R A Dodds

Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (61)285.06 Total impact

  • Robert A. Dodds, Janice R. Connor, Ian E. James
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter presents the in situ techniques for determining the temporal and spatial expression patterns of both mRNA (in situ hybridization) and protein (immuno-cytochemistry) in individual cells within sections of bone.
    06/2007: pages 198-228;
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    Robert A Dodds
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin K is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and plays a pivotal role in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. This enzyme is an excellent target for antiresorptive therapies for osteopenic disorders such as osteoporosis.(1) Although isolated inhibitor studies on purified enzymes is required to discover potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin K, a quantitative cytochemical assay(2) for cathepsin K would allow inhibitors to be tested on actual osteoclasts within sections of bone. Furthermore cathepsin K activity could be used to identify and analyse osteoclasts at definitive stages of their lifespan. A cytochemical assay is described that localizes osteoclast cathepsin K activity in unfixed, undecalcified cryostat sections of animal and human bone.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 10/2003; 21(3):231-4. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the cyteine proteinase, cathepsin K (E.C. 3.4.22.38) has been postulated as a means to control osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The preferred animal models for evaluation of antiresorptive activity are in the rat. However, the development of compounds that inhibit rat cathepsin K has proven difficult because the human and rat enzymes differ in key residues in the active site. In this study, a potent, nonpeptide inhibitor of rat cathepsin K (K(i) = 4.7 nmol/L), 5-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-3-methyl-1-(3-oxo-1-[2-(3-pyridin-2-yl-phenyl)-ethenoyl]-azepan-4-ylcarbanoyl)-butyl)-amide (SB 331750), is described, which is efficacious in rat models of bone resorption. SB 331750 potently inhibited human cathepsin K activity in vitro (K(i) = 0.0048 nmol/L) and was selective for human cathepsin K vs. cathepsins B (K(i) = 100 nmol/L), L (0.48 nmol/L), or S (K(i) = 14.3 nmol/L). In an in situ enzyme assay, SB 331750 inhibited osteoclast-associated cathepsin activity in tissue sections containing human osteoclasts (IC(50) approximately 60 nmol/L) and this translated into potent inhibition of human osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro (IC(50) approximately 30 nmol/L). In vitro, SB 331750 partially, but dose-dependently, prevented the parathyroid hormone-induced hypercalcemia in an acute rat model of bone resorption. To evaluate the ability of SB 331750 to inhibit bone matrix degradation in vivo, it was administered for 4 weeks at 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.), u.i.d. in the ovariectomized (ovx) rat. Both 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of compound prevented the ovx-induced elevation in urinary deoxypyridinoline and prevented the ovx-induced increase in percent eroded perimeter. Histological evaluation of the bones from compound-treated animals indicated that SB 331750 retarded bone matrix degradation in vivo at all three doses. The inhibition of bone resorption at the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses resulted in prevention of the ovx-induced reduction in percent trabecular area, trabecular number, and increase in trabecular spacing. These effects on bone resorption were also reflected in inhibition of the ovx-induced loss in trabecular bone volume as assessed using microcomputerized tomography (microCT; approximately 60% at 30 mg/kg). Together, these data indicate that the cathepsin K inhibitor, SB 331750, prevented bone resorption in vivo and this inhibition resulted in prevention of ovariectomy-induced loss in trabecular structure.
    Bone 06/2002; 30(5):746-53. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To prepare, sequence and analyse adult human cartilage cDNA libraries to study the gene expression pattern between normal and osteoarthritic cartilage. Poly A(+)RNA from adult human normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage was isolated and used to prepare cDNA libraries. Approximately 5000 ESTs from each library were sequenced and analysed using bioinformatic tools. The expression of select genes was confirmed by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis. Multiple gene families including several classical cartilage matrix protein encoding genes were identified. Approximately 28-40% of the genes sequenced from these libraries were novel, while half of the genes encoded known proteins and 4-6% of the genes encoded novel homologs of known proteins. Several known genes, whose expression has not been reported previously in cartilage, were also identified. We have confirmed the cartilage expression of three known (CTGF, CTGF-L and clusterin) and two novel homologs of known genes (PCPE-2 and Gal-Nac transferase) by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis. This is the first report of the preparation and sequencing of cDNA libraries from adult human normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Further analysis of genes identified from these libraries may provide molecular targets for diagnosis and/or treatment of osteoarthritis (OA).
