate dapagliflozin as long-term therapy in this population. METHODS: This was a long-term extension (total 102 weeks) of a 24-week phase 3, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to blinded daily treatment (placebo, or dapagliflozin 2.5, 5, or 10 mg) plus open-label metformin ([greater than or equal to]1,500 mg). The previously published primary endpoint was change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 24 weeks. This paper reports the follow-up to week 102, with analysis of covariance model performed at 24 weeks with last observation carried forward; a repeated measures analysis was utilized to evaluate changes from baseline in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and weight. RESULTS: A total of 546 patients were randomized to 1 of the 4 treatments. The completion rate for the 78-week double-blind extension period was lower for the placebo group (63.5%) than for the dapagliflozin groups (68.3% to 79.8%). At week 102, mean changes from baseline HbA1c (8.06%) were +0.02% for placebo compared with -0.48% (P = 0.0008), -0.58% (P <0.0001), and -0.78% (P <0.0001) for dapagliflozin 2.5, 5, and 10 mg, respectively. In addition, all dapagliflozin groups had sustained reductions from baseline in FPG (-1.07 to -1.47 mmol/l) and body weight (-1.10 to -1.74 kg) at 102 weeks, whereas increases were noted in placebo-treated patients for both of these outcomes. Events of hypoglycemia were rare and were not severe. Evidence suggestive of genital infection was reported in 11.7% to 14.6% of dapagliflozin patients and 5.1% of placebo patients, with one related discontinuation (dapagliflozin 5 mg). Evidence suggestive of urinary tract infection was reported in 8.0% to 13.3% of dapagliflozin patients and 8.0% of placebo patients, with one related discontinuation (dapagliflozin 2.5 mg). CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin added to metformin for 102 weeks enabled sustained reductions in HbA1c, FPG, and weight without increased risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes who were inadequately controlled on metformin alone. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00528879.
    BMC Medicine 02/2013; 11(1):43. · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical profile of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes attending the public healthcare system and identify factors associated with poor glycaemic control. Cross-sectional study. 14 centres in five regions of Brazil, including primary care units and outpatient clinics of University Hospitals. Patients with type 2 diabetes attending outpatient clinics of public healthcare system. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), centrally measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program certified). A total of 5750 patients aged 61±10 years, with 11±8 years of diabetes duration (66% women, 56% non-white, body mass index: 28.0±5.3 kg/m(2)) were analysed. Mean HbA1c was 8.6±2.2%, and median HbA1c was 8.1% (6.9% to 9.9%). HbA1c <7% was observed in only 26% of patients. Mean HbA1c was higher (p < 0.01) in the North (9.0±2.6%) and Northeast (8.9±2.4%) than in the Midwest (8.1±2%), Southeast (8.4±2.1%) and South regions (8.3±1.9%). Using the cut-off value of HbA1c above the median, age (0.986 (0.983 to 0.989)), white ethnicity (0.931 (0.883 to 0.981)) and being from Midwest region (0.858 (0.745 to 0.989)) were protective factors, while diabetes duration (1.015 (1.012 to 1.018)), use of insulin (1.710 (1.624 to 1.802)) and living in the Northeast region (1.197 (1.085 to 1.321)) were associated with HbA1c >8%. The majority of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes attending the public healthcare system had HbA1c levels above recommended targets. The recognition of Northeast residents and non-white patients as vulnerable populations should guide future policies and actions to prevent and control diabetes.
    BMJ Open 01/2013; 3(9):e003336. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of coronary artery calcium score with all cause mortality and cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes. Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Studies were identified from Embase, PubMed, and abstracts from the 2011 and 2012 annual meetings of the American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, American College of Cardiology, and American Heart Association (2011). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective studies that evaluated baseline coronary artery calcium score in people with type 2 diabetes and subsequent all cause mortality or cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal). Two independent reviewers extracted the data. The predictive value of the coronary artery calcium score was assessed by random effects model. Eight studies were included (n=6521; 802 events; mean follow-up 5.18 years). The relative risk for all cause mortality or cardiovascular events, or both comparing a total coronary artery calcium score of ≥10 with a score of <10 was 5.47 (95% confidence interval 2.59 to 11.53; I(2)=82.4%, P<0.001). The overall sensitivity of a total coronary artery calcium score of ≥10 for this composite outcome was 94% (95% confidence interval 89% to 96%), with a specificity of 34% (24% to 44%). The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.41 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.66) and 0.18 (0.10 to 0.30), respectively. For people with a coronary artery calcium score of <10, the post-test probability of the composite outcome was about 1.8%, representing a 6.8-fold reduction from the pretest probability. Four studies evaluated cardiovascular events as the outcome (n=1805; 351 events). The relative risk for cardiovascular events comparing a total coronary artery calcium score of ≥10 with a score of <10 was 9.22 (2.73 to 31.07; I(2)=76.7%, P=0.005). The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.67 (1.30 to 2.17) and 0.11 (0.04 to 0.29), respectively. In people with type 2 diabetes, a coronary artery calcium score of ≥10 predicts all cause mortality or cardiovascular events, or both, and cardiovascular events alone, with high sensitivity but low specificity. Clinically, the finding of a coronary artery calcium score of <10 may facilitate risk stratification by enabling the identification of people at low risk within this high risk population.
