[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Previous studies have shown that a diet with a high-glycemic index is associated with good sleep quality. Therefore, we investigated the association of sleep quality with the intake of 3 common starchy foods with different glycemic indexes–rice, bread, and noodles–as well as the dietary glycemic index in a Japanese population.
The participants were 1,848 men and women between 20 and 60 years of age. Rice, bread, and noodle consumption was evaluated using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated by using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a global score >5.5 was considered to indicate poor sleep.
Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for poor sleep across the quintiles of rice consumption were 1.00 (reference), 0.68 (0.49–0.93), 0.61 (0.43–0.85), 0.59 (0.42–0.85), and 0.54 (0.37–0.81) (p for trend = 0.015); those for the quintiles of noodle consumption were 1.00 (reference), 1.25 (0.90–1.74), 1.05 (0.75–1.47), 1.31 (0.94–1.82), and 1.82 (1.31–2.51) (p for trend = 0.002). Bread intake was not associated with sleep quality. A higher dietary glycemic index was significantly associated with a lower risk of poor sleep (p for trend = 0.020).
A high dietary glycemic index and high rice consumption are significantly associated with good sleep in Japanese men and women, whereas bread intake is not associated with sleep quality and noodle consumption is associated with poor sleep. The different associations of these starchy foods with sleep quality might be attributable to the different glycemic index of each food.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105198. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105198 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relation between overall sleep status based on the modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score and subsequent changes in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in a population of Japanese factory workers, who were predominantly female. A total of 991 Japanese with inflammation classified as low cardiovascular risk (baseline hsCRP < 1.0 mg L−1) were grouped according to the presence or absence of unfavourable sleep, defined as a modified PSQI global score > 5.5 points. The subsequent changes in hsCRP after 3 years were then compared in the two groups. Analysis of covariance incorporating log-transformed baseline hsCRP, age, sex, lifestyle and physical and biochemical profiles was used to compare the geometric means of hsCRP at year 3 in each sleep status group. A logistic regression model incorporating the same variables was used to calculate the odds ratios for development of inflammation with a medium-to-high cardiovascular risk (hsCRP at year 3 ≥ 1.0 mg L−1) comparing the presence or absence of unfavourable sleep habits. The multivariate-adjusted geometric mean of hsCRP at year 3 was significantly higher in subjects with unfavourable sleep habits compared with those with a normal pattern (0.275 versus 0.242 mg L−1). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for developing increased and potentially pathogenic levels of inflammation due to unfavourable sleep was 2.08 (95% confidence interval = 1.29–3.35). There was a significant linear trend for the development of increased inflammation across the modified PSQI global scores (P = 0.04). Unfavourable sleep is associated with activation of low-grade systemic inflammation.
Journal of Sleep Research 08/2014; 23(6). DOI:10.1111/jsr.12182 · 3.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsTo examine the relation of insulin resistant status determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the risk of incident hyperuricemia. Methods
The study participants included 2071 Japanese men without hyperuricemia and diabetes, aged 35-54 years. The participants had undergone annual heath examinations for 6 years to compare incident hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >416.4. μmol/L (7.0. mg/dL) and/or taking medication for hyperuricemia) in four groups based on quartiles of baseline HOMA-IR. ResultsDuring follow-up there were 331 incident cases of hyperuricemia. The hazard ratios for hyperuricemia, compared with HOMA-IR ≤0.66, were 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.98) for HOMA-IR 0.67-0.98, 1.20 (0.86-1.68) for HOMA-IR 0.99-1.49 and 1.44 (1.04-1.98) for HOMA-IR ≥1.50 after adjustment for baseline serum uric acid, creatinine, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension status, age, alcohol intake, and smoking and exercise habits. The hazard ratio associated with an increase of one standard deviation in lnHOMA-IR (1.85 as one geometric standard deviation of HOMA-IR) was 1.14 (1.03-1.28) (. p for trend. =. 0.02). Conclusions
Increased HOMA-IR independently predicted the subsequent development of hyperuricemia. Insulin resistance itself or compensatory hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of hyperuricemia.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 07/2014; 106(1). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.07.006 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration and indices of obesity in middle-aged Japanese men and women.
The participants were 2,037 employees (1,044 men and 993 women; age, 36-55 yr) of a metal products factory in Japan. Clinical examinations were conducted in 2009. We obtained a medical history and anthropometric measurements (body weight, body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference) and measured the serum TSH concentrations. The anthropometric indices were compared across serum TSH quartiles. The associations were evaluated separately according to the smoking status in men.
