[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mu1 opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, has long been a high-priority candidate for human genetic studies of addiction. Because of its potential functional significance, the non-synonymous variant rs1799971 (A118G, Asn40Asp) in OPRM1 has been extensively studied, yet its role in addiction has remained unclear, with conflicting association findings. To resolve the question of what effect, if any, rs1799971 has on substance dependence risk, we conducted collaborative meta-analyses of 25 datasets with over 28,000 European-ancestry subjects. We investigated non-specific risk for "general" substance dependence, comparing cases dependent on any substance to controls who were non-dependent on all assessed substances. We also examined five specific substance dependence diagnoses: DSM-IV alcohol, opioid, cannabis, and cocaine dependence, and nicotine dependence defined by the proxy of heavy/light smoking (cigarettes-per-day >20 vs. ≤10). The G allele showed a modest protective effect on general substance dependence (OR = 0.90, 95 % C.I. [0.83-0.97], p value = 0.0095, N = 16,908). We observed similar effects for each individual substance, although these were not statistically significant, likely because of reduced sample sizes. We conclude that rs1799971 contributes to mechanisms of addiction liability that are shared across different addictive substances. This project highlights the benefits of examining addictive behaviors collectively and the power of collaborative data sharing and meta-analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: The identification of antidepressant drugs (ADs) response biomarkers in depression is of high clinical importance. We explored CHL1 and ITGB3 expression as tentative response biomarkers.
MATERIALS & METHODS: In vitro sensitivity to ADs, as well as gene expression and genetic variants of the candidate genes CHL1, ITGB3 and SLC6A4 were measured in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of 58 depressed patients.
RESULTS: An association between the clinical remission of depression and the basal expression of CHL1 and ITGB3 was discovered. Individuals whose LCLs expressed higher levels of CHL1 or ITGB3 showed a significantly better remission upon AD treatment. In addition individuals with the CHL1 rs1516338 TT genotype showed a significantly better remission after 5 weeks AD treatment than those carrying a CC genotype. No association between the in vitro sensitivity of LCLs toward AD and the clinical remission could be detected.
CONCLUSION: CHL1 expression in patient-derived LCLs correlated with the clinical outcome. Thus, it could be a valid biomarker to predict the success of an antidepressant therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of antidepressant drugs (ADs) response biomarkers in depression is of high clinical importance. We explored CHL1 and ITGB3 expression as tentative response biomarkers.
In vitro sensitivity to ADs, as well as gene expression and genetic variants of the candidate genes CHL1, ITGB3 and SLC6A4 were measured in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of 58 depressed patients.
An association between the clinical remission of depression and the basal expression of CHL1 and ITGB3 was discovered. Individuals whose LCLs expressed higher levels of CHL1 or ITGB3 showed a significantly better remission upon AD treatment. In addition individuals with the CHL1 rs1516338 TT genotype showed a significantly better remission after 5 weeks AD treatment than those carrying a CC genotype. No association between the in vitro sensitivity of LCLs toward AD and the clinical remission could be detected.
CHL1 expression in patient-derived LCLs correlated with the clinical outcome. Thus, it could be a valid biomarker to predict the success of an antidepressant therapy. Original submitted 8 December 2014; Revision submitted 2 March 2015.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14 949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15 138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75–0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884 105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120 000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and various other diseases. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple risk loci robustly associated with body mass index (BMI). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a genetic risk score (GRS) combining multiple BMI risk loci might have utility in prediction of obesity in patients with MDD.
Linear and logistic regression models were conducted to predict BMI and obesity, respectively, in three independent large case-control studies of major depression (Radiant, GSK-Munich, PsyCoLaus). The analyses were first performed in the whole sample and then separately in depressed cases and controls. An unweighted GRS was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles. A weighted GRS was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the discriminatory ability of predictors of obesity.
In the discovery phase, a total of 2,521 participants (1,895 depressed patients and 626 controls) were included from the Radiant study. Both unweighted and weighted GRS were highly associated with BMI (P <0.001) but explained only a modest amount of variance. Adding 'traditional' risk factors to GRS significantly improved the predictive ability with the area under the curve (AUC) in the ROC analysis, increasing from 0.58 to 0.66 (95% CI, 0.62-0.68; χ(2) = 27.68; P <0.0001). Although there was no formal evidence of interaction between depression status and GRS, there was further improvement in AUC in the ROC analysis when depression status was added to the model (AUC = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68-0.73; χ(2) = 28.64; P <0.0001). We further found that the GRS accounted for more variance of BMI in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Again, GRS discriminated obesity better in depressed patients compared to healthy controls. We later replicated these analyses in two independent samples (GSK-Munich and PsyCoLaus) and found similar results.
A GRS proved to be a highly significant predictor of obesity in people with MDD but accounted for only modest amount of variance. Nevertheless, as more risk loci are identified, combining a GRS approach with information on non-genetic risk factors could become a useful strategy in identifying MDD patients at higher risk of developing obesity.
BMC Medicine 04/2015; 13(1):86. DOI:10.1186/s12916-015-0334-3 · 7.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychotropic medications target glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), but the functional integration with other factors relevant for drug efficacy is poorly understood. We discovered that the suggested psychiatric risk factor FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) increases phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9 (pGSK3β(S9)). FKBP51 associates with GSK3β mainly through its FK1 domain; furthermore, it also changes GSK3β's heterocomplex assembly by associating with the phosphatase PP2A and the kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5. FKBP51 acts through GSK3β on the downstream targets Tau, β-catenin and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor (TCF/LEF). Lithium and the antidepressant (AD) paroxetine (PAR) functionally synergize with FKBP51, as revealed by reporter gene and protein association analyses. Deletion of FKBP51 blunted the PAR- or lithium-induced increase in pGSK3β(S9) in cells and mice and attenuated the behavioral effects of lithium treatment. Clinical improvement in depressive patients was predicted by baseline GSK3β pathway activity and by pGSK3β(S9) reactivity to ex vivo treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes with lithium or PAR. In sum, FKBP51-directed GSK3β activity contributes to the action of psychotropic medications. Components of the FKBP51-GSK3β pathway may be useful as biomarkers predicting AD response and as targets for the development of novel ADs.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 7 April 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.38.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Response to antidepressant treatment is highly variable with some patients responding within a few weeks, whereas others have to wait for months until the onset of clinical effects. Gene expression profiling may be a tool to identify markers of antidepressant treatment response and new potential drug targets. In a first step, we selected 12 male, age- and severity-matched pairs of remitters and nonresponders, and analyzed expression profiles in peripheral blood at admission and after 2 and 5 weeks of treatment using Illumina expression arrays. We identified 127 transcripts significantly associated with treatment response with a minimal P-value of 9.41 × 10−4 (false discovery rate-corrected). Analysis of selected transcripts in an independent replication sample of 142 depressed inpatients confirmed that lower expression of retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORa, P=6.23 × 10−4), germinal center expressed transcript 2 (GCET2, P=2.08 × 10−2) and chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2, P=4.45 × 10−2) on admission were associated with beneficial treatment response. In addition, leukocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1) significantly decreased after 5 weeks of treatment in responders (P=2.91 × 10−2). Additional genetic, in vivo stress responsitivity data and murine gene expression findings corroborate our finding of RORa as a transcriptional marker of antidepressant response. In summary, using a genome-wide transcriptomics approach and subsequent validation studies, we identified several transcripts including the circadian gene transcript RORa that may serve as biomarkers indicating antidepressant treatment response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Converging evidence implicates immune abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ), and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SCZ. Using the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) approach, we evaluated pleiotropy in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21 856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43 879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16 731) and MS. We found significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS and suggest that the MHC signals may differentiate SCZ from BD susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is an Hsp90 co-chaperone and regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor, and consequently of stress physiology. Clinical studies suggest a genetic link between FKBP51 and antidepressant response in mood disorders; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of FKBP51 in the actions of antidepressants, with a particular focus on pathways of autophagy.
