Lori A Crane

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (141)427.04 Total impact

  • Anna E Barón, Nancy L Asdigian, Victoria Gonzalez, Jenny Aalborg, Tamara Terzian, Regan A Stiegmann, Enrique C Torchia, Marianne Berwick, Robert P Dellavalle, Joseph G Morelli, Stefan T Mokrohisky, Lori A Crane, Neil F Box
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    ABSTRACT: Melanocytic nevi (moles) and freckles are well known biomarkers of melanoma risk, and they are influenced by similar UV light exposures and genetic susceptibilities to those that increase melanoma risk. Nevertheless, the selective interactions between UV exposures and nevus and freckling genes remain largely undescribed. We conducted a longitudinal study from ages 6 through 10 years in 477 Colorado children who had annual information collected for sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and full body skin exams. MC1R and HERC2/OCA2 rs12913832 were genotyped and linear mixed models were used to identify main and interaction effects. All measures of sun exposure (chronic, sunburns, and waterside vacations) contributed to total nevus counts, and cumulative chronic exposure acted as the major driver of nevus development. Waterside vacations strongly increased total nevus counts in children with rs12913832 blue eye color alleles and facial freckling scores in those with MC1R red hair color variants. Sunburns increased the numbers of larger nevi (≥2 mm) in subjects with certain MC1R and rs12913832 genotypes. Complex interactions between different UV exposure profiles and genotype combinations determine nevus numbers and size, and the degree of facial freckling. Our findings emphasize the importance of implementing sun-protective behavior in childhood regardless of genetic make-up, although children with particular genetic variants may benefit from specifically targeted preventive measures to counteract their inherent risk of melanoma. Moreover, we demonstrate, for the first time, that longitudinal studies are a highly powered tool to uncover new gene-environment interactions that increase cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 1-11. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
  • Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 07/2014; 71(1):199-201. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because of high purchase costs of newer vaccines, financial risk to private vaccination providers has increased. We assessed among pediatricians and family physicians satisfaction with insurance payment for vaccine purchase and administration by payer type, the proportion who have considered discontinuing provision of all childhood vaccines for financial reasons, and strategies used for handling uncertainty about insurance coverage when new vaccines first become available. A national survey among private pediatricians and family physicians April to September 2011. Response rates were 69% (190/277) for pediatricians and 70% (181/260) for family physicians. Level of dissatisfaction varied significantly by payer type for payment for vaccine administration (Medicaid, 63%; Children's Health Insurance Program, 56%; managed care organizations, 48%; preferred provider organizations, 38%; fee for service, 37%; P < .001), but not for payment for vaccine purchase (health maintenance organization or managed care organization, 52%; Child Health Insurance Program, 47%; preferred provider organization, 45%; fee for service, 41%; P = .11). Ten percent of physicians had seriously considered discontinuing providing all childhood vaccines to privately insured patients because of cost issues. The most commonly used strategy for handling uncertainty about insurance coverage for new vaccines was to inform parents that they may be billed for the vaccine; 67% of physicians reported using 3 or more strategies to handle this uncertainty. Many primary care physicians are dissatisfied with payment for vaccine purchase and administration from third-party payers, particularly public insurance for vaccine administration. Physicians report a variety of strategies for dealing with the uncertainty of insurance coverage for new vaccines.