    BMJ (online) 01/2013; 346:f1654. · 17.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate possible associations between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this cross-sectional study, 67 patients with type 2 diabetes were included. PAD was identified by Doppler ultrasonography: systolic ankle-brachial pressure index <0.9. Cardiovascular autonomic function, besides five conventional cardiovascular autonomic function tests, was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV; 24-h ambulatory ECG recording) in time and frequency domains (spectral analyses) and three dimensional return maps. Power spectral analyses (PSA) were quantified in low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and very low frequency. Patients with PAD (n = 30) had longer diabetes duration, higher systolic blood pressure (BP), waist-to-hip ratio, HbA1C test, and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) than patients without PAD. Most HRV indices in time domain were lower in patients with than without PAD. These patients also had lower PSA indices (LF=0.19±0.07 vs. 0.29±0.11 n.u.; LF/HF ratio=1.98±0.9 vs. 3.35±1.83; P< 0.001) and indices of sympathetic (three-dimensional return map: P1-night 61.7±9.4 vs. 66.8±9.7; P=0.04) and vagal (24-h P2 54.5±15.2 vs. 62.7±2.9; P< 0.02) activities (arbitrary units) than patients without PAD. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusted for systolic BP, DM duration, HbA1C test, and UAE, confirmed the associations between impaired autonomic modulation and PAD, except for P1 index. In conclusion, patients with type 2 diabetes with PAD had lower HRV indices than patients without PAD, reflecting a dysfunction of cardiovascular autonomic modulation.
    Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 01/2013; 5(1):54. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a longitudinal statistical model to indirectly estimate the comparative efficacies of two drugs, using model-based meta-analysis (MBMA). Comparison of two oral dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, sitagliptin and linagliptin, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment was used as an example. Systematic review with MBMA. MEDLINE, EMBASE, http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane review of DPP-4 inhibitors for T2DM, sitagliptin trials on Food and Drug Administration website to December 2011 and linagliptin data from the manufacturer. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trials, ≥12 weeks' duration, that analysed sitagliptin or linagliptin efficacies as changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, in adults with T2DM and HbA1c >7%, irrespective of background medication. MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION: A Bayesian model was fitted (Markov Chain Monte Carlo method). The final model described HbA1c levels as function of time, dose, baseline HbA1c, washout status/duration and ethnicity. Other covariates showed no major impact on model parameters and were not included. For the indirect comparison, a population of 1000 patients was simulated from the model with a racial composition reflecting the average racial distribution of the linagliptin trials, and baseline HbA1c of 8%. The model was developed using longitudinal data from 11 234 patients (10 linagliptin, 15 sitagliptin trials), and assessed by internal evaluation techniques, demonstrating that the model adequately described the observations. Simulations showed both linagliptin 5 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg reduced HbA1c by 0.81% (placebo-adjusted) at week 24. Credible intervals for participants without washout were -0.88 to -0.75 (linagliptin) and -0.89 to -0.73 (sitagliptin), and for those with washout, -0.91 to -0.76 (linagliptin) and -0.91 to -0.75 (sitagliptin). This study demonstrates the use of longitudinal MBMA in the field of diabetes treatment. Based on an example evaluating HbA1c reduction with linagliptin versus sitagliptin, the model used seems a valid approach for indirect drug comparisons.
