Ozioma C Okonkwo

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (69)283.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that frequent participation in cognitively-stimulating activities, specifically those related to playing games and puzzles, is beneficial to brain health and cognition among middle-aged adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred twenty-nine cognitively normal, middle-aged adults (age range, 43.2-73.8 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participated in this study. They reported their current engagement in cognitive activities using a modified version of the Cognitive Activity Scale (CAS), underwent a structural MRI scan, and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery. FreeSurfer was used to derive gray matter (GM) volumes from AD-related regions of interest (ROIs), and composite measures of episodic memory and executive function were obtained from the cognitive tests. Covariate-adjusted least squares analyses were used to examine the association between the Games item on the CAS (CAS-Games) and both GM volumes and cognitive composites. Higher scores on CAS-Games were associated with greater GM volumes in several ROIs including the hippocampus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, and middle frontal gyrus. Similarly, CAS-Games scores were positively associated with scores on the Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility domains. These findings were not modified by known risk factors for AD. In addition, the Total score on the CAS was not as sensitive as CAS-Games to the examined brain and cognitive measures. For some individuals, participation in cognitive activities pertinent to game playing may help prevent AD by preserving brain structures and cognitive functions vulnerable to AD pathophysiology.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 10/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Episodic memory decline is one of the earliest preclinical symptoms of AD, and has been associated with an upregulation in the BOLD response in the prodromal stage (e.g. MCI) of AD. In a previous study, we observed upregulation in cognitively normal (CN) subjects with subclinical episodic memory decline compared to non-decliners. In light of this finding, we sought to determine if a separate cohort of Decliners will show increased brain activation compared to Stable subjects during episodic memory processing, and determine whether the BOLD effect was influenced by cerebral blood flow (CBF) or gray matter volume (GMV). Individuals were classified as a "Decliner" if scores on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) consistently fell ≥ 1.5 SD below expected intra- or inter-individual levels. FMRI was used to compare activation during a facial recognition memory task in 90 Stable (age = 59.1) and 34 Decliner (age = 62.1, SD = 5.9) CN middle-aged adults and 10 MCI patients (age = 72.1, SD = 9.4). Arterial spin labeling and anatomical T1 MRI were used to measure resting CBF and GMV, respectively. Stables and Decliners performed similarly on the episodic recognition memory task and significantly better than MCI patients. Compared to Stables, Decliners showed increased BOLD signal in the left precuneus on the episodic memory task that was not explained by CBF or GMV, familial AD risk factors, or neuropsychological measures. These findings suggest that subtle changes in the BOLD signal reflecting altered neural function may be a relatively early phenomenon associated with memory decline.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 10/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective measure of habitual physical activity (PA), and has been linked to increased brain structure and cognition. The gold standard method for measuring CRF is graded exercise testing (GXT), but GXT is not feasible in many settings. The objective of this study was to examine whether a non-exercise estimate of CRF is related to gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognition, objective and subjective memory function, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred and fifteen cognitively healthy adults (mean age =58.58 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent structural MRI scanning, cognitive testing, anthropometric assessment, venipuncture for laboratory tests, and completed a self-reported PA questionnaire. A subset (n = 85) underwent maximal GXT. CRF was estimated using a previously validated equation incorporating sex, age, body-mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported PA. Results indicated that the CRF estimate was significantly associated with GXT-derived peak oxygen consumption, validating its use as a non-exercise CRF measure in our sample. Support for this finding was seen in significant associations between the CRF estimate and several cardiovascular risk factors. Higher CRF was associated with greater GM volumes in several AD-relevant brain regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Increased CRF was also associated with lower WMH and better cognitive performance in Verbal Learning & Memory, Speed & Flexibility, and Visuospatial Ability. Lastly, CRF was negatively correlated with self- and informant-reported memory complaints, and depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that habitual participation in physical activity may provide protection for brain structure and cognitive function, thereby decreasing future risk for AD.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 10/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impairment in executive function (EF) is commonly found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Atlas-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) methods may be useful in relating regional integrity to EF measures in MCI and AD. 66 participants (25 normal controls, 22 MCI, and 19 AD) received DTI scans and clinical evaluation. DTI scans were applied to a pre-segmented atlas and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated. ANOVA was used to assess group differences in frontal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. For regions differing between groups (p < 0.01), linear regression examined the relationship between EF scores and regional FA and MD. Anisotropy and diffusivity in frontal and parietal lobe white matter structures were associated with EF scores in MCI and only frontal lobe structures in AD. EF was more strongly associated with FA than MD. The relationship between EF and anisotropy and diffusivity was strongest in MCI. These results suggest that regional white matter integrity is compromised in MCI and AD and that FA may be a better correlate of EF than MD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 10/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether engagement in physical activity might favorably alter the age-dependent evolution of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related brain and cognitive changes in a cohort of at-risk, late-middle-aged adults.