    PEDIATRICS 02/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adults are at substantial risk for vaccine-preventable disease, but their vaccination rates remain low. To assess practices for assessing vaccination status and stocking recommended vaccines, barriers to vaccination, characteristics associated with reporting financial barriers to delivering vaccines, and practices regarding vaccination by alternate vaccinators. Mail and Internet-based survey. Survey conducted from March to June 2012. General internists and family physicians throughout the United States. A financial barriers scale was created. Multivariable linear modeling for each specialty was performed to assess associations between a financial barrier score and physician and practice characteristics. Response rates were 79% (352 of 443) for general internists and 62% (255 of 409) for family physicians. Twenty-nine percent of general internists and 32% of family physicians reported assessing vaccination status at every visit. A minority used immunization information systems (8% and 36%, respectively). Almost all respondents reported assessing need for and stocking seasonal influenza; pneumococcal; tetanus and diphtheria; and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccines. However, fewer assessed and stocked other recommended vaccines. The most commonly reported barriers were financial. Characteristics significantly associated with reporting greater financial barriers included private practice setting, fewer than 5 providers in the practice, and, for general internists only, having more patients with Medicare Part D. The most commonly reported reasons for referring patients elsewhere included lack of insurance coverage for the vaccine (55% for general internists and 62% for family physicians) or inadequate reimbursement (36% and 41%, respectively). Patients were most often referred to pharmacies/retail stores and public health departments. Surveyed physicians may not be representative of all physicians. Improving adult vaccination delivery will require increased use of evidence-based methods for vaccination delivery and concerted efforts to resolve financial barriers, especially for smaller practices and for general internists who see more patients with Medicare Part D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    Annals of internal medicine 02/2014; 160(3). · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the long-term effects of the Integrated Nutrition and Physical Activity Program (INPAP), a school-based nutrition education program. Quasi-experimental design comparing intervention and comparison cohorts at 3-6 years after delivery of the INPAP intervention on nutrition- and physical activity-related outcomes. This study was conducted in 1 school district in a low-income rural county of ∼15,000 residents in south-central Colorado. In second grade, intervention and comparison cohorts included 173 (fall 2000) and 190 (fall 1999) students, respectively. Approximately 60% of these students completed assessments in eighth grade. INPAP is an experiential school-based nutrition education program, grounded in social cognitive theory and Piaget's cognitive development theory and adapted for use in a rural setting. Nutrition and physical activity knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors, body mass index. Wilcoxon signed rank test, chi-square test for proportions, and t test for means. Long-term effects were observed in nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes but not self-efficacy or behavior change. The effects that did occur were attenuated over time. This study found that INPAP implemented in elementary school had limited lasting effects by the end of middle school, a time when students have increased autonomy to make food choices.
    Journal of nutrition education and behavior. 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Although comprehensive smoking counseling to limit secondhand smoke (SHS) is widely endorsed, it is often not done. Published evaluations of brief and practical systems that improve screening and counseling to reduce SHS are limited. Our objective was to determine if a quality improvement activity around smoking counseling leads to changes in (1) medical assistant and pediatric provider assessment of smoking history and (2) smoking or other behaviors affecting children's SHS exposure.METHODS:In a large urban teaching clinic we assessed the ONE Step intervention, which included the following: (1) "Ask" (medical assistant asking whether caregivers smoke); (2) "Advise" (providers advising smoking outside and quitting if ready); (3) "Refer" (providers referring to the Colorado telephone QuitLine); and (4) electronic medical record prompts and required documentation regarding smoking. Medical assistant and provider assessments of smoking were evaluated with a chart review by using a pre-/posttest design. Caregiver behavior change was evaluated with a time-series survey that included assessment at baseline and follow-up via telephone at 6 and 12 months from study entry.RESULTS:ONE Step was associated with a statistically significant increase in Ask, Advise, and Refer documentation. Caregiver surveys showed that 97% found discussions of SHS with providers acceptable. Six- and 12-month follow-ups, respectively, showed that 14% and 13% of smokers reported quitting and that 63% and 70% of current smokers reported reduced SHS exposure.CONCLUSIONS:ONE Step was feasible to deliver in a busy outpatient setting, acceptable to families, and appears to have resulted in decreased exposure to SHS in our pediatric population.
    PEDIATRICS 07/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Survey results regarding primary care physicians' likelihood of recommending a new vaccine were compared before and after the vaccine was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for three new vaccines: herpes zoster (HZ), human papillomavirus (HPV) and rotavirus (RV), using physician networks representative of United States physicians. The main purpose of this study was to determine (a) how accurately physicians predict their eventual vaccine recommendations and the barriers they will experience in delivering the new vaccine and (b) whether physicians shift towards more or less strongly recommending a new vaccine from pre- to post-licensure. Responses from 284, 152 and 184 physicians were analyzed for the three vaccines, respectively. For all vaccines, there was a significant association between physicians' pre- and post-licensure recommendations (p<0.05). When responses changed from pre- to post-licensure, physicians tended to recommend a given vaccine more strongly than they had anticipated pre-licensure. Before vaccine availability, physicians tended to predict greater barriers to vaccine delivery than they eventually experienced. Surveys are useful for predicting physician practices, but may provide a slightly pessimistic view of physician adoption of new vaccines. Such data can be helpful in devising strategies to encourage vaccine delivery by physicians.