Methods and findings:
Established cell lines, primary neural cells, human blood cells of healthy individuals and patients with depression, and mice were treated with antidepressants. Mice were tested for several neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters. Protein interactions and autophagic pathway activity were mainly evaluated by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blots. We first show that the effects of acute antidepressant treatment on behavior are abolished in FKBP51 knockout (51KO) mice. Autophagic markers, such as the autophagy initiator Beclin1, were increased following acute antidepressant treatment in brains from wild-type, but not 51KO, animals. FKBP51 binds to Beclin1, changes decisive protein interactions and phosphorylation of Beclin1, and triggers autophagic pathways. Antidepressants and FKBP51 exhibited synergistic effects on these pathways. Using chronic social defeat as a depression-relevant stress model in combination with chronic paroxetine (PAR) treatment revealed that the stress response, as well as the effects of antidepressants on behavior and autophagic markers, depends on FKBP51. In human blood cells of healthy individuals, FKBP51 levels correlated with the potential of antidepressants to induce autophagic pathways. Importantly, the clinical antidepressant response of patients with depression (n = 51) could be predicted by the antidepressant response of autophagic markers in patient-derived peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivated and treated ex vivo (Beclin1/amitriptyline: r = 0.572, p = 0.003; Beclin1/PAR: r = 0.569, p = 0.004; Beclin1/fluoxetine: r = 0.454, p = 0.026; pAkt/amitriptyline: r = -0.416, p = 0.006; pAkt/PAR: r = -0.355, p = 0.021; LC3B-II/PAR: r = 0.453, p = 0.02), as well as by the lymphocytic expression levels of FKBP51 (r = 0.631, p<0.0001), pAkt (r = -0.515, p = 0.003), and Beclin1 (r = 0.521, p = 0.002) at admission. Limitations of the study include the use of male mice only and the relatively low number of patients for protein analyses.
To our knowledge, these findings provide the first evidence for the molecular mechanism of FKBP51 in priming autophagic pathways; this process is linked to the potency of at least some antidepressants. These newly discovered functions of FKBP51 also provide novel predictive markers for treatment outcome, consistent with physiological and potential clinical relevance. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
PLoS Medicine 11/2014; 11(11):e1001755. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001755 · 14.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic factors play as large a role as environmental factors in the etiology of alcohol dependence. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable systematic searches for loci not hitherto implicated in the etiology of alcohol dependence, many true findings may be missed due to correction for multiple testing. The aim of the present study was to circumvent this limitation by searching for biological system-level differences, and then following up these findings in humans and animals. Gene-set based analysis of GWAS data from 1333 cases and 2168 controls identified 19 significantly associated gene-sets of which five could be replicated in an independent sample. Clustered in these gene-sets were novel and previously identified susceptibility genes. The most frequently present gene, ie in 6 out of 19 gene-sets, was X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5 (XRCC5). Previous human and animal studies have implicated XRCC5 in alcohol sensitivity. This phenotype is inversely correlated with the development of alcohol dependence, presumably since more alcohol is required to achieve the desired effects. In the present study, the functional role of XRCC5 in alcohol dependence was further validated in animals and humans. Drosophila mutants with reduced function of Ku80-the homolog of mammalian XRCC5-due to RNAi silencing showed reduced sensitivity to ethanol. In humans with free access to intravenous ethanol self-administration in the laboratory, the maximum achieved blood alcohol concentration was influenced in an allele-dose dependent manner by genetic variation in XRCC5. In conclusion, our convergent approach identified new candidates and generated independent evidence for the involvement of XRCC5 in alcohol dependence.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 July 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.178.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1038/npp.2014.178 · 7.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable mental illness and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have robustly identified the first common genetic variants involved in disease aetiology. The data also provide strong evidence for the presence of multiple additional risk loci, each contributing a relatively small effect to BD susceptibility. Large samples are necessary to detect these risk loci. Here we present results from the largest BD GWAS to date by investigating 2.3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of 24,025 patients and controls. We detect 56 genome-wide significant SNPs in five chromosomal regions including previously reported risk loci ANK3, ODZ4 and TRANK1, as well as the risk locus ADCY2 (5p15.31) and a region between MIR2113 and POU3F2 (6q16.1). ADCY2 is a key enzyme in cAMP signalling and our finding provides new insights into the biological mechanisms involved in the development of BD.