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 11/2001; 9(7):641-53. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis, in vitro activities, and pharmacokinetics of a series of azepanone-based inhibitors of the cysteine protease cathepsin K (EC 3.4.22.38) are described. These compounds show improved configurational stability of the C-4 diastereomeric center relative to the previously published five- and six-membered ring ketone-based inhibitor series. Studies in this series have led to the identification of 20, a potent, selective inhibitor of human cathepsin K (K(i) = 0.16 nM) as well as 24, a potent inhibitor of both human (K(i) = 0.0048 nM) and rat (K(i,app) = 4.8 nM) cathepsin K. Small-molecule X-ray crystallographic analysis of 20 established the C-4 S stereochemistry as being critical for potent inhibition and that unbound 20 adopted the expected equatorial conformation for the C-4 substituent. Molecular modeling studies predicted the higher energy axial orientation at C-4 of 20 when bound within the active site of cathepsin K, a feature subsequently confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Pharmacokinetic studies in the rat show 20 to be 42% orally bioavailable. Comparison of the transport of the cyclic and acyclic analogues through CaCo-2 cells suggests that oral bioavailability of the acyclic derivatives is limited by a P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux mechanism. It is concluded that the introduction of a conformational constraint has served the dual purpose of increasing inhibitor potency by locking in a bioactive conformation as well as locking out available conformations which may serve as substrates for enzyme systems that limit oral bioavailability.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2001; 44(9):1380-95. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin K (cat K) is the major cysteine protease expressed in osteoclasts and is thought to play a key role in matrix degradation during bone resorption. However, little is known regarding the synthesis, activation, or turnover of the endogenous enzyme in osteoclasts. In this study, we show that mature cat K protein and enzyme activity are localized within osteoclasts. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that, following the synthesis of pro cat K, intracellular conversion to the mature enzyme occurred in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the level of mature enzyme decreased. Little or no cat K was observed in the culture media at any timepoint. Pretreatment of osteoclasts with either chloroquine or monensin resulted in complete inhibition of the processing of newly synthesized cat K. In addition, pro cat K demonstrated susceptibility to treatment with N-glycosidase F, suggesting the presence of high-mannose-containing oligosaccharides. Treatment of osteoclasts with the PI3-kinase inhibitor, Wortmannin (WT), not only prevented the intracellular processing of cat K but also resulted in the secretion of proenzyme into the culture media. Taken together, these results suggest that the biosynthesis, processing, and turnover of cat K in human osteoclasts is constitutive and occurs in a manner similar to that of other known cysteine proteases. Furthermore, cat K is not secreted as a proenzyme, but is processed intracellularly, presumably in lysosomal compartments prior to the release of active enzyme into the resorption lacunae.
