[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of treating pig oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, on oocyte maturation and embryonic development. In one series of experiments, oocytes from medium-sized follicles (3-8 mm in diameter) were untreated (MCO) or treated with MG132 during 0-22 hr (M0-22) or 30-42 hr (M30-42) of IVM. There was no significant effect of MG132 on nuclear maturation or cytoplasmic maturation (as assessed by intracellular amounts of glutathione and p34cdc2 kinase activity). Blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), however, was increased for M30-42 (65.2% and 27.7% for PA and SCNT, respectively) compared to MCO (42.6% and 13.6%, respectively) and M0-22 (45.3% and 19.5%, respectively; P<0.05). Expression of PCNA and ERK2 was increased in M30-42 for IVM oocytes while transcript abundance for POUF51, DNMT1, FGFR2, and PCNA was increased in M30-42 for 4-cell SCNT embryos. When oocytes derived from small follicles (<3 mm in diameter) were untreated (SCO) or treated with MG132 during 0-22 hr (S0-22), 30-42 hr (S30-42) of IVM, or 0-22 and 30-42 hr of IVM (S0-22/30-42), expression of POU5F1, DNMT1, FGFR2, and PCNA and blastocyst formation were increased for SCNT embryos derived from S30 to 42 (16.5%) and S0-22/30-42 oocytes (20.8%) as compared to embryos from SCO (8.7%) or S0-22 oocytes (8.8%; P<0.05). Results demonstrate that treatment of oocytes with MG132 during the later stage of IVM improves embryonic development and alters gene expression in pigs.
Molecular Reproduction and Development 01/2012; 79(1):41-50. DOI:10.1002/mrd.21402 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to examine the nuclear maturation of oocytes, embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and gene expression in SCNT embryos in pigs (Sus scrofa) when anthocyanin was added to oocytes during maturation and in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos. Immature oocytes were untreated or treated with 0.1 microg/mL anthocyanin during in vitro maturation (IVM). Next, PA and SCNT embryos were produced from oocytes and cultured in medium supplemented with or without 0.1 microg/mL anthocyanin for 7 d. Anthocyanin treatment during IVM did not improve the nuclear maturation of oocytes, but significantly increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oocytes treated with anthocyanin during IVM had higher (P < 0.05) rates of blastocyst formation after PA (55.7 vs. 44.9 %) and SCNT (32.2 vs. 16.1%) compared to untreated oocytes. In PA and SCNT embryos, anthocyanin treatment during IVM or IVC significantly increased the intracellular GSH level, which led to the reduced ROS level. Somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos derived from anthocyanin-treated oocytes had increased (P < 0.05) expression of DNMT1, PCNA, FGFR2, and POU5F1 mRNA compared to control embryos. In conclusion, anthocyanin treatment during IVM improved developmental competence of SCNT embryos, most likely by increasing intracellular GSH synthesis, reducing ROS level, and stimulating nuclear reprogramming via increased transcription factor expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the practical usefulness of morphologically poor oocytes (MPCOCs) in relation to follicular size and oocyte diameter. Oocytes collected from medium (3-8 mm in diameter) and small (<3 mm) follicles were classified into five categories of morphologically good oocytes (MGCOCs) from medium follicles (MA, control), MPCOCs with larger and smaller diameters from medium follicles (ML and MS, respectively), and those from small follicles (SL and SS, respectively). The oocytes were examined for maturation and developmental competence after parthenogenesis and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Nuclear maturation of ML oocytes (91%) was similar to that of control oocytes (94%), but higher than MS (80%), SL (79%), and SS (63%) oocytes. This pattern was also observed in the intracellular glutathione level, p34(cdc2) kinase activity, and gene (CDK1, PCNA, and ERK2) expression levels in in vitro-matured oocytes. ML oocytes showed a similar proportion of blastocyst formation (20%) after SCNT to control oocytes (21%). In addition, the use of ML oocytes resulted in a 50% farrowing rate with 1.8% efficiency of piglet production after SCNT embryo transfer, while control oocytes showed a 60% farrowing rate with 2.4% production efficiency. Our results demonstrate that MPCOCs, if appropriately selected, have a comparable ability to MGCOCs in supporting not only in vitro blastocyst formation, but also development to term in vivo after SCNT. These oocytes can be used as a source for in vitro production of embryos with normal in vivo viability in pigs.
Molecular Reproduction and Development 01/2009; 77(4):330-9. DOI:10.1002/mrd.21148 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P < 0.05) level in SCNT oocytes that were treated post-fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos.
Molecular Reproduction and Development 01/2009; 77(2):149-57. DOI:10.1002/mrd.21115 · 2.53 Impact Factor