Barry V L Potter

University of Bath, Bath, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (514)2091.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To synthesise stabilised mimics of InsP8, the most phosphorylated inositol phosphate signalling molecule in Nature, we replaced its two diphosphate (PP) groups with either phosphonoacetate (PA) or methylenebisphosphonate (PCP) groups. Utility of the PA and PCP analogues was verified by structural and biochemical analyses of their interactions with enzymes of InsP8 metabolism.
    Chemical Communications 07/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5CC05017K · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic compounds open up new avenues to interrogate and manipulate intracellular Ca2+ signalling pathways. They may ultimately lead to drug-like analogues to intervene in disease. Recent advances in chemical biology tools available to probe Ca2+ signalling are described, with a particular focus on those synthetic analogues from our group that have enhanced biological understanding or represent a step towards more drug-like molecules. Adenophostin (AdA) is the most potent known agonist at the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and synthetic analogues provide a binding model for receptor activation and channel opening. 2-O-Modified inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) derivatives that are partial agonists at the IP3R reveal key conformational changes of the receptor upon ligand binding. Biphenyl polyphosphates illustrate that simple non-inositol surrogates can be engineered to give prototype IP3R agonists or antagonists and act as templates for protein co-crystallization. Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) can be selectively modified using total synthesis, generating chemically and biologically stable tools to investigate Ca2+ release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and to interfere with cADPR synthesis and degradation. The first neutral analogues with a synthetic pyrophosphate bioisostere surprisingly retain the ability to release Ca2+, suggesting a new route to membrane-permeant tools. Adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADPR) activates the Ca2+-, Na+- and K+-permeable transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. Synthetic ADPR analogues provide the first structure-activity relationship (SAR) for this emerging messenger and the first functional antagonists. An analogue based on the nicotinic acid motif of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) antagonizes NAADP-mediated Ca2+ release in vitro and is effective in vivo against induced heart arrhythmia and autoimmune disease, illustrating the therapeutic potential of targeted small molecules.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 06/2015; 43(3):417-25. DOI:10.1042/BST20140293 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Mark P Thomas, Barry V L Potter
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    ABSTRACT: In 1994, following work from this laboratory, it was reported that estrone-3-O-sulfamate irreversibly inhibits a new potential hormone-dependent cancer target steroid sulfatase (STS). Subsequent drug discovery projects were initiated to develop the core aryl O-sulfamate pharmacophore that, over some twenty years, have led to steroidal and non-steroidal drugs in numerous pre-clinical and clinical trials, with promising results in oncology and women's health, including endometriosis. Drugs have been designed to inhibit STS e.g. Irosustat, as innovative dual-targeting aromatase-steroid sulfatase inhibitors (DASIs) and as multi-targeting agents for hormone-independent tumors, such as the steroidal STX140 and non-steroidal counterparts, acting inter alia through microtubule disruption. The aryl sulfamate pharmacophore is highly versatile, operating via three distinct mechanisms of action and imbues attractive pharmaceutical properties. This Perspectives article gives a personal view of the work leading both to the therapeutic concepts and these drugs, their current status and how they might develop in the future.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2015; DOI:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00386 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Mark P. Thomas, Barry V.L. Potter
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen sulfamate derivatives were the first irreversible active-site-directed inhibitors of steroid sulfatase (STS), an emerging drug target for endocrine therapy of hormone dependent diseases that catalyses inter alia the hydrolysis of estrone sulfate to estrone. In recent years this has stimulated clinical investigation of the estradiol derivative both as an oral prodrug and its currently ongoing exploration in endometriosis. 2-Substituted steroid sulfamate derivatives show considerable potential as multi-targeting agents for hormone-independent disease, but are also potent STS inhibitors. The steroidal template has spawned nonsteroidal STS inhibitors one of which, Irosustat, has been evaluated clinically in breast cancer, endometrial cancer and prostate cancer and there is potential for innovative dual-targeting approaches. This review surveys the role of estrogen sulfamates, their analogues and current status. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.03.012 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we describe the successful synthesis of cyclic ADP-4-thioribose (cADPtR, 3), designed as a stable mimic of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR, 1), a Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger, in which the key N1-β-thioribosyladenosine structure was stereoselectively constructed by condensation between the imidazole nucleoside derivative 8 and the 4-thioribosylamine 7 via equilibrium in 7 between the α-anomer (7α) and the β-anomer (7β) during the reaction course. cADPtR is, unlike cADPR, chemically and biologically stable, while it effectively mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ like cADPR in various biological systems, such as sea urchin homogenate, NG108-15 neuronal cells, and Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Thus, cADPtR is a stable equivalent of cADPR, which can be useful as a biological tool for investigating cADPR-mediated Ca2+-mobilizing pathways.
    12/2014; 3(1). DOI:10.1166/msr.2014.1035
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (cADPR) analogs based on the cyclic inosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (cIDPR) template were synthesized by recently developed stereo- and regioselective N1-ribosylation. Replacing the base N9-ribose with a butyl chain generates inhibitors of cADPR hydrolysis by the human ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 catalytic domain (shCD38), illustrating the non-essential nature of the "southern" ribose for binding. Butyl substitution generally improves potency relative to the parent cIDPRs and 8-amino¬-N9-butyl-cIDPR is comparable to the best non-covalent CD38 inhibitors to date (IC50 3.3 μM). Crystallographic analysis of the shCD38:8-amino¬-N9-butyl-cIDPR complex to a 2.05Å resolution unexpectedly reveals an N1-hydrolyzed ligand in the active site, suggesting that it is the N6-imino form of cADPR that is hydrolyzed by CD38. While HPLC studies confirm ligand cleavage at very high protein concentrations, they indicate that hydrolysis does not occur under physiological concentrations. Taken together, these analogs confirm that the "northern" ribose is critical for CD38 activity and inhibition, provide new insight into the mechanism of cADPR hydrolysis by CD38 and may aid future inhibitor design.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2014; 57(20). DOI:10.1021/jm501037u · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:STX2484 is a novel non-steroidal compound with potent anti-proliferative activity. These studies aimed to identify STX2484's mechanism of action, in vivo efficacy and activity in taxane-resistant breast cancer models.Methods:Effects of STX2484 and paclitaxel on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed in vitro in drug-resistant (MCF-7DOX) and non-resistant cells (MCF-7WT). STX2484 efficacy in βIII tubulin overexpression in MCF-7 cells was also determined. Anti-angiogenic activity was quantified in vitro by a co-culture model and in vivo using a Matrigel plug assay. An MDA-MB-231 xenograft model was used to determine STX2484 efficacy in vivo.Results:STX2484 is a tubulin disruptor, which induces p53 expression, Bcl2 phosphorylation, caspase-3 cleavage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, STX2484 is a potent anti-angiogenic agent in vitro and in vivo. In breast cancer xenografts, STX2484 (20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) suppressed tumour growth by 84% after 35 days of daily dosing, with limited toxicity. In contrast to paclitaxel, STX2484 efficacy was unchanged in two clinically relevant drug-resistant models.Conclusions:STX2484 is an orally bioavailable microtubule-disrupting agent with in vivo anti-angiogenic activity and excellent in vivo efficacy with no apparent toxicity. Crucially, STX2484 has superior efficacy to paclitaxel in models of clinical drug resistance.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 24 June 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.188 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2014; DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.188 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ)-based “chimeric” microtubule disruptors were optimised through modification of the N-benzyl motif, in concert with changes at C3 and C7, resulting in the identification of compounds with improved in vitro antiproliferative activities (e.g. 15: GI50 20 nM in DU-145). The broad anticancer activity of these novel structures was confirmed in the NCI 60-cell line assay, with 12 e,f displaying MGM values in the 40 nM region. In addition, their profiles as inhibitors of tubulin polymerisation and colchicine binding to tubulin were confirmed. Compound 15, for example, inhibited tubulin polymerisation with an IC50 of 1.8 μM, close to that of the clinical drug combretastatin A-4, and also proved effective at blocking colchicine binding. Additionally, compound 20 b was identified as the only phenol in the series to date showing both better in vitro antiproliferative properties than its corresponding sulfamate and excellent antitubulin data (IC50=1.6 μM). Compound 12 f was selected for in vivo evaluation at the NCI in the hollow fibre assay and showed very good activity and wide tissue distribution, illustrating the value of this template for further development.
    ChemMedChem 05/2014; DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201402025 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2 (PPIP5K2) is one of the mammalian PPIP5K isoforms responsible for synthesis of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (inositol pyrophosphates; PP-InsPs), regulatory molecules that function at the interface of cell signaling and organismic homeostasis. The development of drugs that inhibit PPIP5K2 could have both experimental and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe a synthetic strategy for producing naturally occurring 5-PP-InsP4, as well as several inositol polyphosphate analogs, and we study their interactions with PPIP5K2 using biochemical and structural approaches. These experiments uncover an additional ligand-binding site on the surface of PPIP5K2, adjacent to the catalytic pocket. This site facilitates substrate capture from the bulk phase, prior to transfer into the catalytic pocket. In addition to demonstrating a "catch-and-pass" reaction mechanism in a small molecule kinase, we demonstrate that binding of our analogs to the substrate capture site inhibits PPIP5K2. This work suggests that the substrate-binding site offers new opportunities for targeted drug design.
    Chemistry & biology 04/2014; 21(5). DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.03.009 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A SAR translation strategy adopted for the discovery of tetrahydroisoquinolinone (THIQ)-based steroidomimetic microtubule disruptors has been extended to dihydroisoquinolinone (DHIQ)-based compounds. A steroid A,B-ring-mimicking DHIQ core was connected to methoxyaryl D-ring mimics through methylene, carbonyl, and sulfonyl linkers, and the resulting compounds were evaluated against two cancer cell lines. The carbonyl-linked DHIQs in particular exhibit significant in vitro antiproliferative activities (e.g., 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one (16 g): GI50 51 nM in DU-145 cells). The broad anticancer activity of DHIQ 16 g was confirmed in the NCI 60-cell line assay giving a mean activity of 33 nM. Furthermore, 6-hydroxy-2-(3,5-dimethoxybenzoyl)-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one (16 f) and 16 g and their sulfamate derivatives 17 f and 17 g (2-(3,5-dimethoxybenzoyl)-7-methoxy-6-sulfamoyloxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one and 7-methoxy-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-6-sulfamoyloxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-one, respectively) show excellent activity against the polymerization of tubulin, close to that of the clinical combretastatin A-4, and bind competitively at the colchicine binding site of tubulin. Compounds 16 f and 17 f were also shown to demonstrate in vitro anti-angiogenic activity. Additionally, X-ray and computational analyses of 17 f reveal that electrostatic repulsion between the two adjacent carbonyl groups, through conformational biasing, dictates the adoption of a “steroid-like” conformation that may partially explain the excellent in vitro activities.
    ChemMedChem 04/2014; 9(4). DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201400017 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The syntheses and antiproliferative activities of novel substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives and their sulfamates are discussed. Biasing of conformational populations through substitution on the tetrahydroisoquinoline core at C1 and C3 has a profound effect on the antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines. The C3 methyl-substituted sulfamate (±)-7-methoxy-2-(3-methoxybenzyl)-3-methyl-6-sulfamoyloxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (6 b), for example, was found to be ∼10-fold more potent than the corresponding non-methylated compound 7-methoxy-2-(3-methoxybenzyl)-6-sulfamoyloxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (4 b) against DU-145 prostate cancer cells (GI50 values: 220 nM and 2.1 μM, respectively). Such compounds were also found to be active against a drug-resistant MCF breast cancer cell line. The position and nature of substitution of the N-benzyl group in the C3-substituted series was found to have a significant effect on activity. Whereas C1 methylation has little effect on activity, introduction of C1 phenyl and C3-gem-dimethyl substituents greatly decreases antiproliferative activity. The ability of these compounds to inhibit microtubule polymerisation and to bind tubulin in a competitive manner versus colchicine confirms the mechanism of action. The therapeutic potential of a representative compound was confirmed in an in vivo multiple myeloma xenograft study.
    ChemMedChem 02/2014; 9(2). DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201300412 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pattern recognition receptor RIG-I is critical for Type-I interferon production. However, the global regulation of RIG-I signaling is only partially understood. Using a human genome-wide RNAi-screen, we identified 226 novel regulatory proteins of RIG-I mediated interferon-β production. Furthermore, the screen identified a metabolic pathway that synthesizes the inositol pyrophosphate 1-IP7 as a previously unrecognized positive regulator of interferon production. Detailed genetic and biochemical experiments demonstrated that the kinase activities of IPPK, PPIP5K1 and PPIP5K2 (which convert IP5 to1-IP7) were critical for both interferon induction, and the control of cellular infection by Sendai and influenza A viruses. Conversely, ectopically expressed inositol pyrophosphate-hydrolases DIPPs attenuated interferon transcription. Mechanistic experiments in intact cells revealed that the expression of IPPK, PPIP5K1 and PPIP5K2 was needed for the phosphorylation and activation of IRF3, a transcription factor for interferon. The addition of purified individual inositol pyrophosphates to a cell free reconstituted RIG-I signaling assay further identified 1-IP7 as an essential component required for IRF3 activation. The inositol pyrophosphate may act by β-phosphoryl transfer, since its action was not recapitulated by a synthetic phosphonoacetate analogue of 1-IP7. This study thus identified several novel regulators of RIG-I, and a new role for inositol pyrophosphates in augmenting innate immune responses to viral infection that may have therapeutic applications.
    PLoS Pathogens 02/2014; 10(2):e1003981. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003981 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analogues of the potent Ca(2+) releasing second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) with a 1,2,3-triazole pyrophosphate bioisostere were synthesised by click-mediated macrocyclisation. The ability to activate Ca(2+) release was surprisingly retained, and hydrolysis of cADPR by CD38 could also be inhibited, illustrating the potential of this approach to design drug-like signalling pathway modulators.
    Chemical Communications 01/2014; 50(19). DOI:10.1039/c3cc49249d · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When applied extracellularly, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 ) and myo-inositol pentakisphosphate (InsP5 ) can inhibit the growth and proliferation of tumour cells. There is debate about whether these effects result from interactions of InsP6 and InsP5 with intracellular or extracellular targets. We synthesised FAM-InsP5 , a fluorescent conjugate of InsP5 that allows direct visualisation of its interaction with cells. FAM-InsP5 was internalised by H1229 tumour cells, a finding that supports earlier reports that externally applied inositol phosphates can-perhaps surprisingly-enter into cells. Close examination of the process of FAM-InsP5 uptake suggests a mechanism of non-receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is blocked at 4 °C and probably involves interaction of the ligand with the glycocalyx. However, our results are difficult to reconcile with antiproliferative mechanisms that require direct interactions of externally applied InsP5 or InsP6 with cytosolic proteins, because internalised FAM-InsP5 appears in lysosomes and apparently does not enter the cytoplasm. Studies using FAM-InsP5 are less difficult and time-consuming than experiments using InsP5 or InsP6 , a factor that allowed us to analyse cellular uptake across a range of human cell types, identifying strong cell-specific differences.
    ChemBioChem 01/2014; 15(1). DOI:10.1002/cbic.201300583 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A structure-activity relationship (SAR) translation strategy was used for the discovery of tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ)-based steroidomimetic and chimeric microtubule disruptors based upon a steroidal starting point. A steroid A,B-ring-mimicking THIQ core was connected to methoxyaryl D-ring ring mimics through methylene, carbonyl and sulfonyl linkers to afford a number of steroidomimetic hits (e.g., 7-methoxy-2-(3- methoxybenzyl)-6-sulfamoyloxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (20 c) GI50 =2.1 μM). Optimisation and control experiments demonstrate the complementary SAR of this series and the steroid derivatives that inspired its design. Linkage of the THIQ-based A,B-mimic with the trimethoxyaryl motif prevalent in colchicine site binding microtubule disruptors delivered a series of chimeric molecules whose activity (GI50 =40 nM) surpasses that of the parent steroid derivatives. Validation of this strategy was obtained from the excellent oral activity of 7-methoxy-6-sulfamoyloxy-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (20 z) relative to a benchmark steroidal bis- sulfamate in an in vivo model of multiple myeloma.