The mean body weight (kg), BMI (kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (cm) were 69.2, 23.7 and 83.2 in men and 55.3, 22.3 and 74.3 in women, respectively. Men with a higher TSH concentration had higher body weight and BMI values (p for trend=0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and these significant associations were observed even after adjusting for age, smoking status and other potential confounders. The TSH level was not associated with waist circumference. We found a significant interaction between the TSH level and the smoking status on body weight (p for interaction=0.013) and a significant association between the TSH level and body weight in nonsmokers, but not in current smokers. No significant associations were observed between the TSH level and the anthropometric indices in women.
Significant positive associations between the serum TSH concentration, body weight and BMI were detected in men only, and an interaction with the smoking status was observed for this association.
Internal Medicine 04/2014; 53(7):669-74. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.53.1387 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
The aim of this study was to investigate age-related differences in the relationship between work-related factors and heavy drinking.
This study in 3,398 male workers at a factory in Japan examined data on heavy drinking, defined as an alcohol consumption >40 g/day, and work-related factors including occupation, shift work, and job stress evaluated using the Japanese version of the Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). In the present cross-sectional study, alcohol consumption was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ).
The prevalence of heavy drinkers in the study population was 15.5% and rose with increasing age. An increase in the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was observed consistently in blue-collar workers compared with white-collar workers in all age groups. In subjects aged 20-29 years, shift work had also increased the OR for heavy drinking. In subjects aged 40-49 years, the two groups with a lower decision latitude had an increased OR compared with the highest group. In subjects aged 20-29 years, the age adjusted OR for individuals who received the lowest level of social support in the workplace was increased significantly compared with the highest group (4.22 [95%CI, 1.07-16.62] ). On the other hand, social support showed a positive association with heavy drinking in subjects aged 40-49 and 50-59 years. Job demand was not related to heavy drinking in any of the age groups.
Our findings suggest that occupation and work schedule are related to alcohol use more apparently in a younger age group and that psychosocial factors are related to enhancement or prevention of alcohol use.
Journal of Occupational Health 02/2014; 56(2). DOI:10.1539/joh.13-0136-OA · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims
To examine the relation of insulin resistant status determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the risk of incident hyperuricemia.
The study participants included 2071 Japanese men without hyperuricemia and diabetes, aged 35–54 years. The participants had undergone annual heath examinations for 6 years to compare incident hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >416.4 μmol/L (7.0 mg/dL) and/or taking medication for hyperuricemia) in four groups based on quartiles of baseline HOMA-IR.
During follow-up there were 331 incident cases of hyperuricemia. The hazard ratios for hyperuricemia, compared with HOMA-IR ≤0.66, were 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.02–1.98) for HOMA-IR 0.67–0.98, 1.20 (0.86–1.68) for HOMA-IR 0.99–1.49 and 1.44 (1.04–1.98) for HOMA-IR ≥1.50 after adjustment for baseline serum uric acid, creatinine, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension status, age, alcohol intake, and smoking and exercise habits. The hazard ratio associated with an increase of one standard deviation in lnHOMA-IR (1.85 as one geometric standard deviation of HOMA-IR) was 1.14 (1.03–1.28) (p for trend = 0.02).
Increased HOMA-IR independently predicted the subsequent development of hyperuricemia. Insulin resistance itself or compensatory hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of hyperuricemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/Introduction
This cohort study of middle‐aged Japanese participants investigated the relationship between family history of diabetes, the incident risk of type 2 diabetes and the interaction of these variables with other factors.
Materials and Methods
Study participants were 3,517 employees (2,037 men and 1,480 women) of a metal products factory in Japan. Baseline health examinations included questions about medical history, physical examination, anthropometric measurements, questions about lifestyle factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption and habitual exercise, and a self‐administered diet history questionnaire. Family history of diabetes was defined as having at least one‐first‐degree relative with diabetes. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7‐year period. Hazard ratios (HRs) for type 2 diabetes were estimated by Cox proportional hazards analysis.