    Healthcare policy = Politiques de sante 05/2013; 8(4):71-85.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Medical schools frequently experience challenges related to diversity and inclusiveness. The authors conducted this study to assess, from a student body's perspective, the climate at one medical school with respect to diversity, inclusiveness and cross-cultural understanding. METHODS: In 2008 students in the doctor of medicine (MD), physical therapy (PT) and physician assistant programs at a public medical school were asked to complete a diversity climate survey consisting of 24 Likert-scale, short-answer and open-ended questions. Questions were designed to measure student experiences and attitudes in three domains: the general diversity environment and culture; witnessed negative speech or behaviors; and diversity and the learning environment. Students were also asked to comment on the effectiveness of strategies aimed at promoting diversity, including diversity and sensitivity training, pipeline programs, student scholarships and other interventions. Survey responses were summarized using proportions and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CI), as well as inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Of 852 eligible students, 261 (31%) participated in the survey. Most participants agreed that the school of medicine (SOM) campus is friendly (90%, 95% CI 86 to 93) and welcoming to minority groups (82%, 95% CI 77 to 86). Ninety percent (95% CI 86 to 93) found educational value in a diverse faculty and student body. However, only 37 percent (95% CI 30 to 42) believed the medical school is diverse. Many survey participants reported they have witnessed other students or residents make disparaging remarks or exhibit offensive behaviors toward minority groups, most often targeting persons with strong religious beliefs (43%, 95% CI 37 to 49), low socioeconomic status (35%, 95% CI 28 to 40), non-English speakers (34%, 95% CI 28 to 40), women (30%, 95% CI 25 to 36), racial or ethnic minorities (28%, 95% CI 23 to 34), or gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgendered (GLBT) individuals (25%, 95% CI 20 to30). Students witnessed similar disparaging or offensive behavior by faculty members toward persons with strong religious beliefs (18%, 95% CI 14 to 24), persons of low socioeconomic status (12%, 95% CI 9 to 17), non-English speakers (10%, 95% CI 6 to 14), women (18%, 95% CI 14 to 24), racial or ethnic minorities (12%, 95% CI 8 to 16) and GLBT individuals (7%, 95% CI 4 to 11). Students' open-ended comments reinforced the finding that persons holding strong religious beliefs or conservative values were the most common targets of disparaging or offensive behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that medical students believe that diversity and a climate of inclusiveness and respect are important to a medical school's educational and clinical care missions. However, according to these students, the institution must embrace a broader definition of diversity, such that all minority groups are valued, including individuals with conservative viewpoints or strong religious beliefs, the poor and uninsured, GLBT individuals, women and non-English speakers.
    BMC Research Notes 04/2013; 6(1):154.
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    ABSTRACT: School environment and policy changes have increased healthy eating and physical activity; however, there has been modest success in translating research findings to practice. The School Environment Project tested whether an adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) resulted in school change. Using a pair randomized design, 10 rural elementary schools were assigned to AIM or the School Health Index (SHI). Baseline measures were collected fall 2005, AIM was conducted 2005-2006, and follow-up measures were collected fall 2006 and 2007. Outcome measures included number and type of effective environment and policy changes implemented; process measures included the extent to which 11 implementation steps were used. AIM schools made an average of 4.4 effective changes per school with 90% still in place a year later. SHI schools made an average of 0.6 effective changes with 66% in place a year later. Implementation steps distinguishing AIM from SHI included use of external, trained facilitators; principal involvement; explicitly stating the student behavior goals; identifying effective environment and policy changes; prioritizing potential changes based on importance and feasibility; and developing an action plan. The AIM process led to environment and policy changes known to increase healthy eating and physical activity.
    Journal of School Health 03/2013; 83(3):194-205. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eleventh- and 6th-grade students from an urban public school district were surveyed concerning vaccination outside the traditional medical home. Survey response rates were 50% for 11th- and 73% for 6th-grade students. Seventy-two percent of 11th-grade students reported that public health clinics were definitely or probably acceptable locations for vaccination; 70% reported this for emergency departments, 65% for school-based health centers, 55% for family planning clinics, and 44% for obstetrics/gynecology clinics. Corresponding percentages for 6th-grade students were 60% for public health clinics, 49% for emergency departments, 39% for school-based health centers, and 36% for family planning clinics. Sixth-grade students were not asked about obstetrics/gynecology clinics. Forty-seven percent of respondents identified a doctor's office as the "best" setting to receive vaccines, more than identified any other setting. We concluded that vaccination in one or more settings outside the traditional medical home was acceptable to most adolescents.
