Emmanuel S Antonarakis

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (83)536.43 Total impact

  • D L Suzman, X C Zhou, M L Zahurak, J Lin, E S Antonarakis
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Multiple phase-2 trials in men with biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC) have assessed the impact of nonhormonal agents on PSA kinetics. We have previously demonstrated that changes in PSA kinetics correlate with metastasis-free survival; however, it is unknown whether these changes also correlate with overall survival (OS).METHODS:We performed a combined retrospective analysis of 146 men with BRPC treated on phase-2 trials using one of four investigational drugs: lenalidomide (n=60), marimastat (n=39), ATN-224 (n=22) and imatinib (n=25). We examined factors influencing OS, including within-subject changes in PSA kinetics (PSA slope, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity), before and 6 months after treatment initiation.RESULTS:After a median follow-up of 83.1 months, 49 of 146 men had died. In univariate Cox regression analysis, two factors were associated with OS: baseline PSA velocity and change in PSA velocity on therapy. In a landmark multivariable model, stratified by study (which controlled for age, Gleason score, type of local therapy and use of androgen-deprivation therapy prior to metastases), baseline PSA velocity and increase in PSA velocity on therapy remained independent predictors of OS. Median OS for men with an increase in PSA velocity on treatment was 115.4 months and was not reached for men with a decrease in PSA velocity (hazard ratio=0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.88; P=0.02).CONCLUSIONS:This hypothesis-generating study suggests that within-subject changes in PSA velocity after initiation of nonhormonal therapy may correlate with OS in men with BRPC. If validated in prospective trials, change in PSA velocity may represent a reasonable intermediate end point for screening new agents in these patients.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.44.
    Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. 11/2014;
  • Daniel L Suzman, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
    Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 10/2014; 28(10). · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The androgen-receptor isoform encoded by splice variant 7 lacks the ligand-binding domain, which is the target of enzalutamide and abiraterone, but remains constitutively active as a transcription factor. We hypothesized that detection of androgen-receptor splice variant 7 messenger RNA (AR-V7) in circulating tumor cells from men with advanced prostate cancer would be associated with resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone. Methods We used a quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay to evaluate AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells from prospectively enrolled patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who were initiating treatment with either enzalutamide or abiraterone. We examined associations between AR-V7 status (positive vs. negative) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rates (the primary end point), freedom from PSA progression (PSA progression-free survival), clinical or radiographic progression-free survival, and overall survival. Results A total of 31 enzalutamide-treated patients and 31 abiraterone-treated patients were enrolled, of whom 39% and 19%, respectively, had detectable AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells. Among men receiving enzalutamide, AR-V7-positive patients had lower PSA response rates than AR-V7-negative patients (0% vs. 53%, P=0.004) and shorter PSA progression-free survival (median, 1.4 months vs. 6.0 months; P<0.001), clinical or radiographic progression-free survival (median, 2.1 months vs. 6.1 months; P<0.001), and overall survival (median, 5.5 months vs. not reached; P=0.002). Similarly, among men receiving abiraterone, AR-V7-positive patients had lower PSA response rates than AR-V7-negative patients (0% vs. 68%, P=0.004) and shorter PSA progression-free survival (median, 1.3 months vs. not reached; P<0.001), clinical or radiographic progression-free survival (median, 2.3 months vs. not reached; P<0.001), and overall survival (median, 10.6 months vs. not reached, P=0.006). The association between AR-V7 detection and therapeutic resistance was maintained after adjustment for expression of full-length androgen receptor messenger RNA. Conclusions Detection of AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer may be associated with resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone. These findings require large-scale prospective validation. (Funded by the Prostate Cancer Foundation and others.