    Neurology 10/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Statistical analysis on arbitrary surface meshes such as the cortical surface is an important approach to understanding brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Surface analysis may be able to identify specific cortical patterns that relate to certain disease characteristics or exhibit differences between groups. Our goal in this paper is to make group analysis of signals on surfaces more sensitive. To do this, we derive multi-scale shape descriptors that characterize the signal around each mesh vertex, i.e., its local context, at varying levels of resolution. In order to define such a shape descriptor, we make use of recent results from harmonic analysis that extend traditional continuous wavelet theory from the Euclidean to a non-Euclidean setting (i.e., a graph, mesh or network). Using this descriptor, we conduct experiments on two different datasets, the Alzheimer's Disease NeuroImaging Initiative (ADNI) data and images acquired at the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (W-ADRC), focusing on individuals labeled as having Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. In particular, we contrast traditional univariate methods with our multi-resolution approach which show increased sensitivity and improved statistical power to detect a group-level effects. We also provide an open source implementation.
    NeuroImage 06/2014; 93:107–123. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 6-[(18) F]-Fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) has been widely used as a biomarker for catecholamine synthesis, storage, and metabolism-its intense uptake in the striatum, and fainter uptake in other brain regions, is correlated with the symptoms and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-[(18) F]fluoro-m-tyrosine (FMT), which also targets L-amino acid decarboxylase, has potential advantages over FDOPA as a radiotracer because it does not form catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolites. The purpose of the present study was to compare the regional distribution of these radiotracers in the brains of PD patients. 15 Parkinson's patients were studied with FMT and FDOPA positron emission tomography (PET) as well as high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI's were automatically parcellated into neuroanatomical regions of interest (ROIs) in Freesurfer (http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu); region-specific uptake rate constants (Kocc ) were generated from coregistered PET using a Patlak graphical approach. The essential findings were as follows: (1) regional Kocc were highly correlated between the radiotracers and in agreement with a previous FDOPA studies that used different ROI selection techniques; (2) FMT Kocc were higher in extrastriatal regions of relatively large uptake such as amygdala, pallidum, brainstem, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and thalamus, whereas cortical Kocc were similar between radiotracers; (3) while subcortical uptake of both radiotracers was related to disease duration and severity, cortical uptake was not. These results suggest that FMT may have advantages for examining pathologic changes within allocortical loop structures, which may contribute to cognitive and emotional symptoms of PD. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Synapse 04/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relative influence of amyloid burden, neuronal structure and function, and prior cognitive performance on prospective memory decline among asymptomatic late middle-aged individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently unknown. We investigated this using longitudinal cognitive data from 122 middle-aged adults (21 "Decliners" and 101 "Stables") enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention who underwent multimodality neuroimaging [11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] 5.7 ± 1.4 years (range = 2.9-8.9) after their baseline cognitive assessment. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses revealed that the only imaging measure that significantly distinguished Decliners from Stables (p = .027) was a Neuronal Function composite derived from FDG and fMRI. In contrast, several cognitive measures, especially those that tap episodic memory, significantly distinguished the groups (p's<.05). Complementary receiver operating characteristic curve analyses identified the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) Total (.82 ± .05, p < .001), the BVMT-R Delayed Recall (.73 ± .06, p = .001), and the Reading subtest from the Wide-Range Achievement Test-III (.72 ± .06, p = .002) as the top three measures that best discriminated the groups. These findings suggest that early memory test performance might serve a more clinically pivotal role in forecasting future cognitive course than is currently presumed. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-12).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 03/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: It is difficult to reliably detect the earliest signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated cognitive impairment. Our aim was to compare 3 psychometric methods of identifying amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in a middle-aged longitudinal cohort enriched for AD risk. Methods: Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participants with 3 waves of cognitive assessment over approximately 6 years were coded as meeting each of 3 psychometric aMCI definitions: (a) 'aMCI standard-baseline' used published norms to establish cutoffs for baseline performance; (b) 'aMCI robust-baseline' applied WRAP-specific robust norms to baseline, and (c) 'aMCI robust-multiwave' applied these robust norms across 3 waves of assessment. Each group was compared to a cognitively healthy subset. Results: Half the aMCI standard-baseline and one third of the aMCI robust-baseline group reverted to normal ranges at follow-up. Only the aMCI robust-multiwave method had an aMCI × age interaction showing significantly worse age-related memory declines in the aMCI group compared to the cognitively healthy group over 6 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Both cross-sectional methods showed instability over time, with many reverting to normal performance after baseline. The multiwave approach identified a group who showed progressive memory declines over 3 visits. Being able to detect progressive decline in late middle age is a critical step in improving prevention efforts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 02/2014; 38(1-2):16-30. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype.
    NeuroImage. Clinical. 01/2014; 4:730-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Some cognitively healthy individuals develop brain amyloid accumulation, suggestive of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of amyloid on other potentially informative imaging modalities, such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in characterizing brain changes in preclinical AD requires further exploration. In this study, a sample (N = 139, mean age 60.6, range 46 to 71) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a cohort enriched for AD risk factors, was recruited for a multimodal imaging investigation that included DTI and [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET). Participants were grouped as amyloid positive (Aβ+), amyloid indeterminate (Aβi), or amyloid negative (Aβ-) based on the amount and pattern of amyloid deposition. Regional voxel-wise analyses of four DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da), and radial diffusivity (Dr), were performed based on amyloid grouping. Three regions of interest (ROIs), the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum, hippocampal cingulum, and lateral fornix, were selected based on their involvement in the early stages of AD. Voxel-wise analysis revealed higher FA among Aβ+ compared to Aβ- in all three ROIs and in Aβi compared to Aβ- in the cingulum adjacent to the corpus callosum. Follow-up exploratory whole-brain analyses were consistent with the ROI findings, revealing multiple regions where higher FA was associated with greater amyloid. Lower fronto-lateral gray matter MD was associated with higher amyloid burden. Further investigation showed a negative correlation between MD and PiB signal, suggesting that Aβ accumulation impairs diffusion. Interestingly, these findings in a largely presymptomatic sample are in contradistinction to relationships reported in the literature in symptomatic disease stages of Mild Cognitive Impairment and AD, which usually show higher MD and lower FA. Together with analyses showing that cognitive function in these participants is not associated with any of the four DTI metrics, the present results suggest an early relationship between PiB and DTI, which may be a meaningful indicator of the initiating or compensatory mechanisms of AD prior to cognitive decline.
    NeuroImage: Clinical. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There are few methods to discern driving risks in patients with early dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We aimed to determine whether structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hippocampus-a biomarker of probable Alzheimer pathology and a measure of disease severity in those affected-is linked to objective ratings of on-road driving performance in older adults with and without amnestic MCI. In all, 49 consensus-diagnosed participants from an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (15 diagnosed with amnestic MCI and 34 demographically similar controls) underwent structural MRI and on-road driving assessments. Mild atrophy of the left hippocampus was associated with less-than-optimal ratings in lane control but not with other discrete driving skills. Decrements in left hippocampal volume conferred higher risk for less-than-optimal lane control ratings in the patients with MCI (B = -1.63, standard error [SE] = .74, Wald = 4.85, P = .028), but not in controls (B = 0.13, SE = .415, Wald = 0.10, P = .752). The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for below-optimal lane control in the MCI group was 4.41 (1.18-16.36), which was attenuated to 3.46 (0.88-13.60) after accounting for the contribution of left hippocampal volume. These findings suggest that there may be a link between hippocampal atrophy and difficulties with lane control in persons with amnestic MCI. Further study appears warranted to better discern patterns of brain atrophy in MCI and Alzheimer disease and whether these could be early markers of clinically meaningful driving risk.
    Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 12/2013; 26(4):259-66. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the relationship between amyloid burden and neural function in healthy adults at risk for Alzheimer's Disease (AD), we used multimodal imaging with [C-11]Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography, [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose, positron emission tomography , and magnetic resonance imaging, together with cognitive measurement in 201 subjects (mean age, 60.1 years; range, 46-73 years) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention. Using a qualitative rating, 18% of the samples were strongly positive Beta-amyloid (Aβ+), 41% indeterminate (Aβi), and 41% negative (Aβ-). Aβ+ was associated with older age, female sex, and showed trends for maternal family history of AD and APOE4. Relative to the Aβ- group, Aβ+ and Aβi participants had increased glucose metabolism in the bilateral thalamus; Aβ+ participants also had increased metabolism in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Aβ+ participants exhibited increased gray matter in the lateral parietal lobe bilaterally relative to the Aβ- group, and no areas of significant atrophy. Cognitive performance and self report cognitive and affective symptoms did not differ between groups. Amyloid burden can be identified in adults at a mean age of 60 years and is accompanied by glucometabolic increases in specific areas, but not atrophy or cognitive loss. This asymptomatic stage may be an opportune window for intervention to prevent progression to symptomatic AD.
    Neurobiology of aging 10/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin, as seen on T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging, are known to increase with age and are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cognitive implications of these common markers are not well understood. Previous research has primarily focused on global measures of WMH burden and broad localizations that contain multiple white matter tracts. The aims of this study were to determine the pattern of WMH accumulation with age, risk for AD, and the relationship with cognitive function utilizing a voxel-wise analysis capable of identifying specific white matter regions. A total of 349 participants underwent T1-weighted and high-resolution T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Increasing age and lower cognitive speed and flexibility (a component of executive function), were both significantly associated with regional WMH throughout the brain. When age was controlled, lower cognitive speed and flexibility was independently associated with WMH in the superior corona radiata. Apolipoprotein E ε4 and parental family history of AD were not associated with higher burden of WMH. The results contribute to a larger body of literature suggesting that white matter measures are linked with processing speed, and illustrate the utility of voxel-wise analysis in understanding the effect of lesion location on cognitive function.
    Neurobiology of aging 10/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The strongest genetic factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is APOE; nine additional susceptibility genes have recently been identified. The effect of these genes is often assumed to be additive and polygenic scores are formed as a summary measure of risk. However, interactions between these genes are likely to be important. We sought to examine the role of interactions between the nine recently identified AD susceptibility genes and APOE in cognitive function and decline in 1,153 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, a longitudinal study of middle-aged adults enriched for a parental history of AD. Participants underwent extensive cognitive testing at baseline and up to two additional visits approximately 4 and 6 years later. The influence of the interaction between APOE and each of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nine recently identified genes on three cognitive factor scores (Verbal Learning and Memory, Working Memory, and Immediate Memory) was examined using linear mixed models adjusting for age, gender, and ancestry. Interactions between the APOE ε4 allele and both of the genotyped ABCA7 SNPs, rs3764650 and rs3752246, were associated with all three cognitive factor scores (p-values ≤ 0.01). Both of these genes are in the cholesterol metabolism pathway leading to AD. This research supports the importance of considering non-additive effects of AD susceptibility genes.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 05/2013; · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 04/2013; 19(4):492. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persons with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) have significant deficits in financial abilities. This study examined the relationship between brain structure volumes, cognition, and financial capacity in patients with mild AD. Sixteen mild AD patients and 16 older adult comparisons completed the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI), a psychometric measure of financial abilities, and also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain volumes of the bilateral hippocampi, angular gyri, precunei, and medial and dorsolateral frontal cortices. Mild AD patients performed significantly below comparisons on the FCI and had significantly smaller hippocampi. Among mild AD patients, FCI performance was moderately correlated with frontal (medial and dorsolateral frontal cortex) and posterior (angular gyri and precunei) cortical volumes. Stepwise regression demonstrated that medial frontal cortex volume predicted FCI score. The relationship between medial frontal cortex volume and overall FCI score was partially mediated by two measures of simple attention (DRS Attention, DRS Construction). The findings suggest that medial frontal cortex atrophy and associated declines in simple attention play an increasingly important role in declining financial skills in patients with mild AD.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 03/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that white matter abnormalities contribute to both motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the degree to which diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) indices are related to executive function in Parkinson's patients. We used tract-based spatial statistics to compare DTI data from 15 patients to 15 healthy, age- and education-matched controls. We then extracted mean values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within an a priori frontal mask. Executive function composite Z scores were regressed against these DTI indices, age, and total intracranial volume. In Parkinson's patients, FA was related to executive composite scores, and both indices were related to Stroop interference scores. We conclude that white matter microstructural abnormalities contribute to cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease. Further work is needed to determine whether these white matter changes reflect the pathological process or a clinically important comorbidity. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1-6).
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 01/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relative utility of using neuroimaging, genetic, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and cognitive measures to predict progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia over a follow-up period. The studied subjects were 139 persons with MCI enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Predictors of progression to AD included brain volume, ventricular volume, hippocampal volume, APOE ε4 two alleles, Aβ42, p-tau181, p-tau181/Aβ42, memory, language, and executive function. We employ a combination of Cox regression analyses and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methods to assess the prognostic utility and performance stability of candidate biomarkers. In a demographic-adjusted multivariable Cox model, seven measures- brain volume, hippocampal volume, ventricular volume, APOE ε4 two alleles, Aβ42, Memory composite, Executive function composite - predicted progression to AD. Time-dependent ROC revealed that this multivariable model had an area under the curve of 0.832, 0.788, 0.794, and 0.757 at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months respectively. Supplemental Cox models with time of origin set differentially at 12, 18, 24 and 36 months showed that six measures were significant predictors at 12 months whereas only memory and executive function predicted progression to AD at 18 and 24 months. The authors concluded that baseline volumetric MRI and cognitive measures selectively predict progression from MCI to AD, with cognitive measures remaining predictive even late in the follow-up period. These findings may inform case selection for AD clinical trials.
    American journal of Alzheimer's disease (Columbia, Mo.). 01/2013; 2(1):12-28.
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) provides an indication of the metabolic status of the cortex and may have utility in elucidating preclinical brain changes in persons at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related diseases. In this study, we investigated CBF in 327 well-characterized adults including patients with AD (n = 28), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 23), older cognitively normal (OCN, n = 24) adults, and asymptomatic middle-aged adults (n = 252) with and without a family history (FH) of AD. Compared with the asymptomatic cohort, AD patients displayed significant hypoperfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, and the hippocampal region. Patients with aMCI exhibited a similar but less marked pattern of hypoperfusion. Perfusion deficits within the OCN adults were primarily localized to the inferior parietal lobules. Asymptomatic participants with a maternal FH of AD showed hypoperfusion in hippocampal and parietofrontal regions compared with those without a FH of AD or those with only a paternal FH of AD. These observations persisted when gray matter volume was included as a voxel-wise covariate. Our findings suggest that having a mother with AD might confer a particular risk for AD-related cerebral hypoperfusion in midlife. In addition, they provide further support for the potential utility of arterial spin labeling for the measurement of AD-related neurometabolic dysfunction, particularly in situations where [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose imaging is infeasible or clinically contraindicated.
    Cerebral Cortex 12/2012; · 8.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

647 Citations
283.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • Department of Population Health Sciences
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2013
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Neurology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Neurology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2011
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Rhode Island Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 2007
    • Texas A&M University
      College Station, Texas, United States