    Clinical Pediatrics 02/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To ascertain, through two separate surveys among nationally representative networks of pediatricians (Peds) and family physicians (FM): 1) physicians' reported level of confidence in pre- and post-licensure vaccine safety studies; and 2) changes in reported level of confidence from 2007 to 2010/11. METHODS: Two surveys conducted August to October 2007 and November 2010 to January 2011. The survey response rates were 81% (FM, 79%, Peds, 84%, p=0.07) for the 2007 survey (691/848) and 66% (FM, 61%, Peds, 70%, p=0.003) for the 2010/11 survey (532/811). RESULTS: One in three family physicians compared to one in ten pediatricians in both surveys reported little or no confidence in pre-licensure vaccine safety studies (p<0.001). Compared to pre-licensure studies, higher percentages of both specialties reported a great deal of confidence in post-licensure vaccine safety studies in both years, and more physicians from both specialties reported a great deal of confidence in 2010/11 than in 2007. CONCLUSION: While most family physicians and pediatricians report confidence in post-licensure vaccine safety studies, one third of family physicians report little or no confidence in pre-licensure studies. More research is needed to better understand the reasons behind some physicians' lack of confidence in vaccine safety studies.
    Preventive Medicine 01/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was recommended for routine use in 2006 followed by monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2008. To describe, among a U.S. sample of pediatricians (n=289 respondents) and family medicine physicians (n=243 respondents), (1) current practices regarding rotavirus vaccine (RV) and barriers to use with comparison to a 2007 survey and (2) knowledge of recent safety concerns regarding RV1 and their impact on its use. A mail and Internet survey was conducted with the physicians, from November 2010 to January 2011; analyses were conducted March-September 2011. Response rates were 70% (289/410) for pediatricians and 61% (243/401) for family medicine physicians; routine administration of RV was reported by 95% of pediatricians and 65% of family medicine physicians (2007: 85% and 45%). Almost all barriers to use of RV had decreased compared to 2007. For pediatricians and family medicine physicians, respectively, 94% and 70% were aware of the temporary suspension of RV1 due to presence of porcine circovirus; 49% and 45%, respectively, were aware of the addition to RV1 labeling regarding a possible increased risk of intussusception. Among physicians aware of the safety issues, <5% reported stopping giving RV as a result. After reading information about porcine circovirus, 35% of pediatricians and 59% of family medicine physicians reported it had increased their own concerns about the safety of RV; and 31% and 60%, respectively, reported this regarding intussusception. The acceptance of RV has increased, and barriers to use have decreased. Among physicians, recent safety questions about RV1 have not affected use of RV, although they have raised safety concerns.
    American journal of preventive medicine 01/2013; 44(1):56-62. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Immunization information systems (IIS) are confidential, computerized, population-based systems that consolidate vaccination data from multiple providers. IIS are available in 49 out of 50 states, are effective at increasing vaccination coverage, and can streamline the process of recording vaccine information and tracking vaccine inventory. The objectives of this study were to assess among US pediatricians: 1) awareness and use of IIS; and 2) current systems for recording vaccinations and tracking vaccine supplies. Methods: Between 9/2011 and 1/2012, we administered an Internet and mail survey to a national network of pediatricians representative of the American Academy of Pediatrics membership. Results: The survey response rate was 71% (288/408). Among respondents, 75% reported that their state/region had an IIS, 8% that they did not, and 18% were unsure; 66% reported having an EMR/EHR. Overall, 59% reported participating in an IIS. Among those participating in an IIS, 29% transmitted data by automatic uploads and 58% reported that they had to enter data manually. The most common methods for recording vaccine product, lot number and expiration date in the medical record were direct entry into an electronic (52%) or paper-based (27%) record. Seventy-six percent reported recording this information in 2 or more places. Eighty-seven percent noted that recording vaccine information was time-consuming and 33% reported problems with accurately maintaining vaccine records. Regarding vaccine inventory, physicians reported ordering vaccine based on expected seasonal increases in demand (55%), paper-based inventory (52%), or when stock looks low (47%). Few physicians used IIS- or Internet-based inventory systems (21%) or inventory software systems (9%). Seventy-nine percent reported it was time consuming to keep track of inventory and 24% reported their practices frequently run out of vaccines. Conclusion: While most pediatricians currently participate in an IIS, current systems of recording vaccine doses and tracking vaccine inventory are duplicative, time-consuming and often not linked to the IIS. Providers can access the full potential of the IIS by utilizing EHRs, establishing electronic data exchange with IIS using HL7 messaging, and taking advantage of inventory management tools in IIS.