Of the 3,517 participants, 630 (18%) had a family history of diabetes mellitus. During the study, 228 participants developed diabetes. The age and sex‐adjusted HR for type 2 diabetes in participants with a family history of diabetes was 1.82 (95% confidence interval 1.36–2.43) as compared with those without a family history of diabetes. HRs did not change after adjustment for body mass index and lifestyle factors. We found no interactions with body mass index, insulin resistance, pancreatic β‐cell function or lifestyle factors.
Family history of diabetes was associated with the incident risk of diabetes, and these associations were independent of other risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and lifestyle factors in Japanese men and women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This cohort study investigated the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and diet soda consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.
The participants were 2,037 employees of a factory in Japan. We measured consumption of SSB and diet soda using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7-year period. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetes were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, family history, and dietary and other lifestyle factors.
During the study, 170 participants developed diabetes. The crude incidence rates (/1,000 person-years) across participants who were rare/never SSB consumers, <1 serving/week, ≥ 1 serving/week and <1 serving/day, and ≥ 1 serving/day were 15.5, 12.7, 14.9, and 17.4, respectively. The multivariate-adjusted HR compared to rare/never SSB consumers was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.80-2.27) for participants who consumed ≥ 1 serving/day SSB. Diet soda consumption was significantly associated with the incident risk of diabetes (P for trend = 0.013), and multivariate-adjusted HRs compared to rare/never diet soda consumers were 1.05 (0.62-1.78) and 1.70 (1.13-2.55), respectively, for participants who consumed <1 serving/week and ≥ 1 serving/week.
Consumption of diet soda was significantly associated with an increased risk for diabetes in Japanese men. Diet soda is not always effective at preventing type 2 diabetes even though it is a zero-calorie drink.
European Journal of Nutrition 04/2013; 53(1). DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0523-9 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the lack of economic studies evaluating the outcomes of smoking cessation programs from the viewpoint of program sponsors, we conducted a case study to provide relevant information for worksites. The present study was carried out between 2006 and 2008 at a manufacturing factory in the Toyama Prefecture of Japan and included subjects who voluntarily entered a smoking cessation program. The program included face-to-face counselling followed by weekly contact to provide encouragement over six months using e-mail or inter-office mail. Nicotine patches were available if required. All 151 participants stopped smoking immediately. Over the 24-month study period, self-report showed 49.7% abstained continuously from smoking. The rate of 24-month consecutive abstinence was higher in participants with lower Fagerström Test scores for Nicotine Dependence at baseline than in those with higher scores (63.6% for 0-2 points vs. 46.5% for 3-6 points vs. 43.8% for 7-10 points; chi-square test p = 0.19). A logistic regression model showed a significant linear trend for the association between the score and abstinence status after adjustment for possible confounding factors (p = 0.03). The crude incremental cost for one individual to successfully quit smoking due to the support program was ¥46,379 (i.e., ¥100 = $1.28, £0.83, or €1.03 at foreign exchange rates). The corresponding costs for the three categories of the Fagerström Test score for Nicotine Dependence were ¥31,953, ¥47,450 and ¥64,956, respectively. When a sensitivity analysis was conducted based on the 95% confidence interval of the success rate, the variance in the corresponding costs was ¥25,514-45,034 for 0-2 points, ¥38,344-61,824 for 3-6 points, and ¥45,698-108,260 for 7-10 points. The degree of nicotine dependence may therefore be an important determinant of the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation programs.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e55836. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055836 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
To investigate the effects of shift work on increased alcohol intake associated with poor sleep quality.
This cross-sectional survey evaluated the correlation between work schedule, poor sleep quality and heavy drinking among 909 factory workers aged 35-54 years in Japan. Subjects included 530 day workers, 72 shift workers who did not work at night and 290 shift workers who engaged in night work. Heavy drinking was defined as a mean volume of alcohol consumption exceeding 60 g/day.
Compared with other workers, night-shift workers who suffered poor sleep quality exhibited the highest frequency of heavy drinking (17.6%). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that compared with day workers with good sleep, night-shift workers who experienced poor sleep had more than twice the odds of heavy alcohol consumption (odds ratio 2.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20-3.93]). Shift workers who did not work at night and day workers with poor sleep were not at increased odds of heavy drinking.
Shift workers who engage in night work may try to modify their health behavior to cope with sleep problems. Such modification may be a risk factor for heavy drinking.
