[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) molecules are more atherogenic compared with large buoyant ones. Phytosterols-enriched diets are effective in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in hyperlipidemic children without significant adverse effects. Limited data on the impact of such a diet on sdLDL-C levels is available in adults while there are no reports concerning children. The purpose of this study is to prospectively evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of 2 g of plant sterols on sdLDL-C levels in children with hypercholesterolemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies evaluating the effect of levetiracetam (LEV) on haematological parameters in patients with epilepsy are very limited. Clinical trials have also reported an unexplained increased incidence of pharyngitis and rhinitis in LEV-treated patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate prospectively the changes in haematological parameters in children treated with LEV monotherapy. White blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and platelets were measured in 22 children (13 females, mean age 6,70 ± 4,23 years) with epilepsy, before and after 2 and 6 months of LEV monotherapy. Lymphocyte count was significantly decreased at 6 months (p = 0.019) of treatment and this effect was not dose dependent. One child (4,5%) at 2 months and four children (18%) at 6 months of treatment had lymphocyte count below 10th percentile for age. There were no significant alterations in the other parameters evaluated during the study. LEV monotherapy may significantly decrease lymphocyte count at six months of treatment in children with epilepsy. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate the effect of LEV on haematological parameters and the possible association with the higher incidence of infections reported in children receiving LEV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate prospectively the changes and possible associations in lipid and thyroid profiles in children treated with oxcarbazepine (OXC) monotherapy.
Serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) concentrations were measured in 23 children with epilepsy, before and at 8 and 18 months of OXC monotherapy.
Total cholesterol was significantly increased at 8 months (P = 0.033), whereas LDL-C was significantly increased at 8 and 18 months (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively) of treatment. Lp(a) was significantly increased at 8 months (P = 0.042) and borderline significantly increased at 18 months (P = 0.050) of treatment. FT4 was significantly decreased at 8 and 18 months (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), and TSH levels were significantly increased at 8 and 18 months (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively) of OXC monotherapy. GGT levels were significantly increased at 8 and 18 months (P < 0.001) of treatment. There were no significant alterations in HDL-C, TGs and FT3 levels during the study. Significant positive correlations were found between GGT and LDL-C levels at 8 (r = 0.468, P = 0.024) and 18 months (r = 0.498, P = 0.016), and between TSH and TC at 18 months (r = 0.508, P = 0.013) of treatment.
OXC monotherapy may cause significant and persistent alterations in lipid and thyroid profiles in children with epilepsy. The increase in LDL-C and TC levels may be associated with liver enzymes induction and thyroid dysfunction. Further long-term prospective studies are required to confirm these findings and to determine their clinical significance.
European Journal of Neurology 10/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B is a vaccine preventable disease with intermediate endemicity in Greece. Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) on immunomodulating therapy are prone to infection or reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of this study is to define the immune status against HBV in children newly-diagnosed with JIA.
Case-control prospective study including 89 JIA patients and 89 controls matched for age and gender. Eighty-nine JIA patients were included in the study (22 males), with a mean age of 6.8 years. Sera were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, and anti-HBs. Patients with anti-HBs titers ≥10 IU/L were considered immune. Data were analysed with SPSS 18.0 version.
In the JIA group 55% were HBV immune (anti-HBs level ≥10 IU/L) while in the control group 92% were immune against HBV (p<0.001). Antibody levels in the patient group were significantly lower compared to the control group. The mean concentration of anti-HBs levels in JIA patients was 18.3 IU/L versus 82.6 IU/L in the control group (p<0.001).
Antibody titers against HBV in fully vaccinated JIA patients due to start treatment are significantly lower compared to matched healthy children in this study. Diagnosis of JIA and older age were associated with the absence of protective antibodies. Although there is no evidence to support the introduction of a booster HBV dose in healthy children who mount low antibody response following immunisation, further studies are required to address this question in patients with JIA.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 06/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is usually a benign, self-limiting disorder. An acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection usually causes atypical lymphocytosis and mild decrease in platelets. Severe thrombocytopenia is an extremely rare complication. Anti-D immunoglobulin has been used for treatment of ITP in Rh(D)-positive nonsplenectomized patients. Severe hemolysis and acute renal failure are extremely rare complications that may be aggravated by the presence of an acute EBV infection. It is believed that anti-D immunoglobulin triggers an unusual virus-induced immune response causing hemolysis. We present a 4-year-old girl with ITP caused by an acute EBV infection that developed acute kidney injury following treatment with anti-D immunoglobulin. The patient recovered completely from thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction. Intravascular hemolysis and acute kidney injury are consistent with anti-D immunoglobulin mechanism of action. Pediatric patients treated with anti-D immunoglobulin for ITP should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of hemolysis that may be aggravated by the presence of EBV infection leading to impaired renal function.
Pediatric emergency care 06/2013; 29(6):748-50. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In children and adolescents with cardiovascular risk factors, the assessment of subclinical target-organ damage is of paramount importance. This study investigated factors associated with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in adolescents.
A cross-sectional study was performed in 448 apparently healthy adolescents recruited from schools (mean age 14 ± 2.2 years, 211 boys), which involved cIMT measurements (common carotid artery) and assessment of lipid profile, glucose, and blood pressure (BP).
The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 28.1%/12.7% and of BP ≥95th percentile 19.6%. Left cIMT was correlated with age (r = 0.10), waist circumference (WC) (0.15), and BP (0.21/0.13, systolic/diastolic) (all P < 0.05). Right cIMT was correlated with waist to hip ratio (WHR) (0.10), whereas the mean of left and right cIMT was correlated with WC (0.12), WHR (0.12), and systolic BP (0.14) (all P < 0.05). After the age of 13 years, boys tended to have higher cIMT than girls, which was significant in the 13-15 years subgroup (P < 0.05). In stepwise multivariate analysis (independent variables: age, gender, WC, WHR, body mass index z-score, lipid parameters, glucose, BP), left cIMT was independently associated with systolic BP; right cIMT with WHR; mean left and right cIMT with WC. Adolescents with BP ≥90th percentile had higher left cIMT than those <90th percentile (0.63 ± 0.09 vs. 0.61 ± 0.09 mm respectively, P < 0.05).
Central adiposity and systolic BP appear to be independently associated with increased cIMT values in apparently healthy adolescents. Left side cIMT appears to be superior to right side measurements in terms of association with cardiovascular risk factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a two-year-old boy with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) due to West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid serology as well as nerve-conduction studies were consistent with the diagnosis. He received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). The patient showed gradual improvement and complete recovery of his muscle strength, gait and deep tendon reflexes.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 03/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, presenting typically in infants and young children. We report a rare case of incomplete Kawasaki disease in a 15-month-old male infant presenting with symptoms mimicking retropharyngeal abscess and intermittent fever.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Epidemiological studies indicate that children with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in adult life. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance and lipid disorders in children with IUGR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is recognized as a reliable marker for cardiac dysfunction. Recent studies postulate that intracerebral epileptic activity may trigger BNP secretion by heart or by brain. This prospective study aimed to evaluate BNP concentrations, before and after valproate sodium (VPA) or ox-carbamazepine (OX-CMZ) monotherapy, in children with idiopathic epilepsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare disease characterised by bone marrow failure and skin manifestations. Patients with DC may exhibit short stature that is not usually related to growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Replacement treatment with GH should be done cautiously as it can predispose to haematological malignancy. We present a 10-year-old boy with DC and GH deficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary penile tuberculosis associated with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy is described in a previously healthy 10-month old infant, who had been circumcised in Pakistan 4 months earlier. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by acid fast stain, PCR and culture in specimens obtained from the penile ulcer and the excised inguinal lymph nodes.
The Journal of infection 01/2009; 58(1):83-5. · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on the effects of sodium valproate (VPA) on thyroid hormone balance in patients with epilepsy are conflicting. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the changes in thyroid profile in children with epilepsy treated with VPA monotherapy.
Serum thyroxine, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were evaluated in 30 children with epilepsy, before and at 6, 12, and 24 months of VPA monotherapy.
All children had normal thyroid function before the initiation of VPA treatment. Serum VPA concentrations remained within the therapeutic range (50-100 mg/L) during the period of study. Thyroxine and free thyroxine levels were significantly decreased, whereas TSH levels were significantly increased at 6, 12, and 24 months of VPA therapy. Triiodothyronine levels were significantly decreased only at 24 months of therapy. Thirteen children (43.3%) at 6 months, 14 children (46.6%) at 12 months, and 15 children (50%) at 24 months of treatment had TSH values greater than 5 mIU/mL. Normal serum TSH levels were restored in all 8 children examined at 3 months after withdrawal of medication.
Valproate monotherapy may cause significant alteration in thyroid profile in children with epilepsy, occurring early in the course of treatment and persisting as long as VPA is initiated. Therefore, it may be useful to measure serum thyroid hormone concentrations routinely in children with epilepsy taking VPA. Further prospective studies are required to determine the mechanisms and risk factors for development of thyroid disturbance in children treated with VPA monotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hb Adana is a highly unstable and rare alpha-globin hemoglobin (Hb) variant, to date described in only three families, in interaction with other alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) deletions. We describe the clinical and hematological findings in two cases from independent families of Albanian origin, who have an interaction of the codon 59 (Gly-->Asp) alpha2-globin gene variant in trans to a 3.7 kb alpha(+)-thal deletion (alpha(codon 59)alpha/-alpha). We report their presenting symptoms and laboratory findings as well as complications and differences in their clinical management. Both cases can be characterized as thalassemia intermedia and illustrate the problems associated with selecting the most appropriate options for patient management, especially in cases with rare underlying genotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid abnormalities and thyroid dysfunction have been reported in patients treated with antiepileptic drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the association between thyroid and lipid profile in children treated with carbamazepine (CBZ) monotherapy.
Thyroid function was evaluated in 18 epileptic children, previously reported with CBZ-induced changes in serum lipid profile, before and at 6, 12 and 24 months of CBZ monotherapy.
All children had normal thyroid function before the initiation of CBZ treatment. During CBZ therapy thyroid dysfunction, with increased thyrotropin (TSH) and decreased thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4) and triiodothyronine (T3) was found, while, significant association was revealed between serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TSH levels at 6 (r=0.469; p=0.043) and 12 (r=0.730; p=0.001) months of treatment.
Lipid abnormalities may be associated with thyroid hormone disturbance in children treated with CBZ monotherapy. Since thyroid dysfunction and hypercholesterolemia are both associated with a higher atherosclerotic risk special attention and further studies are needed in epileptic patients treated with CBZ monotherapy.
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 12/2007; 11(6):358-61. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cat scratch disease is usually a benign, self-limiting condition. Neurological manifestations are uncommon and may consist of encephalopathy, seizures, and coma. This report describes 2 cases of transverse myelitis: 1 case in a 46-year-old man who had lymph node biopsy and serological testing results that were positive for Bartonella henselae and 1 case in a 13-year-old adolescent boy who had serological testing results that were positive for B. henselae. These are 2 of the only 3 cases of transverse myelitis associated with cat scratch disease that have been reported since the causative organism was first reported.