    IDWeek 2012 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Sun exposure, especially during childhood, is the most important preventable risk factor for skin cancer, yet few effective interventions to reduce exposure exist. To test the effectiveness of a partially tailored mailed intervention based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model, delivered in the spring over 3 years to parents and children. RCT, with data collection through telephone interviews of parents and skin exams of children at baseline (Summer 2004) and annually (Summer 2005-2007). The control group received no intervention. Families recruited in the Denver CO area, through private pediatric clinics, a large MCO, and community settings. Children born in 1998 were approximately 6 years of age at baseline; 867 children met inclusion criteria; analysis is reported for 677 white, non-Hispanic participants at highest risk for skin cancer. Primary outcomes were parent-reported child sun protection behaviors. Secondary outcomes included parents' risk perception, perceived effectiveness of and barriers to prevention behaviors, stage of change, reported sunburns, and observed tanning and nevus development. The longitudinal mixed-model analysis was conducted between 2008 and 2011. The intervention group reported more use of sunscreen, protective clothing, hats, shade-seeking, and midday sun avoidance; fewer sunburns; more awareness of the risk of skin cancer; higher perceived effectiveness of sun protection; higher stage of change; and lower perception of barriers to sun protection (all p<0.05). The intervention group had fewer nevi ≥2 mm in 1 year of the study, 2006 (p=0.03). No differences were found in tanning or nevi <2 mm. The level of behavior change associated with this single-modality intervention is not likely sufficient to reduce skin cancer risk. However, the intervention shows promise for inclusion in longer-term, multicomponent interventions that have sufficient intensity to affect skin cancer incidence. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01464957.
    American journal of preventive medicine 10/2012; 43(4):399-410. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine is associated with increased febrile seizure risk compared with measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccine given separately (MMR+V) in children 12-15-month old. We assessed knowledge regarding MMRV and febrile seizures, intended practices, and factors influencing the decision to recommend MMRV. METHODS: National survey administered 10/2008-1/2009 of US pediatricians (Peds) and family physicians (FP). RESULTS: Response rate was 73% (620/849). Twenty-nine percent of Peds and 74% of FP (p<0.001) were unaware of increased febrile seizure risk after MMRV. After reading an informational statement, 20% of Peds and 7% of FP (p<0.001) would recommend MMRV to a healthy 12-15-month-old child. The factor most frequently reported as "very important" in the decision to recommend MMRV or MMR+V was ACIP/AAFP/AAP recommendations (pediatricians, 77%, family physicians, 73%, p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: After receiving data regarding febrile seizure risk after MMRV, few physicians report they would recommend MMRV to a healthy 12-15-month-old child.
    Vaccine 09/2012; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.
    Preventing chronic disease 08/2012; 9:E143. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determine among a representative sample of pediatricians (Peds), family medicine (FM), and general internal medicine (GIM) physicians in the 2009-2010 influenza season physicians': 1) practices and experiences with delivery of seasonal and pH1N1 influenza vaccines; and 2) anticipated and experienced barriers. Two US national surveys administered 7/2009-10/2009 (before pH1N1 distribution) and 3/2010-6/2010 (after pH1N1 distribution) to 416 Peds, 424 FM and 432 GIM. Of respondents who received both surveys, 62% (776/1253) completed both. Overall, 98% reported administering seasonal influenza vaccine and 86% pH1N1, with 70% reporting that working with public health in delivery of pH1N1 was a positive experience. Due to limited supplies of pH1N1, 63% of providers reported prioritizing who received vaccine even within high risk groups. Pre-distribution, 71% perceived that patient/parental safety concerns about pH1N1 would be a barrier, and post-distribution 72% perceived it had been a barrier. Physician concern about safety decreased, with 44% reporting safety a barrier pre-distribution and 12% post-distribution (p<0.001). In the setting of a pandemic most primary care physicians collaborated with public health in delivery of pH1N1. Physicians faced challenges with patient/parent safety concerns about pH1N1 and supply issues with pH1N1 that required physicians to prioritize who received vaccine.
    Preventive Medicine 04/2012; 55(1):68-71. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) photography has been used to motivate sun safety in behavioral interventions. The relationship between sun damage shown in UV photographs and melanoma risk has not been systematically investigated. To examine the relationship between severity of sun damage in UV photographs and phenotypic melanoma risk factors in children. UV, standard visible and cross-polarized photographs were recorded for 585 children. Computer software quantified sun damage. Full-body nevus counts, skin color by colorimetry, facial freckling, hair and eye color were collected in skin examinations. Demographic data were collected in telephone interviews of parents. Among 12-year-old children, sun damage shown in UV photographs correlated with phenotypic melanoma risk factors. Sun damage was greatest for children who were non-Hispanic white and those who had red hair, blue eyes, increased facial freckling, light skin and greater number of nevi (all P values < .001). Results were similar for standard visible and cross-polarized photographs. Freckling was the strongest predictor of sun damage in visible and UV photographs. All other phenotypic melanoma risk factors were also predictors for the UV photographs. Differences in software algorithms used to score the photographs could produce different results. UV photographs portray more sun damage in children with higher risk for melanoma based on phenotype. Therefore sun protection interventions targeting those with greater sun damage on UV photographs will target those at higher melanoma risk. This study establishes reference ranges dermatologists can use to assess sun damage in their pediatric patients.
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 03/2012; 67(4):587-97. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess practices regarding the expanded Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations for influenza vaccination in children among US pediatricians and family medicine physicians (FMs) and strategies to promote vaccination. We administered a survey between July and October 2009 to 416 pediatricians and 424 FMs from nationally representative networks. The response rate was 75% (79% pediatricians, 70% FMs). FMs were less likely than pediatricians to report adherence to ACIP recommendations (35% vs 65%; adjusted risk ratio [RR], 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.72). Most physicians (89% pediatricians and 89% FMs) reported using posters or pamphlets to encourage influenza vaccination, and 57% pediatricians and 41% FMs reported offering after hours dedicated influenza vaccination clinics. Only 23% pediatricians and 14% FMs reported providing written, telephone, or e-mail reminders to all children. Having dedicated influenza vaccination clinics after hours or weekends was associated with routine vaccination of all children (adjusted RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.15-1.57). In the first year of the expanded ACIP recommendations to immunize all eligible children against influenza, two-thirds of pediatricians and one-half of FMs reported adherence, although less than one-quarter were actively engaging in reminder/recall efforts. Practices that adhered to the ACIP recommendations were more likely to put a substantial effort into promoting vaccination opportunities.
    The Journal of pediatrics 03/2012; 160(3):480-486.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) was recommended for those aged 11-18 years in 2005. Initial supply issues led to an emphasis on immunizing older adolescents. When supply improved in 2007, routine immunization was recommended for those aged 11-12 years. Among a U.S. sample of pediatricians and family medicine physicians, describe (1) recommendation and administration practices for MCV4; (2) preferences regarding MCV4 administration; and (3) attitudes and characteristics associated with recommendation for those aged >12 years. A mail and Internet survey in a nationally representative sample of physicians was conducted between December 2009 and March 2010. Analysis was conducted between March 2010 and October 2010, including a multivariable analysis to examine factors associated with deferring MCV4 to ages >12 years. Response rates were 88% (pediatricians 367/419) and 63% (family medicine physicians 268/423). In all, 95% of pediatricians and 73% of family medicine physicians reported administering MCV4 routinely to those aged 11-18 years (p<0.0001); 83% (pediatricians) and 45% (family medicine physicians) reported strongly recommending MCV4 for those aged 11-12 years (p<0.0001); 27% (pediatricians) and 40% (family medicine physicians) preferred to administer MCV4 to those aged >12 years (p<0.0001). Compared with those who strongly recommend for those aged 11-12 years, physicians who do not regularly stock MCV4, family medicine physicians, and physicians concerned about waning immunity were more likely to defer their recommendation, whereas physicians practicing in the Northeast and those with more Latino patients were less likely to defer. Most pediatricians and family medicine physicians administer MCV4, but many, especially family medicine physicians and those concerned about waning immunity, defer their recommendation for MCV4 to patients aged >12 years.
    American journal of preventive medicine 12/2011; 41(6):581-7. · 4.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
427.04 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • University of Colorado
      • • Department of Community and Behavioral Health
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Children's Hospital Colorado
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Aurora, Colorado, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • School of Medicine
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
    • National Research Center (CO, USA)
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Riley Hospital for Children
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1987
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States