    Bone 04/2001; 28(3):282-9. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin K is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and has been proposed to play a pivotal role in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We have developed a sensitive cytochemical assay to localize and quantify osteoclast cathepsin K activity in sections of osteoclastoma and human bone. In tissue sections, osteoclasts that are distant from bone express high levels of cathepsin K messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. However, the majority of the cathepsin K in these cells is in an inactive zymogen form, as assessed using both the cytochemical assay and specific immunostaining. In contrast, osteoclasts that are closer to bone contain high levels of immunoreactive mature cathepsin K that codistributes with enzyme activity in a polarized fashion toward the bone surface. Polarization of active enzyme was clearly evident in osteoclasts in the vicinity of bone. The osteoclasts apposed to the bone surface were almost exclusively expressing the mature form of cathepsin K. These cells showed intense enzyme activity, which was polarized at the ruffled border. These results suggest that the in vivo activation of cathepsin K occurs intracellularly, before secretion into the resorption lacunae and the onset of bone resorption. The processing of procathepsin K to mature cathepsin K occurs as the osteoclast approaches bone, suggesting that local factors may regulate this process.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 04/2001; 16(3):478-86. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis, in vitro activities, and pharmacokinetics of a series of azepanone-based inhibitors of the cysteine protease cathepsin K (EC 3.4.22.38) are described. These compounds show improved configurational stability of the C-4 diastereomeric center relative to the previously published five- and six-membered ring ketone-based inhibitor series. Studies in this series have led to the identification of 20, a potent, selective inhibitor of human cathepsin K (Ki = 0.16 nM) as well as 24, a potent inhibitor of both human (Ki = 0.0048 nM) and rat (Ki,app = 4.8 nM) cathepsin K. Small-molecule X-ray crystallographic analysis of 20 established the C-4 S stereochemistry as being critical for potent inhibition and that unbound 20 adopted the expected equatorial conformation for the C-4 substituent. Molecular modeling studies predicted the higher energy axial orientation at C-4 of 20 when bound within the active site of cathepsin K, a feature subsequently confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Pharmacokinetic studies in the rat show 20 to be 42% orally bioavailable. Comparison of the transport of the cyclic and acyclic analogues through CaCo-2 cells suggests that oral bioavailability of the acyclic derivatives is limited by a P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux mechanism. It is concluded that the introduction of a conformational constraint has served the dual purpose of increasing inhibitor potency by locking in a bioactive conformation as well as locking out available conformations which may serve as substrates for enzyme systems that limit oral bioavailability.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - J MED CHEM. 03/2001; 44(9).
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    ABSTRACT: An orally active, nonpeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic αvβ3 antagonist, (S)-3-Oxo-8-[2-[6-(methylamino)pyridin-2-yl]-1-ethoxy]-2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-2-benzazepine-4-acetic acid (compound 1), has been generated, which prevented net bone loss and inhibited cancellous bone turnover in vivo. The compound binds αvβ3 and the closely related integrin αvβ5 with low nanomolar affinity but binds only weakly to the related integrins αIIbβ3, and α5β1. Compound 1 inhibited αvβ3-mediated cell adhesion with an IC50 = 3 nM. More importantly, the compound inhibited human osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro with an IC50 = 11 nM. In vivo, compound 1 inhibited bone resorption in a dose-dependent fashion, in the acute thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rat model of bone resorption with a circulating EC50 ∼ 20 μM. When dosed orally at 30 mg/kg twice a day (b.i.d.) in the chronic ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rat model of osteopenia, compound 1 also prevented bone loss. At doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg b.i.d., compound 1 partially prevented the OVX-induced increase in urinary deoxypyridinoline. In addition, the compound prevented the OVX-induced reduction in cancellous bone volume (BV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), as assessed by quantitative microcomputerized tomography (μCT) and static histomorphometry. Furthermore, both the 10-mg/kg and 30-mg/kg doses of compound prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as measured by percent osteoid perimeter (%O.Pm). Together, these data indicate that the αVβ3 antagonist compound 1 inhibits OVX-induced bone loss. Mechanistically, compound 1 prevents bone loss in vivo by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, ultimately preventing cancellous bone turnover.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 01/2001; 16(2):319 - 327. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize a novel secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) and determine its tissue distribution at the mRNA and protein level. The FrzB-2 gene was identified by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of human tissue-derived libraries. Tissue distribution of FrzB-2 mRNA was determined by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. FrzB-2 protein reactivity was localized in human OA articular cartilage by immunocytochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against a peptide sequence unique to FrzB-2. Apoptosis was detected in articular cartilage sections using Tunel staining. ESTs corresponding to FrzB-2 were found in osteoblast, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, osteoclastoma and synovial fibroblast libraries. FrzB-2 mRNA is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types including bone-related cells and tissues such as primary human osteoblasts and osteoclastoma. In situ hybridization studies showed strong FrzB-2 mRNA expression in human chondrocytes in human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage but negligible levels in normal cartilage chondrocytes. The FrzB-2 cDNA encodes a secreted 40 kDa protein consisting of 346 amino acids. FrzB-2 is 92. 5% identical to the rat orthologue, DDC-4, which has been shown to be associated with physiological apoptosis. FrzB-2 protein was selectively detected in human OA articular cartilage by immunocytochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody. Consistent with its potential role in apoptosis, positive FrzB-2 staining and Tunel positive nuclei staining were detected in chondrocyte clones in sections of human OA cartilage. These data suggest that FrzB-2 may play a role in apoptosis and that the expression of this protein may be important in the pathogenesis of human OA.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 12/2000; 8(6):452-63. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ossification state of the meniscus in the guinea-pig stifle joint using micro-computerized tomography.Design Hind limbs from six (N=12) and 24 (N=11) month-old male Hartley guinea-pigs were removed and the joints were imaged using high resolution micro-computerized tomography. The ossified volume of the medial and lateral menisci from both groups of animals was quantified.Results Ossification of both the medial and lateral menisci of the both the 6- and 24-month-old animals was observed. In both age goups, the ossified region of the medial meniscus was significantly larger than the lateral meniscus. In addition, there is a significant increase in ossified volume of the medial meniscus between 6 and 24 months of age.Conclusions There is a significant amount of ossification of the menisci in the male Hartley guinea-pig, with the medial compartment showing more bone than the lateral. In addition, as the animals age, there is an increase in ossification within the medial compartment. Bone remodeling and cartilage degeneration is evident in the medial compartment within these animals as they age. It is possible that the increased ossification of the medial meniscus could alter the joint biomechanics and, in part, stimulate this medial compartment joint destruction.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2000; · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A potent and selective inhibitor of the osteoclastic V-H(+)-ATPase, (2Z,4E)-5-(5,6-dichloro-2-indolyl)-2-methoxy-N-(1,2,2,6, 6-pentamethylpiperidin-4-yl)-2,4-pentadienamide (SB 242784), was evaluated in two animal models of bone resorption. SB 242784 completely prevented retinoid-induced hypercalcemia in thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats when administered orally at 10 mg/kg. SB 242784 was highly efficacious in the prevention of ovariectomy-induced bone loss in the rat when administered orally for 6 months at 10 mg/kg/d and was partially effective at 5 mg/kg/d. Its activity was demonstrated by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical markers of bone resorption, and histomorphometry. SB 242784 was at least as effective in preventing bone loss as an optimal dose of estrogen. There were no adverse effects of compound administration and no effects on kidney function or urinary acidity. Selectivity of the inhibitor was further studied using an in situ cytochemical assay for bafilomycin-sensitive V-H(+)-ATPase using sections of osteoclastoma and numerous other tissues. SB 242784 inhibited the osteoclast enzyme at 1,000-fold lower concentrations than enzymes in any of the other tissues evaluated. SB 242784 demonstrates the utility of selective inhibition of the osteoclast V-H(+)-ATPase as a novel approach to the prevention of bone loss in humans.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/2000; 106(2):309-18. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a "calcilytic") of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17beta-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/2000; 105(11):1595-604. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive subpopulation of mononuclear cells isolated from collagenase digests of human osteoclastoma tissue exhibits an osteoclast phenotype and can be induced to resorb bone. Using these osteoclast precursors as a model system, we have assessed the chemotactic potential of 16 chemokines. Three CC chemokines, the recently described CKbeta-8, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha elicited significant chemotactic responses. In contrast, 10 other CC chemokines (MIP-1beta, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, HCC-1, eotaxin-2, PARC, SLC, ELC) and 3 CXC chemokines (IL-8, GROalpha, SDF-1) were inactive. None of these chemokines showed any chemotactic activity for either primary osteoblasts derived from human bone explants or the osteoblastic MG-63 cell line. The identity of the osteoclast receptor that mediates the chemotactic response remains to be established. However, all three active chemokines have been reported to bind to CCR1 and cross-desensitization studies demonstrate that RANTES and MIP-1alpha can partially inhibit the chemotactic response elicited by CKbeta-8. CKbeta-8, the most potent of the active CC chemokines (EC(max) 0.1-0.3 nM), was further characterized with regard to expression in human bone and cartilage. Although expression is not restricted to these tissues, CKbeta-8 mRNA was shown to be highly expressed in osteoblasts and chondrocytes in human fetal bone by in situ hybridization. In addition, CKbeta-8 protein was shown to be present in human osteophytic tissue by immunolocalization. These observations suggest that CKbeta-8, and perhaps other chemokines, may play a role in the recruitment of osteoclast precursors to sites of bone resorption.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 06/2000; 183(2):196-207. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in normal versus osteoarthritic human articular cartilage as either potential novel therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers of this disease. mRNA was isolated from histologically normal and osteoarthritic adult human articular cartilage. The Differential Display technique was employed which identified differentially expressed genes in the normal and diseased tissue. Northern and reverse Northern hybridization were used to confirm the gene expression pattern. Immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization were used to localize expression of Egr-1 protein and mRNA respectively in cartilage. A transcription factor, early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) was found to be down-regulated more than six-fold in multiple human OA cartilage samples when compared to normal tissue. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Egr-1 was expressed throughout normal adult cartilage, in deep-, mid- and superficial-zones. In contrast, in OA cartilage there was expression of Egr-1 mRNA and protein only in the chondrocytes undergoing cloning. Egr-1 is differentially expressed in OA versus normal cartilage and because of its role in transcriptional activation and repression and regulation of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, Egr-1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. Up-regulation of Egr-1 may therefore provide a novel therapeutic approach for either the prevention or treatment of OA.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 06/2000; 8(3):161-9. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the expression pattern of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA in human cartilage and bone. In-situ hybridization analysis was used to examine the expression pattern of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA in adult human osteoarthritic articular cartilage from various stages of disease, as well as in human osteophytic tissue and in human fetal bone. In cartilage from patients with mild osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration, HC gp-39 was expressed at moderate to high levels only in chondrocytes of the superficial zone. In advanced OA cartilage, cloning chondrocytes of the superficial zone expressed high levels of HC gp-39 and chondrocytes of the mid- and deep zones were also positive. HC gp-39 was undetectable in the chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage. In osteophytic tissue, the expression of HC gp-39 mRNA was intense in flattened, end-stage osteoblasts and in primary osteocytes in both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation. Proliferating osteoblasts expressed low to moderate levels. Notably, mature osteocytes were negative for HC gp-39 expression. Chondrocytes in the secondary ossification center of developing fetal cartilage demonstrated high expression while growth plate and mineralized cartilage chondrocytes had lower expression. Osteoblasts at sites of endochondral and intramembranous bone formation were positive for expression of HC gp-39. The stage-specific expression of HC gp-39 in fetal development and adult remodelling bone and cartilage provides evidence for a specific functional or structural role for HC gp-39 in bone and cartilage tissue. HC gp-39 is expressed in diseased human osteoarthritic cartilage and osteophyte, but not in non-diseased tissue, and its distribution within the tissue changes as disease progresses. OA is characterized not only by cartilage degeneration, but by increased subchondral bone formation and osteophytosis. The results from this study indicate that the increased HC gp-39 expression in OA serum and synovial fluid may reflect not only cartilage degeneration but increased osteogenesis.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 04/2000; 8(2):87-95. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive subpopulation of mononuclear cells isolated from collagenase digests of human osteoclastoma tissue exhibits an osteoclast phenotype and can be induced to resorb bone. Using these osteoclast precursors as a model system, we have assessed the chemotactic potential of 16 chemokines. Three CC chemokines, the recently described CKβ-8, RANTES, and MIP-1α elicited significant chemotactic responses. In contrast, 10 other CC chemokines (MIP-1β, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, HCC-1, eotaxin-2, PARC, SLC, ELC) and 3 CXC chemokines (IL-8, GROα, SDF-1) were inactive. None of these chemokines showed any chemotactic activity for either primary osteoblasts derived from human bone explants or the osteoblastic MG-63 cell line. The identity of the osteoclast receptor that mediates the chemotactic response remains to be established. However, all three active chemokines have been reported to bind to CCR1 and cross-desensitization studies demonstrate that RANTES and MIP-1α can partially inhibit the chemotactic response elicited by CKβ-8. CKβ-8, the most potent of the active CC chemokines (ECmax 0.1–0.3 nM), was further characterized with regard to expression in human bone and cartilage. Although expression is not restricted to these tissues, CKβ-8 mRNA was shown to be highly expressed in osteoblasts and chondrocytes in human fetal bone by in situ hybridization. In addition, CKβ-8 protein was shown to be present in human osteophytic tissue by immunolocalization. These observations suggest that CKβ-8, and perhaps other chemokines, may play a role in the recruitment of osteoclast precursors to sites of bone resorption. J. Cell. Physiol. 183:196–207, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 03/2000; 183(2):196 - 207. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • D S Yamashita, R A Dodds
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease of the papain family, was identified by sequencing complementary DNA libraries derived from osteoclasts. Cathepsin K can cleave bone proteins such as Type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteonectin. The localization and maturation of cathepsin K in activated osteoclasts have been characterized. Furthermore, mutation of the gene expressing cathepsin K in humans results in pycnodysostosis, an autosomal recessive condition, resulting in osteoprosis and increased bone fragility. Knockout of cathepsin K in the mouse also results in retarded bone matrix degradation and osteopetrosis. Together, these data demonstrate that inhibition of cathepsin K should result in a dimunition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Several novel classes of cathepsin K inhibitors have been designed from X-ray co-crystal structures of peptide aldehydes bound to papain. The convergence of the design of novel inhibitors and the discovery of cathepsin K has created opportunities to further understand bone and cartilage biology as well as provide new therapeutic agents for the treatment of disease states in man such as osteoporosis.
    Current Pharmaceutical Design 02/2000; 6(1):1-24. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Idoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, was evaluated in male and female rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). AA was induced in Lewis rats with Mycobacterium butyricum in paraffin oil injected into the base of the tail, and the animals were treated with idoxifene prophylactically (days 0-21) or therapeutically (days 10-21). Efficacy was determined by measurements of paw inflammation, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density (BMD) with dual X-ray absorptiometry and by histological evaluation. Serum interleukin-6 levels were measured as a marker of the anti-inflammatory effects of the compound. Estrogen was included for comparison and was administered at 5 mg/kg, three times a week s.c. Prophylactic treatment of male AA rats with idoxifene at 10, 3, and 1 mg/kg and estrogen at 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited paw inflammation. There was improved joint integrity measured by BMD and reduced serum interleukin-6 levels in animals treated with 10 mg/kg/day idoxifene. Idoxifene and estrogen were as effective for AA in female Lewis rats as in male rats, significantly inhibiting paw inflammation and improving BMD. Histological evaluation of the tibiotarsal joints of female rats treated with 10 mg/kg showed protection of bone, cartilage, and soft tissue. Therapeutic treatment with either idoxifene or estrogen (starting on day 10 of disease) of male and female Lewis rats also was effective in reducing paw inflammation in these animals, although the effect was much less than that observed with the prophylactic dosing protocol.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2000; 291(3):1380-6. · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2000; 183(2):196-207. · 4.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
285.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003
    • Johnson & Johnson
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 2002
    • GlaxoSmithKline plc.
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992–1994
    • University of Bath
      Bath, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • Royal Veterinary College
      • Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences
      London, ENG, United Kingdom