    ChemMedChem 01/2014; 9(1). DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201300261 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • ChemMedChem 01/2014; 9(1):1-1. DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201390056 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADPR) activates TRPM2, a Ca2+, Na+ and K+ permeable cation channel. Activation is induced by ADPR binding to the cytosolic C-terminal NudT9-homology domain. To generate the first structure-activity relationship, systematically-modified ADPR analogues were designed, synthesized and evaluated as antagonists using patch-clamp experiments in HEK293 cells over-expressing human TRPM2. Compounds with a purine C8 substituent show antagonist activity and an 8-phenyl substitution [8-Ph-ADPR, 5] is very effective. Modification of the terminal ribose results in a weak antagonist, whereas its removal abolishes activity. An antagonist based upon a hybrid structure, 8-phenyl-2-deoxy-ADPR (86, IC50 = 3 micro M), is more potent than 8-Ph-ADPR (5). Initial bioisosteric replacement of the pyrophosphate linkage abolishes activity, but replacement of the pyrophosphate and the terminal ribose by a sulfamate-based group leads to a weak antagonist, a lead to more drug-like analogues. 8-Ph-ADPR (5) inhibits Ca2+ signaling and chemotaxis in human neutrophils illustrating the potential for pharmacological intervention at TRPM2.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2013; 56(24). DOI:10.1021/jm401497a · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    Mark P Thomas, Barry V L Potter
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    ABSTRACT: Diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphates have many roles to play including roles in apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, the response of cells to stress, the regulation of telomere length and DNA damage repair, and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85 system that monitors phosphate levels. This review focuses on the three classes of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these compounds - inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6K), inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases (PPIP5K), and diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases (DIPP). However, these enzymes have roles beyond being mere catalysts, and their interactions with other proteins have cellular consequences. Through their interactions the three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases have roles in exocytosis, diabetes, the response to infection, and apoptosis. The two inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases influence the cellular response to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and the migration of pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins to the plasma membrane. The five diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases interact with ribosomal proteins and transcription factors, and proteins involved in membrane trafficking, exocytosis, ubiquitination and the proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Possible directions for future research to further elucidate the roles of these enzymes are highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEBS Journal 10/2013; DOI:10.1111/febs.12575 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oh, what a difference an S makes: A thioribose analogue (cADPtR, see scheme) of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) was synthesized that is stable and has structural and electrostatic features similar to those of cADPR. cADPtR is the first stable equivalent of cADPR that is as active as cADPR in various cellular systems, making it useful for investigating Ca(2+) ion-release signaling pathways.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 06/2013; 52(26). DOI:10.1002/anie.201302098 · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few inhibitors exist for CD38, a multifunctional enzyme catalyzing the formation and metabolism of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messenger cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR). Synthetic, non-hydrolyzable ligands can facilitate structure-based inhibitor design. Molecular docking was used to reproduce the crystallographic binding mode of cyclic inosine 5'-diphosphoribose (N1-cIDPR) with CD38, revealing an exploitable pocket and predicting the potential to introduce an extra hydrogen bond interaction with Asp-155. The purine C-8 position of N1-cIDPR (IC50 276 µM) was extended with an amino or diaminobutane group and the 8-modified compounds were evaluated against CD38-catalyzed cADPR hydrolysis. Crystallography of an 8-amino N1-cIDPR:CD38 complex confirmed the predicted interaction with Asp-155, together with a second H-bond from a realigned Glu-146, rationalizing the improved inhibition (IC50 56 µM). Crystallography of a complex of cyclic ADP-carbocyclic ribose (cADPcR, IC50 129 µM) with CD38 illustrated that Glu-146 hydrogen bonds with the ligand N6-amino group. Both 8-amino N1-cIDPR and cADPcR bind deep in the active site reaching the catalytic residue Glu-226, and mimicking the likely location of cADPR during catalysis. Substantial overlap of the N1-cIDPR "northern" ribose monophosphate and the cADPcR carbocyclic ribose monophosphate regions suggests that this area is crucial for inhibitor design, leading to a new compound series of N1-inosine 5'-monophosphates (N1-IMPs). These small fragments inhibit hydrolysis of cADPR more efficiently than the parent cyclic compounds, with the best in the series demonstrating potent inhibition (IC50 = 7.6 µM). The lower molecular weight and relative simplicity of these compounds compared to cADPR make them attractive as a starting point for further inhibitor design.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e66247. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066247 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,091.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2015
    • University of Bath
      • Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
      Bath, England, United Kingdom
  • 1980–2015
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • The University of Hong Kong
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 1985–2010
    • University of Leicester
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2009
    • Imperial College London
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2006
    • Hokkaido University
      • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 1998–2006
    • University of Hamburg
      • Institute of Physical Chemistry
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 1990–2006
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      • Laboratory of Signal Transduction (LST)
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1987
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom