[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common subtype of RCC, is characterized by high metastasis potential and strong resistance to traditional therapies, resulting in a poor five-year survival rate of patients. Several therapies targeted to VEGF pathway for advanced RCC have been developed, however, it still needs to discover new therapeutic targets for treating RCC. Genome-wide gene expression analyses have been broadly used to identify unknown molecular mechanisms of cancer progression. Recently, we applied the oligo-capping method to construct the full-length cDNA libraries of ccRCC and adjacent normal kidney, and analyzed the gene expression profiles by high-throughput sequencing. This paper presents a review for recent findings on therapeutic potential of MYC pathway and nicotinamide N-methyltransferase for the treatment of RCC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells are characterized by strong drug resistance and high metastatic incidence. In this study, the effects of ten kinds of Chinese herbs on RCC cell migration and proliferation were examined. Aqueous extract of Paeonia suffruticosa (PS-A) exerted strong inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, mobility, and invasion. The results of mouse xenograft experiments showed that the treatment of PS-A significantly suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. We further found that PS-A markedly decreased expression of VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and phosphorylation of FAK in RCC cells. Moreover, the activation of Rac-1, a modulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, was remarkably reduced by PS-A. Additionally, PS-A suppressed polymerization of actin filament as demonstrated by confocal microscopy analysis and decreased the ratio of F-actin to G-actin in RCC cells, suggesting that PS-A inhibits RCC cell migration through modulating VEGFR-3/FAK/Rac-1 pathway to disrupt actin filament polymerization. In conclusion, this research elucidates the effects and molecular mechanism for antimigration of PS-A on RCC cells and suggests PS-A to be a therapeutic or adjuvant strategy for the patients with aggressive RCC.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:409823. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aeginetia indica Linn. (Guan-Jen-Huang, GJH), a traditional Chinese herb, has the potential to be an immunomodulatory agent. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of GJH in the treatment of renal cancer. Concentration-effect curves for the influence of GJH on cellular proliferation showed a biphasic shape. Besides, GJH had a synergistic effect on cytotoxicity when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)which may be due to the alternation of the chemotherapeutic agent resistance-related genes and due to the synergistic effects on apoptosis. In addition, treatment with GJH extract markedly reduced 786-O cell adherence to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and decreased 786-O cell migration and invasion. In a xenograft animal model, GJH extract had an inhibitory effect on tumor cell-induced metastasis. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in 786-O cells was significantly decreased by treatment with GJH extract through inactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). These results suggest that GJH extract has a synergistic effect on apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents and an inhibitory effect on cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, providing evidence for the use of water-based extracts of GJH as novel alternative therapeutic agents in the treatment of human renal cancer.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:935860. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) was recently identified as one clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC)-associated gene by analyzing full-length complementary DNA-enriched libraries of ccRCC tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of NNMT in cellular invasion. A strong NNMT expression is accompanied with a high invasive activity in ccRCC cell lines, and small interfering RNA-mediated NNMT knockdown effectively suppressed the invasive capacity of ccRCC cells, whereas NNMT overexpression markedly enhanced that of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. A positive correlation between the expression of NNMT and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2 was found in ccRCC cell lines and clinical tissues. The treatment of blocking antibody or inhibitor specific to MMP-2 significantly suppressed NNMT-dependent cellular invasion in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, SP-1-binding region of MMP-2 promoter was found to be essential in NNMT-induced MMP-2 expression. The specific inhibitors of PI3K/Akt signaling markedly decreased the binding of SP1 to MMP-2 promoter as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We also demonstrated that PI3K/Akt pathway plays a role in NNMT-dependent cellular invasion and MMP-2 activation. Moreover, short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of NNMT expression efficiently inhibited the growth and metastasis of ccRCC cells in non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Taken together, the present study suggests that NNMT has a crucial role in cellular invasion via activating PI3K/Akt/SP1/MMP-2 pathway in ccRCC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevation of CD74 is associated with a number of human cancers, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). To understand the role of CD74 in the oncogenic process of ccRCC, we ectopically expressed CD74 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK/CD74) and evaluated its oncogenic potential. Through overexpression of CD74 in HEK293 and Caki-2 cells and down-regulation of CD74 in Caki-1 cells, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) expression is modified accordingly. A significant, positive correlation between CD74 and VEGF-D is found in human ccRCC tissues (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.65, p < 0.001). In HEK/CD74 xenograft mice, CD74 significantly induced the formation of tumor masses, increased tumor-induced angiogenesis, and promoted cancer cell metastasis. Blockage of VEGF-D expression by small interference RNA resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation, invasion, and cancer cell-induced HUVEC migration enhanced by CD74. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the intracellular signaling cascade responsible for VEGF-D up-regulation by CD74 is both PI3K/AKT- and MEK/ERK-dependent, both of which are associated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity. These results suggest that VEGF-D is crucial for CD74-induced human renal carcinoma cancer cell tumorigenesis.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2008; 181(9):6584-94. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the major and aggressive subtype of RCC. Previously, we identified 383 differentially expressed genes by analyzing full-length cDNA libraries of ccRCC and normal kidney tissues. In this study, we applied functional network analysis to the differentially expressed genes for identifying deregulated molecular pathways in ccRCC, and the results indicated that MYC showed a prominent role in the highest scoring network. The upregulation of MYC expression was validated in ccRCC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, Knockdown of MYC expression by MYC-specific siRNA significantly inhibited the abilities of uncontrolled proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase in ccRCC cells. Moreover, we found that 37 differentially expressed genes were shown to be MYC-target genes, and the upregulation of the MYC-target genes BCL2, CCND1, PCNA, PGK1, and VEGFA were demonstrated. The expression of these MYC-target genes was significantly correlated with the expression of MYC in ccRCC tissues, and knockdown of MYC also suppressed the expression of these MYC-target genes in ccRCC cells. The recruitment of MYC to the promoter regions of BCL2, CCND1, PCNA, PGK1, and VEGFA was shown by Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These results suggest that MYC pathway is activated and plays an essential role in the proliferation of ccRCC cells.
Cancer letters 10/2008; 273(1):35-43. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy in adult kidney, and accounts for 3% of malignancies worldwide with increasing incidence. Clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is the major type in RCC. Resection by surgery is the main treatment because the response of ccRCC to traditional therapies is very poor. To identify the tumor-associated genes for better understanding the molecular mechanism of ccRCC, the full-length enriched cDNA libraries of ccRCC and normal kidney tissues were constructed by the oligo-capping method. Nucleotide sequences of the cDNA libraries of ccRCC and normal kidney tissues were sequenced. From the sequence analysis of 19,425 and 12,400 clones of ccRCC and normal kidney tissues, 4356 and 3055 genes were identified, respectively. By comparing the gene-expression patterns of ccRCC and normal tissues, the up- or down-regulated genes were identified. Among these identified genes, the differential expression of annexin A2 and argininosuccinate synthetase genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis.
Journal of Biomedical Science 04/2006; 13(2):233-40. · 2.46 Impact Factor