Alcohol and Alcoholism 11/2012; 48(2). DOI:10.1093/alcalc/ags128 · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate whether increased serum gamma-glutamyltransferase independently predicts subsequent development of hyperuricemia. The study participants included 3 310 Japanese men without hyperuricemia, aged 20-54 years. The participants had annual heath examinations for 6 years to assess incident hyperuricemia (defined as serum uric acid>416.4 μmol/l and/or taking medication for hyperuricemia). The risk of incident hyperuricemia was compared in participants grouped according to their baseline serum gamma-glutamyltransferase level. During follow-up, there were 529 incident cases of hyperuricemia. A positive, dose-response relationship was observed between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and the risk of incident hyperuricemia. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hyperuricemia, compared with a serum gamma-glutamyltransferase level≤19 U/l, were 1.32 (1.05-1.67) for 20-39 U/l, 1.28 (0.90-1.83) for 40-59 U/l, 1.56 (0.98-2.47) for 60-79 U/l, and 1.57 (1.02-2.41) for ≥80 U/l after adjustment for baseline serum uric acid, creatinine, total cholesterol, and glycated hemoglobin levels, ln(serum alanine aminotransferase), age, systolic blood pressure, medications for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes, body mass index, and smoking and exercise habits. A similar positive relationship was observed regardless of the presence or absence of alcohol drinking, obesity, metabolic disorders (any combination of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and/or diabetes), or clinically high serum aminotransferases, without evidence of a significant interaction between increased serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk factors for incident hyperuricemia. These findings indicate that increased serum gamma-glutamyltransferase is an independent predictor of subsequent development of hyperuricemia.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 07/2012; 44(13). DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1321788 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cohort study investigated the association between eating speed and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men.
Participants were 2,050 male employees of a metal products factory in Japan. We measured self-reported categorical eating speed. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7-year period. The association between eating speed and the incidence of diabetes adjusted for multiple variables (age, family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol drinking, habitual exercise, and presence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia) was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models.
The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) across the categories of eating speed (slow, medium, and fast) was 14.6, 23.3, and 34.8%, respectively, and a faster eating speed was associated with a higher prevalence of obesity. During the study, 177 participants developed diabetes. Crude incidence rates (/1,000 person-years) across the three categories of eating speed were 9.9, 15.6, and 17.3, respectively. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) across the categories were 1.00 (reference), 1.68 (0.93-3.02), and 1.97 (1.10-3.55), respectively, and eating speed was associated with the risk of diabetes (p for trend=0.030). After further adjustment for BMI, a significant association was not observed.
Eating speed was associated with the incidence of diabetes. Since these associations were not significant after adjusting for BMI, eating speed may act via its effect on body weight. Eating speed is a controllable risk factor, and eating slowly could be an acceptable lifestyle intervention for the prevention of diabetes mellitus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have observed conflicting patterns as to whether overtime work increases blood pressure (BP), probably as a consequence of methodological issues.
We conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between overtime work hours and 1-year changes in BP in 1,235 normotensive Japanese male workers who carried out a variety of jobs in a manufacturing factory. Casual BP measurements were repeated at annual health examinations in 2004-2005, using an automatic manometer. An analysis of covariance that incorporated potential confounding factors including baseline age, body mass index (BMI), and lifestyle factors was used to calculate and compare the means of the 1-year change in systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). The participants were grouped according to their average monthly overtime work hours obtained from timecard data between April and September 2004.
The multivariate-adjusted mean for 1-year change in DBP in 611 male assembly-line workers was 1.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-2.2) for <40.0 h/month, 2.3 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3-3.2) for 40.0-79.9 h/month, and 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI 2.7-7.9) for ≥ 80.0 h/month (P for heterogeneity = 0.02). A broadly similar pattern was observed for SBP. In contrast, there was no significant difference in means 1-year change for both SBP and DBP in 315 clerks and 309 engineers/special technicians, grouped according to overtime work hours.
Extensive overtime work was associated with increased BP in normotensive male assembly-line workers, but not in clerks and engineers/special technicians.
American Journal of Hypertension 04/2012; 25(9):979-85. DOI:10.1038/ajh.2012.37 · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cohort study investigated the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men, and the effect of insulin resistance and pancreatic B-cell function on the association. Participants were 1995 male employees of a metal products factory in Japan. Dietary GI and GL were assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The incidence of diabetes was detected in annual medical examinations over a 6-year period. The association between GI, GL, and the incidence of diabetes was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. During the study, 133 participants developed diabetes. Age- and body mass index-adjusted hazard ratios across the GI quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 1.62, 1.50, 1.68, and 1.80; and those of GL were 1.00 (reference), 1.07, 1.48, 0.95, and 0.98. The hazard ratio for the highest GI quintile was significantly greater than that for the lowest quintile. The influence of GI was more pronounced in the lowest insulin resistance subgroups. GI and pancreatic B-cell function were independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus; participants with low B-cell function and the highest tertile of GI had the highest risk of diabetes. Dietary GI is associated with the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men. GI and B-cell function were independently associated with incidence of diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although previous epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between sleep duration and various cardiovascular events, the results have been inconsistent. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular events among male workers, accounting for occupational factors that might confound the true relationship.
A total of 2282 male employees aged 35-54 years based in a factory in Japan were followed for 14 years. The risk of cardiovascular events was compared among 4 groups stratified based on sleep duration at baseline (<6, 6-6.9, 7-7.9, and ≥8 hours). Cardiovascular events included stroke, coronary events and sudden cardiac death. The hazard ratios for events were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, with the 7-7.9-hour group serving as a reference. The model was adjusted for potential confounders including traditional cardiovascular risk factors and working characteristics.
During 14 years of follow-up, 64 cardiovascular events were recorded including 30 strokes, 27 coronary events and 7 sudden cardiac deaths. After adjustment for possible confounders, the hazard ratios for cardiovascular and coronary events in the <6-hour group were 3.49 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.30-9.40] and 4.95 (95% CI 1.31-18.73), respectively. There was no significant increment in the risk of stroke for any sleep duration groups.
Short sleep duration (<6 hours) was a significant risk factor for coronary events in a Japanese male working population.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 04/2011; 37(5):411-7. DOI:10.5271/sjweh.3168 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between long work hours and sleep disturbance among white-collar workers. We evaluated 1510 male white-collar full-time employees, between the ages of 18 and 59 years, using a comprehensive sleep quality questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All subjects worked in a light metal products factory in Japan. The mean number of monthly overtime work hours was determined using data from the previous 6 months from timecard records. Subjects were divided into five groups based on quintiles of the mean number of monthly overtime work hours: <26 h month(-1); ≥26 but <40; ≥40 but <50; ≥50 but <63; and >63. Leisure time physical activity, drinking habits just before sleep, presence of family/partner and health status were used as confounding factors in the multiple regression model. The prevalence of short sleep hours, impairment of sleep efficiency and daytime dysfunction among seven components of PSQI increased, in a dose-response relationship, with overtime work hours. The prevalence of high global score (>5.5 points) was highest in workers with overtime hours ≥50 h week(-1). The odds ratios after adjustment for confounding factors for high global score using less than 26 h as a reference group were 1.67 for workers with ≥50 h and <63 h, and 1.87 for workers with 63 h and more. To conclude, the present results suggest that long work hours correlate with reduced sleep quality in a dose-response manner.
Journal of Sleep Research 03/2011; 20(1 Pt 1):110-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2010.00852.x · 3.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Since there is little information derived from prospective studies on the amount of alcohol drinking required to induce hyperuricaemia, we attempted to address this issue in a Japanese population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3310 Japanese men aged 20-54 years that were free of hyperuricaemia were classified according to their alcohol intake per week at baseline. Incident hyperuricaemia, defined as >7.0 mg/dl and/or taking medication for hyperuricaemia, was assessed through annual heath examinations for 6 years after the baseline examination. During follow-up, 529 incident cases of hyperuricaemia occurred. There was a positive, dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of incident hyperuricaemia. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for hyperuricaemia in drinkers compared with non-drinkers was 1.10 (0.85-1.42) for <10.0 drinks/week, 1.40 (1.07-1.84) for 10.0-19.9 drinks/week, 1.64 (1.23-2.21) for 20.0-29.9 drinks/week and 1.98 (1.40-2.80) for ≥30.0 drinks/week (one drink contained 11.5 g of ethanol) after adjusting for age, baseline serum uric acid, body mass index, smoking habits, exercise habits, serum creatinine, blood pressure, serum cholesterol and blood glucose. The fraction of hyperuricaemia in the population attributable to alcohol intake was 21.6%. A clear dose-response pattern was observed for both beer and sake, when the consumption of these two beverages was analysed separately. CONCLUSION: Habitual alcohol intake significantly contributed to the development of hyperuricaemia in Japanese men, regardless of type of alcoholic beverage consumed. Therefore, it is essential to reduce excessive alcohol intake to prevent and manage hyperuricaemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the association between dietary glycemic index (GI)/glycemic load (GL) and serum lipids in middle-aged Japanese men and women.
The study participants were employees of a metal products factory in Japan: 2,257 men and 1,598 women aged 35 years or older. Dietary GI and GL were assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Serum lipid levels, adjusted for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, menopause status, and dietary intake of total energy, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol and fiber, were compared among GI/GL quintiles for each gender.
No significant associations were observed between GI and adjusted serum lipids in men or women. In contrast, GL was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol in men and women (p for trend=0.001 for men and < 0.001 for women), and positively associated with non-HDL-cholesterol (p for trend=0.010), LDL-cholesterol (p for trend=0.035) and triglycerides (p for trend=0.011) in women; however, alcohol drinking affected these associations; there was no association between GL and serum lipids in male nondrinkers and between GL and LDL-cholesterol in female nondrinkers.
GL was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol and positively associated with non-HDL-cholesterol in Japanese women. These associations in men were not observed in nondrinkers. A high-GL diet for women may have an atherogenic effect through these serum lipid abnormalities.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 10/2010; 17(10):1082-95. DOI:10.5551/jat.4101 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the individual and population impacts of mild abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome (blood pressure, lipids and glucose) and abdominal obesity, for which lifestyle modification is initially applicable, on cardiovascular disease risk.
Using a cohort study of 2,685 Japanese men aged 35 to 59 years with an 11-year follow-up period, we calculated the relative risks for cardiovascular diseases due to mild metabolic abnormalities that included at least one of the following three conditions: 1) systolic blood pressure 130-139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure 85-89 mmHg; 2) triglycerides 150-299 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol 35-39 mg/dL; and 3) fasting plasma glucose 110-125 mg/dL and/or abdominal obesity. Participants with a mild metabolic abnormality were compared to participants with no metabolic abnormality or abdominal obesity. The population attributable fraction of these abnormalities for cardiovascular diseases was also estimated.
At baseline, 9.8% and 21.8% of the total population had a mild metabolic abnormality with or without abdominal obesity, respectively, while 7.5% had isolated abdominal obesity without any metabolic abnormality. A mild metabolic abnormality with or without abdominal obesity and isolated abdominal obesity increased the risk of cardiovascular disease by 2.68-fold, 1.49-fold, and 2.36-fold, respectively. Approximately 20% of cardiovascular diseases in the total population were attributable to either mild metabolic abnormalities or isolated abdominal obesity.
The importance of lifestyle modification should be acknowledged, especially in cases of mild metabolic abnormality and/or abdominal obesity, which may contribute to approximately 20% of the population burden for cardiovascular diseases.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 09/2010; 17(9):934-43. DOI:10.5551/jat.4549 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relationship between the HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the risk of cardiovascular events in Asian populations, which have lower levels of HOMA-IR than Western populations. Accordingly, we determined the predictive value of HOMA-IR for cardiovascular risk in a Japanese population that was apparently free of diabetes, addressing whether insulin resistance itself increases cardiovascular risk independently of other relevant metabolic disorders.
We followed 2,548 non-diabetic men aged 35 to 59 years for 11 years. The hazard ratios for the incidence of cardiovascular events due to increased HOMA-IR were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model that was adjusted for potential confounding factors.
The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular events compared with the first quartile of HOMA-IR (<or=0.66) was 1.07 (95% CI 0.44-2.64) for the second (HOMA-IR 0.67-1.01), 1.36 (0.56-3.28) for the third (HOMA-IR 1.02-1.51) and 2.50 (1.02-6.10) for the fourth quartile (HOMA-IR >or=1.52). The hazard ratio associated with a one SD (0.61) increment in log-transformed HOMA-IR was 1.51 (1.13-2.02). A similar positive relationship was observed for coronary events and stroke. In addition, the relationship between HOMA-IR and cardiovascular risk was broadly similar in participants with and without hypertension, dyslipidaemia (elevated triacylglycerol and/or reduced HDL-cholesterol), abdominal obesity and current smoking.
Increased HOMA-IR predicted subsequent cardiovascular events in non-diabetic Japanese men. The association was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and other relevant metabolic disorders.