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 09/2014; · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Two randomized clinical trials have demonstrated a survival advantage with enzalutamide over placebo in both docetaxel (D)-pretreated and D-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Cross-resistance between androgen receptor-directed therapies and taxanes has been suggested, possibly leading to lower efficacy of enzalutamide in the post-D setting.METHODS We aimed to examine the impact of prior D treatment on the clinical activity of enzalutamide in patients with mCRPC. We retrospectively reviewed an institutional database to identify men with mCRPC treated with standard-of-care enzalutamide. Patients were classified as D-naïve or D-pretreated. The efficacy end points were prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rates (≥ 50% PSA decline), time to PSA progression (TTPP) and clinical/radiographic progression-free survival (PFS) in response to enzalutamide. Differences between groups (D-naïve and D-pretreated) were assessed by univariate and multivariable analyses using logistic and Cox regression models.RESULTSOne-hundred-seven (107) consecutive patients were included: 60 were D-pretreated and 47 were D-naïve. PSA responses were 43.2% in D-naïve patients and 25.4% in D-pretreated patients (P = 0.089). Median TTPP was 7.2 months (95% CI = 4.5 – 17.2) in the D-naïve group versus 2.6 mo (95% CI = 1.9 – 3.5) in the D-pretreated group (P < 0.0001). Median PFS was not reached for D-naïve men and was 3.3 mo (95% CI = 2.5 – 4.8) for D-pretreated men (P < 0.0001). After adjusting for potential confounders including prior abiraterone use, differences remained statistically significant for TTPP (HR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.19 – 4.50; P = 0.013) and marginally significant for PFS (HR = 1.90; 95% CI = 0.94 – 3.84; P = 0.073) in multivariable analyses. Among patients who achieved a PSA response to enzalutamide (n = 34), results suggested a trend towards shorter duration of response in D-pretreated patients.CONCLUSIONS The clinical activity of enzalutamide appears to be blunted in patients who have previously received docetaxel chemotherapy. These results support the concept of cross-resistance between these two agents. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 08/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Mary Nakazawa, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Jun Luo
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    ABSTRACT: The FDA approvals of enzalutamide and abiraterone have rapidly changed the clinical landscape of prostate cancer treatment. Both drugs were designed to further suppress androgen receptor (AR) signaling, which is restored following first-line androgen deprivation therapies. Resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone, however, is again marked by a return of AR signaling, indicating a remarkable "addiction" of prostate cancer cells to the AR pathway. Several mechanisms of castration resistance have been uncovered in the past decades, featuring a wide spectrum of molecular alterations that may explain sustained AR signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC). Among these, the androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs), particularly variant 7 (AR-V7), have been implicated in resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone in preclinical studies, and they cannot be targeted by currently available AR-directed drugs. Drug development for AR-V-associated CRPC may therefore be necessary to augment the preexisting treatment repertoire. In this mini-review, we will discuss general mechanisms of resistance to AR-directed therapies, with a focus on the role of androgen receptor splice variants in the new era of treating advanced prostate cancer with enzalutamide and abiraterone.
    Hormones & cancer. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The optimal sequencing of the multiple active agents now available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is unclear. Prior reports have suggested diminished responses to sequential lines of androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies, but it is unknown whether subsequent taxane-based chemotherapy may be more effective than sequential AR-targeting treatment. We sought to evaluate the clinical activity of enzalutamide versus docetaxel in men with mCRPC who progressed on abiraterone.METHODS We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of consecutive mCRPC patients who had progressed on abiraterone therapy and subsequently received either enzalutamide (n = 30) or docetaxel (n = 31). We evaluated clinical outcomes including prostate-specific antigen decline of >30% (PSA30) or >50% (PSA50), PSA-progression-free survival (PSA-PFS), and clinical/radiographic PFS. We performed multivariable modeling to control for baseline and on-treatment differences between groups.RESULTSCompared to subjects who received enzalutamide post-abiraterone, subjects who received docetaxel post-abiraterone had more bone metastases, more visceral metastases, higher baseline PSA, and had more frequent PSA tests while on-treatment. There were no significant differences in PSA30 (41% for enzalutamide vs. 53% for docetaxel) or PSA50 (34% vs. 40%) response rates between the two groups; there remained no difference after stratifying by presence/absence of prior response to abiraterone. Median PSA-PFS was 4.1 versus 4.1 months for the enzalutamide and docetaxel cohorts, respectively (HR 1.35, 95% CI, 0.53–3.66, P = 0.502). Median PFS was 4.7 versus 4.4 months, respectively (HR 1.44, 95% CI, 0.77–2.71, P = 0.257). PSA-PFS and PFS did not differ after stratifying by prior response to abiraterone. In multivariable analyses, there were no significant differences in PSA-PFS or PFS between the two groups.CONCLUSIONS Treatment with either enzalutamide or docetaxel produced modest PSA responses and PFS intervals in this abiraterone-pretreated mCRPC population. In this retrospective study with small sample size, no significant differences in outcomes were observed between groups. Therefore, either enzalutamide or docetaxel may be a reasonable option in men who have progressed on abiraterone. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 07/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Daniel L Suzman, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
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    ABSTRACT: Medical oncologists who treat men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have seen an abundance of new agents approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in the last decade for a disease that was previously difficult to treat after becoming resistant to androgen-deprivation therapy. Advances in understanding of the mechanisms of castration-resistance and prostate cancer progression have highlighted several pathways and targets that appear promising to better treat CRPC. As the majority of CRPC appears to continue to rely on the androgen receptor for growth and progression, several of these agents directly or indirectly target the androgen receptor. A novel microtubule-targeted agent, cabazitaxel, has demonstrated an overall survival benefit following progression on docetaxel. Other agents target tumor immunogenicity and immune checkpoint pathways to attempt to harness the host immune system. The recently approved radiopharmaceutical, radium-223 dichloride, has demonstrated impressive results in patients with extensive bony metastases with minimal toxicity. Lastly, further understanding of the pathways underlying CRPC progression has led to late-phase clinical trials with the novel agents: custirsen, tasquinimod and cabozantinib. This article reviews the approved therapies for CRPC, the agents currently in late-phase clinical trials, and notable early-phase trials of novel therapies and their combinations, with particular attention to trials incorporating novel biomarkers and intermediate endpoints to better identify those men who may or may not benefit from specific therapies.
    Therapeutic advances in medical oncology. 07/2014; 6(4):167-79.
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    ABSTRACT: The development of noninvasive methods to detect and monitor tumors continues to be a major challenge in oncology. We used digital polymerase chain reaction-based technologies to evaluate the ability of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to detect tumors in 640 patients with various cancer types. We found that ctDNA was detectable in >75% of patients with advanced pancreatic, ovarian, colorectal, bladder, gastroesophageal, breast, melanoma, hepatocellular, and head and neck cancers, but in less than 50% of primary brain, renal, prostate, or thyroid cancers. In patients with localized tumors, ctDNA was detected in 73, 57, 48, and 50% of patients with colorectal cancer, gastroesophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast adenocarcinoma, respectively. ctDNA was often present in patients without detectable circulating tumor cells, suggesting that these two biomarkers are distinct entities. In a separate panel of 206 patients with metastatic colorectal cancers, we showed that the sensitivity of ctDNA for detection of clinically relevant KRAS gene mutations was 87.2% and its specificity was 99.2%. Finally, we assessed whether ctDNA could provide clues into the mechanisms underlying resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor blockade in 24 patients who objectively responded to therapy but subsequently relapsed. Twenty-three (96%) of these patients developed one or more mutations in genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Together, these data suggest that ctDNA is a broadly applicable, sensitive, and specific biomarker that can be used for a variety of clinical and research purposes in patients with multiple different types of cancer.
    Science translational medicine 02/2014; 6(224):224ra24. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taxanes may partly mediate their effect in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through disruption of androgen-receptor trafficking along microtubules. This raises the possibility of cross-resistance between androgen-directed agents and docetaxel. To evaluate docetaxel efficacy after abiraterone treatment in CRPC patients. This was a single-institution, retrospective analysis in CRPC patients (N=119) who either received abiraterone before docetaxel (AD) (n=24) or did not receive abiraterone before docetaxel (docetaxel-only; n=95). Men initiated docetaxel between December 2007 (the date abiraterone was first used at our center) and May 2013. The primary efficacy end points were prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival (PSA-PFS) and clinical/radiographic progression-free survival (PFS) on docetaxel. Differences between groups were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Men in the AD group had a significantly higher risk for progression than those in the docetaxel-only group. Median PSA-PFS was 4.1 mo in the AD group and 6.7 mo in the docetaxel-only group (p=0.002). Median PFS was also shorter in the AD group (4.4 mo vs 7.6 mo; p=0.003). In multivariable analysis, prior abiraterone treatment remained an independent predictor of shorter PSA-PFS (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-8.94; p=0.01) and PFS (HR: 3.62; 95% CI, 1.41-9.27; p=0.008). PSA declines ≥50% were less frequent in the AD group (38% vs 63%; p=0.02). The small size and retrospective nature of this study may have introduced bias. Men receiving abiraterone before docetaxel were more likely to progress on docetaxel and less likely to achieve a PSA response than abiraterone-naïve patients. Cross-resistance between abiraterone and docetaxel may explain these findings; however, larger, more definitive studies are still needed to confirm this. We examined the efficacy of docetaxel in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients who either did or did not receive prior abiraterone. We found that men receiving abiraterone before docetaxel were less likely to achieve a PSA response and were more likely to progress sooner on docetaxel than abiraterone-untreated patients. This may be due to cross-resistance.
    European Urology 01/2014; · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    Michael T Schweizer, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced prostate cancer has been recognized as being responsive to androgen deprivation since the 1940s when Charles Huggins first described the role of surgical castration in managing these patients. However, androgen deprivation only results in transient disease control for the vast majority of men, with those progressing in spite of castrate testosterone levels labeled as having castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until 2004, the therapeutic arena for these patients had remained stagnant, with no agent having shown a survival gain in the CRPC setting. Two landmark publications changed the prostate cancer treatment landscape by providing 'level-1 evidence' that docetaxel-based chemotherapy led to prolongation in overall survival (OS). This was followed by the approval of cabazitaxel in 2010 on the basis of Phase III data demonstrating its efficacy in patients pretreated with docetaxel. More recently, a number of next-generation androgen-directed agents (e.g. abiraterone and enzalutamide) have also been shown to lead to a survival benefit in men with CRPC. With so many new treatment options available, a number of questions remain. These include: how to best sequence chemotherapy with these newer hormonal agents, the clinical implication of cross-resistance between taxanes and androgen-directed agents and which subsets of patients may benefit most from early use of chemotherapy. This review will provide an overview of the evolving role of chemotherapy in the management of advanced prostate cancer in the current era.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 01/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Jocelyn L Wozney, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
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    ABSTRACT: Treatments that target the androgen axis represent an effective strategy for patients with advanced prostate cancer, but the disease remains incurable and new therapeutic approaches are necessary. Significant advances have recently occurred in our understanding of the growth factor and signaling pathways that are active in prostate cancer. In conjunction with this, many new targeted therapies with sound preclinical rationale have entered clinical development and are being tested in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Some of the most relevant pathways currently being exploited for therapeutic gain are HGF/c-Met signaling, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, Hedgehog signaling, the endothelin axis, Src kinase signaling, the IGF pathway, and angiogenesis. Here, we summarize the biological basis for the use of selected targeted agents and the results from available clinical trials of these drugs in men with prostate cancer.
    CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 01/2014; · 9.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Anticoagulants have been postulated to possess antitumor activity, although clinical data supporting this claim are conflicting. No definitive data exist on the clinical impact of anticoagulant therapy in patients with prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between therapeutic anticoagulant use and survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) receiving docetaxel chemotherapy. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 247 consecutive patients with metastatic CRPC who received first-line docetaxel chemotherapy between 1998 and 2010 at a single institution. Among them, 29 patients (11.7 %) received therapeutic anticoagulation (low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or warfarin) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the effect of anticoagulant use on overall survival. Results In univariate analysis, anticoagulant use was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; P=0.024). Median survival was 20.9 months in the anticoagulation group versus 17.1 months in the control group (P=0.024). In multivariable analysis, anticoagulant use remained a significant predictor of survival after adjusting for other baseline prognostic factors (HR, 0.49; P=0.023). When each anticoagulant was considered separately in the multivariable model, LMWH remained significantly prognostic for survival (HR, 0.48; P=0.035) while warfarin use did not. Conclusions Anticoagulant use (LMWH in particular) is an independent predictor of improved survival in men with metastatic CRPC receiving docetaxel. These data provide the impetus to further explore the antitumor properties of anticoagulants in patients with prostate cancer and warrant validation in prospective studies.
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 01/2014; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nearly three-quarters of a million American men who have been treated with prostatectomy and/or radiation therapy experience an increasing prostate-specific antigen level known as biochemical recurrence. Although androgen-deprivation therapy remains a reasonable option for some men with biochemical recurrence, deferring androgen ablation or offering nonhormonal therapies may be appropriate in patients in whom the risk of clinical or metastatic progression and prostate cancer-specific death is low. A risk-stratified approach informed by the patient's prostate-specific antigen kinetics, comorbidities, and personal preferences is recommended to determine the best management approach.
    Hematology/oncology clinics of North America 12/2013; 27(6):1205-19. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Outcomes in men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) can vary substantially-some will have excellent cancer-specific survival, whereas others will experience early metastasis even after aggressive local treatments. Current nomograms, which yield continuous risk probabilities, do not separate high-risk PCa into distinct sub-strata. Here, we derive a binary definition of very-high-risk (VHR) localized PCa to aid in risk stratification at diagnosis and selection of therapy.Methods:We queried the Johns Hopkins radical prostatectomy database to identify 753 men with NCCN high-risk localized PCa (Gleason sum 8-10, PSA >20 ng ml(-1), or clinical stage T3). Twenty-eight alternate permutations of adverse grade, stage and cancer volume were compared by their hazard ratios for metastasis and cancer-specific mortality. VHR criteria with top-ranking hazard ratios were further evaluated by multivariable analyses and inclusion of a clinically meaningful proportion of the high-risk cohort.Results:The VHR cohort was best defined by primary pattern 5 present on biopsy, or 5 cores with Gleason sum 8-10, or multiple NCCN high-risk features. These criteria encompassed 15.1% of the NCCN high-risk cohort. Compared with other high-risk men, VHR men were at significantly higher risk for metastasis (hazard ratio 2.75) and cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 3.44) (P<0.001 for both). Among high-risk men, VHR men also had significantly worse 10-year metastasis-free survival (37% vs 78%) and cancer-specific survival (62% vs 90%).Conclusions:Men who meet VHR criteria form a subgroup within the current NCCN high-risk classification who have particularly poor oncological outcomes. Use of these characteristics to distinguish VHR localized PCa may help in counseling and selection optimal candidates for multimodal treatments or clinical trials.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 5 November 2013; doi:10.1038/pcan.2013.46.
    Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 11/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a measure of systemic inflammatory response, is associated with overall survival (OS) in men receiving chemotherapy with docetaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Records from 238 consecutive patients who were treated with first-line docetaxel-containing chemotherapy for mCRPC at a single high-volume centre from 1998 to 2010 (and who had adequate information to enable calculation of NLR) were reviewed. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to predict OS after chemotherapy initiation. In univariable analyses, the NLR as a discrete variable (optimal threshold 3.0) was significantly associated with OS (P = 0.001). In multivariable analyses, a lower NLR (≤3.0) was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (P = 0.002). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median OS was higher (18.3 vs 14.4 months) in patients that did not have an elevated NLR than in those with an elevated NLR (log-rank; P < 0.001). Men who were treated with first-line docetaxel for mCRPC who had a low pretreatment NLR (≤3.0) had significantly longer OS. NLR may be a potentially useful clinical marker of systemic inflammatory response in predicting OS in men with mCRPC who receive docetaxel and may be helpful to stratify patients for clinical trials. These findings derived from a retrospective analysis need to be validated in larger populations in prospective studies, and in the context of different therapies.
    BJU International 10/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:PSA doubling time (PSADT) is an attractive intermediate end point for assessing novel therapies in biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC). This study explores whether PSADT calculations are influenced by frequency/duration of PSA measurements, and whether statistical variability leads investigators to find false significant results.Methods:In retrospective analyses of two BRPC cohorts: Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) patients who deferred therapy and placebo patients on a randomized clinical trial (RCT), we calculated changes in PSADT from early measurements to later measurements using subsets of available PSAs for patients with 6 and 9 PSAs. We simulated hypothetical single-arm trials using randomly selected, 50-patient subsets and simulated two-arm RCTs.Results:JHH cohort (n=205) had median follow-up 58 months, median age 61 years and median Gleason 7. PSA variability changed with duration of PSA measurement as median within-patient PSADT increases for men with >6 PSAs ranged from 1.0 to 1.4 months by PSA subset while increases for men with 9 PSAs ranged from 3.9 to 4.1 months. Frequency of measurement did not change PSA variability as PSADT increase was unchanged when odd values were used instead of all values. Approximately 30% of JHH men experienced >200% increases in PSADT. Up to 62% of 50-patient single-arm simulations detected a significant PSADT change, whereas simulated RCTs did not. Results were supported in the RCT placebo cohort; 46% of patients experienced PSADT increases >200%.Conclusions:These data suggest that calculated PSADT in BRPC may naturally increase over time in the absence of therapy and may be influenced by duration of PSA follow-up. As a result, single-arm trials could show false significant increases despite the lack of active treatment of these patients. Placebo-controlled RCTs including clinical end points are recommended to screen novel agents in men with BRPC to mitigate bias because of natural PSADT variability.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 8 October 2013; doi:10.1038/pcan.2013.40.
    Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases 10/2013; · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical trials in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC) have been hampered by long survival times, making overall survival (OS) a difficult end point to reach. Intermediate end points are needed in order to conduct such trials within a more feasible time frame. This is a retrospective analysis of 450 men with BRPC following prostatectomy treated at a single institution between 1981 and 2010, of which 140 developed subsequent metastases. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was deferred until after the development of metastases. Cox regression models were developed to investigate factors influencing OS. Median metastasis-free survival (MFS) was 10.2 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6-14.0 years]; median OS after metastasis was 6.6 years (95%CI 5.8-8.4 years). Multivariable Cox regressions identified four independently prognostic variables for OS: MFS (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.94), number of metastases (≤3 versus ≥4; HR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85), pain (absent versus present; HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.25-0.72), and bisphosphonate use (yes versus no; HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.37-0.98). MFS emerged as an independent predictor of OS in men with BRPC treated with deferred ADT after the development of metastases. MFS may be a reasonable intermediate end point in future clinical trials. This observation requires prospective validation.
    Annals of Oncology 08/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor
  • Jatinder Goyal, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer remains an area of unmet medical need. Evidence suggests that this entity continues to be driven by androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Abiraterone acetate, a pregnenolone derivative, is an oral selective and irreversible inhibitor of the key steroidogenic enzyme CYP17. It possesses dual 17-α hydroxylase and C17,20-lyase blocking activity, the result of which is decreased gonadal and extra-gonadal androgen synthesis. Abiraterone was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 following the demonstration of superior survival compared with placebo in the post-docetaxel population. Since that time, more evidence has been generated from preclinical studies and clinical trials which have considerably enhanced our understanding of this complex disease. In this paper, we review the development of abiraterone acetate, its pharmacological characteristics, and its effects on the androgen-AR signaling axis, along with the combined experience from clinical trials. We also discuss some of the ongoing trials using this agent, as well as potential mechanisms of abiraterone resistance, novel bio-marker development, and future directions using AR-directed therapies.
    Clinical medicine insights. Urology. 07/2013; 2013(7):1-14.
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    Rosa Nadal, Zsuzsanna H McMahan, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 06/2013; · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Emmanuel S Antonarakis
    Translational andrology and urology. 06/2013; 2(2):119-120.

Publication Stats

578 Citations
536.43 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Division of Hematology/Oncology
      Charleston, SC, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • • Department of Medical Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Wales
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States