[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information about the long-term follow-up and safety of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to healthy donors is limited. The aims of this study were to analyze the side effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration in donors included in a Spanish Registry of hematopoietic stem cell donors and to determine the long-term outcome of these donors.
The Spanish National Donor Registry was developed to record the short- and long-term results of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells in normal donors. To date, 1436 donors (771 males, 665 females) with a median age of 37 years (range, 1 to 74 years) have been registered. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was the only cytokine administered. A baseline investigation was performed in every donor before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration and follow-up investigations (controls) were planned at 4 weeks and annually thereafter for up to 5 years after the mobilization.
At least one of the scheduled controls was performed in 736 donors, while 320 donors have been followed for 2 years or more. The peripheral white blood cell count decreased significantly from 6.8 x 10(9)/L at baseline to 5.9 x 10(9)/L at 4 weeks after leukapheresis (p<0.0001) and remained at values lower than those observed premobilization until 2 years after mobilization. In contrast, hemoglobin concentration and platelet count returned to normal values within 1 year after mobilization. Bone pain (90%) and headache (33%) were the most frequently reported granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-related side effects. Five patients (0.68%) were diagnosed as having solid tumors (lung cancer in two patients and thyroid carcinoma, choroid melanoma, and colon carcinoma in one patient each) between 10 and 64 months after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. No hematologic malignancies have been reported.
The clinical side effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration in healthy donors are generally mild. Changes in blood counts were minimal and mainly affected white blood cell counts, which returned to normal values within 2 years after granulocyte-colony stimulating factor administration. No patient developed a hematologic malignancy. A larger number of donors and longer follow-up are needed to determine the safety of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration definitively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New treatment options offering enhanced activity in elderly, newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma are required. One strategy is to combine melphalan and prednisone with novel agents. We previously reported an 89% response rate, including 32% complete responses and 11% near complete responses, in our phase 1/2 study of bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone (VMP) in 60 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with a median age of 75 years. Here, we report updated time-to-events data and the impact of poor prognosis factors on outcome.
Updated analyses of time to biochemical progression and overall survival with VMP were conducted, and compared with those of historical controls treated with melphalan and prednisone. A univariate analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of known prognostic factors on the time to progression.
After a median follow-up of 26 months, the median time to progression with VMP was 27.2 months, compared with 20.0 months with melphalan plus prednisone. The median overall survival with VMP was not reached versus 26 months with melphalan and prednisone; the survival rate at 38 months was 85% versus 38%, respectively. Time to progression was not significantly affected by elevated beta(2)-microglobulin or lactate dehydrogenase levels, advanced age, or cytogenetic abnormalities, but was shorter in patients with albumin < 3 g/dL, Karnofsky performance status < or =70%, bone marrow plasma cell infiltration > or =40%, and, particularly, high plasma cell proliferative activity (> or = 2.5% S-phase cells).
VMP is highly active and well tolerated in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, with 85% of patients alive at 3 years. Moreover, VMP may overcome the poor prognostic impact of various factors, particularly cytogenetic abnormalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives. Platelet concentrates (PC) obtained from Buffy-Coat (BC) may be diluted in a platelet additive solution (PAS). These PCs may reduce plasma-related adverse reactions. We have tried to assess the rela-tionship between PAS PCs and adverse reactions. Materials and Methods. During 6 months, patients treated with inten-sive chemotherapy, participated in a prospective study and were randomly assigned to receive, on a prophylactic basis, PCs in either plasma or PAS-2. Five iso-group BCs were pooled diluted in either plasma or PAS-2. One hour after each transfusion, corrected count increments (CCIs) were calculated, presence of hemorrhage and adverse reactions were re-corded. Results. Platelet increment, 1-hour platelet count, and corrected count increments (CCI) after transfusion in both groups were similar. There were more transfusion-dependent adverse reactions in plasma group. Conclusion. Use of PAS-2 resulted in less transfusion related reactions; therefore, we recommend synthetic additive solutions to dilute PCs.
The Open Hematology Journal 04/2008; 208(25):25-29.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the prophylactic use of allopurinol, tumor lysis syndrome (TLS)-related morbidity and mortality still occur in a number of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of this study was: (i) to analyze the incidence and outcome of TLS in a large series of patients with AML receiving hyperhydration and allopurinol, (ii) to identify risk factors for TLS, and (iii) to develop a prognostic scoring system for estimating individual risk of TLS.
The study included 772 adult patients with AML receiving induction chemotherapy between 1980 and 2002. TLS was divided into laboratory TLS (LTLS) or clinical TLS (CTLS). The population study was randomly divided into training and test subsets, so that a prognostic model for CTLS was developed in one set and validated in the other.
Overall, 130 patients (17%) developed TLS (5% CTLS and 12% LTLS). Unlike LTLS, CTLS was associated with a higher rate of death from induction therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels above laboratory normal values, creatinine >1.4 mg/dL, uric acid >7.5 mg/dL and white blood cell (WBC) counts >25 x 10(9)/L were independent risk factors for CTLS and LTLS. The scoring system, based on pretreatment WBC counts, and uric acid and LDH serum levels, had excellent discrimination and was accurate for predicting CTLS and LTLS.
TLS is frequently observed in AML patients during induction therapy. Only the development of CTLS had an impact on higher mortality rate from induction therapy. The scoring system derived from this study can be used to obtain an accurate estimate of the individual risk of TLS, allowing for risk-adapted prophylaxis against this complication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the incidence, etiology, risk factors and outcomes of 49 episodes of pneumonia that developed in 326 adult patients undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) from January 1990 to December 2005. The median time for the onset of pneumonia after transplantation was 11 days (range 0-148). Empirical antibiotic therapy in patients with pneumonia consisted of piperacillin-tazobactam (20 cases, 49%), third-generation cephalosporin (11 cases, 27%) and carbapenem (8 cases, 19%). Multivariate analysis showed that a higher risk of pneumonia could be predicted for patients with myeloma (P = 0.006) and for patients with an absolute neutrophil count <0.5 x 10(9)/L >7 days (P = 0.008). Cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality at 6 months was 51% versus 8% for patients with or without pneumonia, respectively (P = 0.001). Pneumonia after ASCT is a severe complication more commonly observed in patients with myeloma and with prolonged duration of neutropenia.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 01/2008; 48(12):2367-74. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first study in which bortezomib and dexamethasone were administered on an alternating basis as up-front therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). We investigated the efficacy and kinetics of response to each drug and safety.
Patients with newly diagnosed MM who were less than 66 years old were treated with bortezomib at 1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 (cycles 1, 3, and 5) and dexamethasone 40 mg orally on days 1 through 4, 9 to 12, and 17 to 20 (cycles 2, 4, and 6), followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Responses were evaluated by modified European Bone Marrow Transplantation criteria. Random effects models were used to analyze the tumor response kinetics.
Forty patients were enrolled. Partial response (PR) or greater was 65% (12.5% complete response [CR], 10% very good PR [VGPR], and 42.5% PR) plus 17.5% minor response. Time to response was rapid, with 82% serum M-protein reduction achieved within the first two cycles. The M-protein decrease was similar with dexamethasone and with bortezomib (P = .48). Chromosome 13 deletion, t(4;14), and t(14;16) did not have a negative impact on response. Toxicity was low, with no grade 3 to 4 peripheral neuropathy and no grade 2 to 4 thrombocytopenia. The response rate after ASCT was 88%, with 33% CR (negative immunofixation) plus 22% VGPR.
Bortezomib alternating with dexamethasone is a highly effective induction regimen with low toxicity. The kinetic study has shown a high degree of heterogeneity in response and rapid effect from both agents, supporting the use of a short induction regimen before ASCT in MM.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2007; 25(28):4452-8. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We examined 476 patients with hematologic malignancies (401) or solid tumors (75) who underwent ASCT between February 1990 and May 2005. Anti-infectious prophylaxis consisted of different combinations of ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, fluconazole, aerosolized amphotericin B, acyclovir, and intravenous immunoglobulins. Overall, 454 patients (95%) developed fever in the first 60 days after ASCT. In the majority of patients, initial antibiotic therapy consisted of broad-spectrum beta-lactamic with or without amikacin. A glycopeptide was administered as initial therapy in 86 cases. Overall, there were 132 (29%) clinically documented infections (37 pneumonias), 79 (17%) microbiologically documented infections (65 bacteremias), and 243 (54%) fevers of unknown origin. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (18, 25%) and E coli (18, 25%) were the organisms most frequently isolated. The pattern of infection did not change throughout the study except for a significantly higher incidence of bacteremia due to gram-positive bacteria in the first 5 years of the study. Infection-related mortality was 5% (21 cases), with pneumonia the most frequent cause of death. ASCT should be considered a low-risk procedure, although new therapeutic approaches for patients developing severe respiratory infections are still needed.
International Journal of Hematology 09/2007; 86(2):186-92. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CTLA-4 is an inhibitory molecule that down-regulates T-cell activation. Although polymorphisms at CTLA-4 have been correlated with autoimmune diseases their association with clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has yet to be explored. A total of 5 CTLA-4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped on 536 HLA-identical sibling donors of allo-HSC transplants. Genotypes were tested for an association with patients' posttransplantation outcomes. The effect of the polymorphisms on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) mRNA and protein production were determined in 60 healthy control participants. We observed a reduction in the mRNA expression of the soluble CTLA-4 isoform in the presence of a G allele at CT60 and +49. Patients receiving stem cells from a donor with at least 1 G allele in position CT60 had worse overall survival (56.2% vs 69.8% at 5 years; P = .001; hazard ratio [HR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75-8.22), due to a higher risk of relapse (P = .049; HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.00-2.93). Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was more frequent in patients receiving CT60 AA stem cells (P = .033; HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.03-2.29). This is the first study to report an association between polymorphisms at CTLA-4 and clinical outcome after allo-HSCT. The CT60 genotype influences relapse and aGVHD, probably due to its action on CTLA-4 alternative splicing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is still not well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and risk factors for the development of AIHA, as well as its prognosis and response to treatment in a series of patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT at a single institution. Between 1996 and 2004, 272 adult patients with a variety of malignant hematopoietic disorders underwent allogeneic HSCT. Direct antiglobulin testing was performed in routine pretransfusion compatibility testing or after clinical suspicion of AIHA. Twelve patients developed AIHA after HSCT at a median time of 147 days (range, 41-170). The 3-year cumulative incidence of AIHA was 4.44%. Eight cold antibodies and four warm antibodies were detected. Multivariate analysis shows that HSCT from unrelated donors (P=0.02) and the development of chronic extensive graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (P=0.0004) were the only independent factors associated with AIHA. Two patients are still alive. AIHA was never the primary cause of death but added morbidity in patients with other concomitant complications. Patients undergoing HSCT from unrelated donors and those who develop chronic extensive GVHD are especially predisposed for this complication.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 06/2007; 39(9):555-61. · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a survey of the European Cooperative Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation to analyze the outcome of 625 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients transplanted with auto- or allogeneic-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT, alloHSCT) after 1993, in first (CR1) or in second complete remission (CR2). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 5 years in CR1 was 69% for 149 patients autografted and 68% for 144 patients allografted, whereas in CR2, LFS was 51% in 195 autoHSCT and 59% in 137 alloHSCT recipients, respectively. In the group of autoHSCT for CR1 (n=149), higher relapse incidence (RI) was associated with shorter time from diagnosis to transplant (<7.6 months); transplant-related mortality (TRM) was increased in older patients (>47 years), whereas for CR2, longer time from diagnosis to transplant (>18 months) was associated with increased LFS and decreased RI. In the alloHSCT group for CR1 (n=144), age (<33 years) was associated with increased LFS and decreased TRM and for CR2 (n=137), the use of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells was associated with decreased TRM. Female recipient, a female donor to male recipient and transplants performed before 1997 were associated with decreased RI. In conclusion, HSCT still appears to have a role in APL, especially for patients in CR2.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2007; 39(8):461-9. · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard first-line treatment for elderly multiple myeloma (MM) patients ineligible for stem cell transplantation is melphalan plus prednisone (MP). However, complete responses (CRs) are rare. Bortezomib is active in patients with relapsed MM, including elderly patients. This phase 1/2 trial in 60 untreated MM patients aged at least 65 years (half older than 75 years) was designed to determine dosing, safety, and efficacy of bortezomib plus MP (VMP). VMP response rate was 89%, including 32% immunofixation-negative CRs, of whom half of the IF- CR patients analyzed achieved immunophenotypic remission (no detectable plasma cells at 10(-4) to 10(-5) sensitivity). VMP appeared to overcome the poor prognosis conferred by retinoblastoma gene deletion and IgH translocations. Results compare favorably with our historical control data for MP--notably, response rate (89% versus 42%), event-free survival at 16 months (83% versus 51%), and survival at 16 months (90% versus 62%). Side effects were predictable and manageable; principal toxicities were hematologic, gastrointestinal, and peripheral neuropathy and were more evident during early cycles and in patients aged 75 years or more. In conclusion, in elderly patients ineligible for transplantation, the combination of bortezomib plus MP appears significantly superior to MP, producing very high CR rates, including immunophenotypic CRs, even in patients with poor prognostic features.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a powerful technique for prognostic assessment in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the existence of associations between cytogenetic abnormalities compels us to re-assess the value of each abnormality. A total of 260 patients with MM at the time of diagnosis, enrolled in the GEM-2000 Spanish transplant protocol, have been analyzed by FISH in order to ascertain the independent influence on myeloma prognosis of IGH translocations, as well as RB and P53 deletions. Survival analyses showed that patients with t(4;14), RB or P53 deletions had a significantly shorter survival than patients without these abnormalities. However, patients with RB deletions without other abnormalities in FISH analysis, displayed a similar outcome to those patients without genetic changes by FISH (46 vs 54 months, P=0.3). In the multivariate analysis the presence of t(4;14), RB deletion associated with other abnormalities, age >60 years, high proportion of S-phase cells and advanced stage of the disease according to the International Staging System retained their independent prognostic influence. In summary, RB deletion as a sole abnormality does not lead to a shortening in the survival of MM patients, whereas t(4;14) confers the worst prognosis in MM patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy.Keywords: multiple myeloma, genetic abnormalities, FISH, RB deletion
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CBV and BEAM are the two most frequently used regimens for patients with lymphoma undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). This study compared their morbidity and transplant-related mortality (TRM) in 113 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (69) and Hodgkin's disease (44) undergoing ASCT between 1990 - 2004. CBV (cyclophosphamide, 6000 mg m(-2); VP-16, 750 mg m(-2); and high-dose BCNU, 800 mg m(-2)) was administered to 75 patients and 38 received BEAM (BCNU, 300 mg m(-2); VP-16, 800 mg m(-2); cytarabine, 800 mg m(-2); melphalan, 140 mg m(-2)). Patients in the BEAM group had a significantly higher median age (p = 0.002) and were more heavily treated before ASCT (p = 0.003). More patients showed active disease at transplant in the BEAM group (p = 0.04). Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) was more frequent in the CBV group (11% vs 0%, p = 0.048). There were 20 (18%) transplant-related deaths, 18 in the CBV and two in the BEAM group. Infectious complications (12 patients, seven with pneumonia) and SOS (four) were the most frequent causes of death. The cumulative incidences of TRM were 25% in the CBV and 7% in the BEAM group (p = 0.02). CBV thus produced a higher incidence of SOS and TRM than BEAM in this series.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 09/2006; 47(8):1488-94. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although alkylating agents are clearly beneficial in multiple myeloma (MM), their deleterious effect on bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells usually precludes their use as front-line therapy in patients scheduled to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We analyzed the impact of first-line chemotherapy with alkylating agents on stem cell collection in MM patients.
Seven hundred and eighty-nine patients included in the Spanish multicenter protocol GEM-2000 underwent mobilization therapy after four courses of alternating VBMCP/VBAD chemotherapy.
The mobilization regimens consisted of standard or high-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in 551 (70%) patients, and chemotherapy and G-CSF in 206 (26%) patients. The CD34+ cell yield was lower than 4x10(6)/kg in 388 patients (49%), and equal or greater than 4x10(6)/kg in 401 patients (51%). Multivariate analysis indicated that advanced age (p<0.0001) and longer interval between diagnosis and mobilization (p=0.012) were the two variables associated with a lower CD34+ cell yield. Significant differences in CD34+ cell yield were not observed between the mobilization regimens. Of the 789 patients included in the protocol, 726 (92%) underwent the planned ASCT, whereas 25 (3%) patients did not because of the low number of CD34+ cells collected. Following ASCT, 0.5x10(9) neutrophils/L could be recovered after 11 days (median time; range, 5-71 days) and 20x10(9) platelets/L could be recovered after 12 days (median time; range, 6-69 days).
A short-course of therapy with alkylating agents according to the GEM-2000 protocol was associated with an appropriate CD34+ cell collection, and allowed the planned ASCT to be performed in the majority of MM patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the clinical outcome in 90 children undergoing allogeneic PBSC transplantation from HLA-identical relative for leukemia. GvHD prophylaxis was CsA+ methotrexate in 50 and CsA+/-steroids in 40. Median CD34+ cells infused were 6 x 10(6)/kg (range, 1.4-32). Median follow-up was 60 months (range, 6-115). CI of transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 18.4+/-4%. On multivariate analysis, high Lansky score (>80) at transplantation was associated with lower TRM (HR, 0.9; P<0.0002). Relapse incidence (RI) was 33.6+/-6%. On multivariate analysis, high Lansky score at transplantation and cGvHD were associated with lower RI (HR, 0.04; P<0.0005 and HR, 0.23; P<0.03, respectively). Disease-free survival (DFS) was 57.8+/-5%. Disease status at transplantation (HR, 0.33; P<0.02), steroid treatment at day +90 (HR, 5.61; P<0.005) and cGvHD (HR, 0.23; P<0.005) had a significant impact on DFS in multivariate analysis. CI of cGvHD was 63.7+/-7%. Patients with cGvHD had better DFS (65+/-5%) because of lower RI (15.7+/-6%) and similar TRM (27.4+/-4%). These data suggest acceptable long-term outcomes after allogeneic PBSC transplantation in children despite the high incidence of cGvHD. These patients had a lower risk of relapse and a better DFS.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 12/2005; 36(9):781-5. · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports the incidence of Wr(a) antigen and anti-Wr(a) in Valencia, Spain.
The incidence of the Wr(a) antigen in 110,000 healthy blood donors was estimated. Likewise, the incidence of anti-Wr(a) was analyzed in a population consisting of 730 healthy blood donors, 356 pregnant women, and 581 patients who received transfusions from the area of Valencia, Spain.
The incidence of Wr(a) antigen was 1 in 785. Overall, anti-Wr(a) was found in 59 samples: 20 healthy blood donors (1/37), 18 pregnant women (1/20), and 21 patients who received transfusions (1/28). The most frequent immunoglobulin class of anti-Wr(a) in healthy blood donors was immunoglobulin M, either alone (8 cases) or plus immunoglobulin G (IgG; 8 cases); the IgG1 and IgG3 were the IgG subclasses most frequently detected in pregnant women (12 cases) and in patients who received transfusions (12 cases). Only 51 percent of the anti-Wr(a) appeared to have the potential to be clinically significant.
These data show that the incidence of Wr(a) antigen and anti-Wr(a) among the population from Valencia is similar to that reported in other European areas and suggest that the development of anti-Wr(a) is facilitated by the presence of a hyperactive immune system. The clinical relevance of anti-Wr(a) is limited, however.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the use of CD34+ selected allogeneic peripheral blood as a source of hematopoietic progenitors for allogeneic transplantation in 11 patients with aplastic anemia (AA). The median age was 17 years (range, 6--9), and the median time between diagnosis and transplant 1 month (range, 1--4). Conditioning consisted of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg per day) on days--7 to--4 and antithymocyte globulin (30 mg/kg per day) on days--4 to--2 in nine patients. Total lymphoid irradiation was added to the preparative regimen for two. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine A and prednisone. Median doses of CD34+ and CD3+ cells infused were 3.91 x 10(6) and 0.3 x 10(6)/kg, respectively. The median time taken to achieve a neutrophil count >0.5 x 10(9)/l was 12 days and to recover a platelet count >20 x 10(9)/l, 13 days. Two patients developed acute GVHD grade I--II and one developed limited chronic GVHD. There were two treatment-related deaths. At a median follow-up of 44 months (range, 4--3), nine patients were alive with sustained and complete engraftment. This is a promising procedure in patients with AA, resulting in a rapid hematopoietic recovery, a low transplant-related mortality, and a low incidence of GVHD.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 09/2005; 36(4):325-9. · 3.47 Impact Factor