    BMJ Open 01/2013; 3(3). · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has published several diabetes treatment algorithms, but none have been tested in real-life settings. The aim of this study is to analyze the feasibility of achieving and/or maintaining HbA1c levels <7.0% using current diabetes treatment guidelines and the resources available in the public health care system of Brazil. METHODS: A one-year, single-arm interventional study was conducted with type 2 diabetes patients in a primary care unit. Intervention consisted of intensification of lifestyle changes and sequential prescription of drugs based on ADA guidelines using the medications available through the publicly funded Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude, SUS). RESULTS: Ninety patients (age: 62.7+/-10.4 years; diabetes duration: 8.2+/-9.1 years) completed the trial. During the intervention period, increases were observed in number of oral antidiabetic agent (OAD) classes per patient (1.50+/-0.74 vs. 1.67+/-0.7; p=0.015), OAD pills per patient (2.64+/-1.89 vs. 3.33+/-2.23 pills/patient; p <0.001), insulin dosage (0.20+/-0.29 vs.0.50+/-0.36 UI/kg/day; p=0.008) and number of patients on insulin (19 [21%] vs. 31 [34%]; p<0.01), but no improvement in HbA1c (7.2+/-1.6% vs. 7.3+/-1.5%; p=0.453) or frequency of patients on target, defined as HbA1c <7% (53.3% vs. 48.9%; p=0.655). Patients with baseline HbA1c <7% had a small increase in HbA1c during the trial (6.3+/-0.4 vs. 6.7+/-0.9%; p=0.002). No such change was observed in those with baseline HbA1c >=7%. CONCLUSIONS: In this group of patients with a mean baseline HbA1c of 7.2%, implementation of 2006/2009 ADA/EASD guidelines led to achievement of the therapeutic goal of HbA1c <7% in a small proportion of patients.
    Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 11/2012; 4(1):47. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) reduces mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS overproduction is related to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, deleterious polymorphisms in UCP1 gene are candidate risk factors for DR. We investigated the relationships between the UCP1 -3826A/G polymorphism and risk of DR and UCP1 gene expression in human retina. Considering that superoxide dismutase-2 (MnSOD2) enzyme is the first line of defence against oxidative stress in mitochondria, we also analyzed MnSOD2 gene expression in retinal samples according to different UCP1 -3826A/G genotypes. Methods. In a case-control study, frequencies of -3826A/G polymorphisms were analyzed in 257 type 1 DM patients (154 cases with DR and 103 controls without DR). In a cross-sectional study comprising cadaveric cornea donors, UCP1 and MnSOD2 gene expressions were evaluated in 107 retinal samples differentiated according to different -3826A/G genotypes. Results. In the type 1 DM group, multivariate analysis confirmed that the G/G genotype was an independent risk factor for DR (OR=3.503; P=0.043). In cornea donors, G allele carriers had higher UCP1 cDNA and protein concentrations than A/A carriers (P=0.034 and P=0.039; respectively). Interestingly, G allele carriers exhibited increased MnSOD2 expression (P=0.001). Conclusions. This study suggests that the -3826A/G polymorphism is associated with DR in type 1 DM patients. This is the first report demonstrating UCP1 gene expression in human retinas and indicates that the -3826A/G polymorphism influences its expression. In addition, the -3826G allele was associated with increased MnSOD2 expression; thus, suggesting that this allele could be a marker of oxidative stress.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 10/2012; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 90% of diabetes cases and is associated with macro- and microvascular complications of high morbidity and mortality. Individuals with increased risk for type 2 diabetes include those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and especially those with combined IFG and IGT. These individuals are part of a group known as prediabetes patients. Approximately 25% of individuals with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes in three to five years. Hyperglycemia, in the absence of diabetes, is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that changes in lifestyle and drug interventions are effective in delaying or preventing type 2 diabetes in patients with prediabetes. Metformin is the drug of choice when medical treatment is warranted. IGT and IFG are associated with type 2 diabetes and, despite controversy, most studies reinforce the importance of these conditions in the development of micro- and macrovascular disease. Thus, therapeutic interventions in patients with prediabetes are important in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications.
    Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 07/2012; 56(5):275-84. · 0.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
872.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2014
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • • Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA)
      • • Departamento de Genética
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
      • Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 1987–2014
    • Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2011–2012
    • Universidade Luterana do Brasil
      Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2008
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Division of Endocrinology
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • Universidade de Passo Fundo
      • Faculdade de Medicina
      Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2003–2005
    • Hospital Infantil Darcy Vargas
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 1998
    • Universidade Federal de Pelotas
      • School of Nutrition (FN)
      Pelotas, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil