R A Dodds

University of Bath, Bath, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (79)389.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) may provide valuable tools for studying osteoblast differentiation. We therefore raised a panel of MAb reactive with cells of this phenotype using 1,25(OH)2D3-treated human trabecular osteoblast-like cells (HOBS) as the immunogen. Immunohistochemical studies on various tissues, including undecalcified cryostat sections of fetal and adult human bone, identified 11 bone cell-reactive MAb. Of these, 2 demonstrated particularly selective reactivities against osteocytes (OB/M) and osteoblasts (OB/L). These reactivities were also seen in developing bone from rat, rabbit, and marmoset. OB/L and OB/M demonstrated limited reactivity against a small number of human tissues from the extensive panel of substrates tested. Both MAb exhibited reactivity against discrete populations of cells in the large and small intestine. In addition, OB/L reacted with cells in the basal epidermis of skin and OB/M with cells in blood vessel walls. Both antibodies demonstrated reactivity against a variety of cultured osteoblast-like cell lines and other cultured cell types. These MAb may therefore provide a valuable means of studying osteoblast ontogeny.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11/2009; 9(11):1687-96. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.5650091104 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification and purification of human osteoclast precursors is essential to further our understanding of the mechanisms that control human osteoclast differentiation. Osteoclastoma tissue potentially provides a rich source of human osteoclast precursors, and in previous studies we have demonstrated the existence of a population of mononuclear cells within this tissue that is reactive with osteoclast-selective vitronectin receptor monoclonal antibodies. In this study, mononuclear cells expressing the vitronectin receptor, as defined by their ability to react with a murine monoclonal antibody to the beta 3 chain of the vitronectin receptor (87MEM1), were isolated from collagenase digests of osteoclastoma tissue using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Based on their fluorescence signal and size, approximately 2-3% of the viable cells (typically 2 x 10(5)) were obtained and prepared for further phenotyping. The isolated cells demonstrated a number of phenotypic characteristics of osteoclasts: positive tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, reactivity with human osteoclast-selective antibodies, expression of calcitonin receptors, cathepsin K (a novel osteoclast-selective cysteine proteinase) mRNA, and osteopontin mRNA and protein. These phenotypic characteristics were also detected in mononuclear cells within cryostat sections of the native osteoclastoma tissue as well as in resorption lacunae of sections of human bone. In contrast, isolated peripheral blood monocytes were negative for TRAP activity and osteopontin expression and, unlike the osteoclastoma-derived cells, demonstrated strong nonspecific esterase activity. Significantly, when the osteoclastoma-derived 87MEM1 positive cells were cocultured on whale dentine for 1-3 weeks with stromal cells, extensive resorption of the dentine surface was observed. This is the first demonstration of the purification of human osteoclast precursors. These cells provide an homogeneous cell population for studying cellular events that occur during human osteoclast differentiation.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11/2009; 11(11):1608-18. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.5650111104 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteopontin is a phosphorylated glycoprotein believed to be secreted by osteoblasts and deposited into the bone matrix to facilitate osteoclasts adhesion or to initiate osteoid mineralization. Previously we have presented contradictory evidence that osteoclasts express osteopontin mRNA in human remodeling bone. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether osteoclasts synthesize and deposit osteopontin in resorption lucunae. We characterized expression of osteopontin mRNA and protein expression in both intramembranous and endochondral ossification, as well as remodeling bone, in the human osteophyte. Osteopontin mRNA was expressed in osteoclast with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positivity within resorption lacunae. The osteoclasts and immediate resorption surfaces also expressed osteopontin. However, osteopontin mRNA and protein were weak (transient) or undetectable in osteoblasts at adjacent bone formation sites; no osteopontin expression was observed in the osteoid, although occasional reactivity was observed in osteocytes and the mineral-osteoid interface. In contrast, osteopontin was highly expressed in the osteoblasts and matrix of woven bone during intramembranous and endochondral ossification. The matrix expression correlated with mineralization; however, in some instances osteopontin deposition was observed prior to mineralization. Similarly, osteopontin expression was evident in cartilage matrix, solely at foci of mineralization. Chondroclasts expressed osteopontin mRNA and protein: the surfaces of resorbed calcified cartilage also expressed osteopontin. Abnormal, unmineralized matrices apparently lacked deposited osteopontin, but were nevertheless resorbed by osteoclasts; the osteoclasts and resorbed surfaces expressed no osteopontin protein. That osteoclasts are responsible for the deposition of osteopontin was confirmed in vitro, whereby resorption pits in whale dentine and bovine bone slices, produced by isolated human osteoclasts, contained deposited osteopontin. Osteopontin may facilitate the adhesion (or detachment) of the osteoclast to the bone surface. Alternatively, the possibility that osteopontin may act as a postresorptive signal to recruit osteoblasts, or to polarize and direct the mineralization of the formed osteoid, is discussed.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11/2009; 10(11):1666-80. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.5650101109 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the stromal element of human osteoclastomas contains osteoblastic cells. In this study, we demonstrate that osteoclast-depleted, passaged stromal cells express alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in vitro and form mineralized nodules under appropriate culture conditions. In addition, we describe a model in which severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were used to support the differentiation of these putative human osteoblast progenitors in vivo. Lesions formed from human stromal cells were identified using the OKa blood group antigen and human procollagen type I antibodies. By 21 days, the lesion was a complete bone unit: a fully mineralized cortex, remodeling trabeculae, and a highly cellular marrow space. Stromal cells derived from six out of seven osteoclastomas produced identical lesions. Further studies have demonstrated that the capacity of the osteoclastoma-derived stromal cells to form bone in vivo and in vitro is passage dependent; early passages were osteogenic in both model systems, while later passages were not. In conclusion, we have developed a model in which the osteogenic nature of cells can be confirmed in vivo. Furthermore, human osteoclastoma-derived stromal cells provide a source of these osteogenic cells to study human osteoblast differentiation, both in vivo and in vitro.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10/2009; 11(10):1453-60. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.5650111012 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 06/2009; 11(6):875-875. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.5650110621 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tibiae and fibulae of 14-week-old rats were subjected to a single 5 minutes period of cyclic longitudinal loading at 1 Hz. The activity of the enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteocytes and periosteal osteoblasts was measured immediately and 24 h after loading. In osteocytes G6PD activity was increased immediately after loading but returned to control values 24 h later. There was no detectable ALP activity in these cells regardless of loading history. In periosteal osteoblasts G6PD activity was raised immediately after loading and remained higher than controls 24 h later. ALP activity in periosteal cells was unaffected immediately after loading but 24 h later was substantially increased. These findings are consistent with osteocytes and periosteal cells both being immediately responsive to periods of intermittent loading in their adjacent matrices. In both cell types an early feature of this response is an increase in G6PD activity. In osteocytes this response is short-lived, suggesting that it is an early biochemical change associated with strain perception that does not progress to matrix synthesis. The increase in G6PD activity with unaffected ALP levels in periosteal cells immediately after loading is consistent with a similar response. In these cells the increase in G6PD accompanied by increased ALP levels 24 h after loading suggests that the loading-related response progresses to new bone formation.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 03/2009; 8(3):261-7. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.5650080303 · 6.59 Impact Factor
  • Robert A. Dodds, Janice R. Connor, Ian E. James
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter presents the in situ techniques for determining the temporal and spatial expression patterns of both mRNA (in situ hybridization) and protein (immuno-cytochemistry) in individual cells within sections of bone.
    06/2007: pages 198-228;
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    Robert A Dodds
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin K is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and plays a pivotal role in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. This enzyme is an excellent target for antiresorptive therapies for osteopenic disorders such as osteoporosis.(1) Although isolated inhibitor studies on purified enzymes is required to discover potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin K, a quantitative cytochemical assay(2) for cathepsin K would allow inhibitors to be tested on actual osteoclasts within sections of bone. Furthermore cathepsin K activity could be used to identify and analyse osteoclasts at definitive stages of their lifespan. A cytochemical assay is described that localizes osteoclast cathepsin K activity in unfixed, undecalcified cryostat sections of animal and human bone.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 09/2003; 21(3):231-4. DOI:10.1002/cbf.1078 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the cyteine proteinase, cathepsin K (E.C. 3.4.22.38) has been postulated as a means to control osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The preferred animal models for evaluation of antiresorptive activity are in the rat. However, the development of compounds that inhibit rat cathepsin K has proven difficult because the human and rat enzymes differ in key residues in the active site. In this study, a potent, nonpeptide inhibitor of rat cathepsin K (K(i) = 4.7 nmol/L), 5-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-3-methyl-1-(3-oxo-1-[2-(3-pyridin-2-yl-phenyl)-ethenoyl]-azepan-4-ylcarbanoyl)-butyl)-amide (SB 331750), is described, which is efficacious in rat models of bone resorption. SB 331750 potently inhibited human cathepsin K activity in vitro (K(i) = 0.0048 nmol/L) and was selective for human cathepsin K vs. cathepsins B (K(i) = 100 nmol/L), L (0.48 nmol/L), or S (K(i) = 14.3 nmol/L). In an in situ enzyme assay, SB 331750 inhibited osteoclast-associated cathepsin activity in tissue sections containing human osteoclasts (IC(50) approximately 60 nmol/L) and this translated into potent inhibition of human osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro (IC(50) approximately 30 nmol/L). In vitro, SB 331750 partially, but dose-dependently, prevented the parathyroid hormone-induced hypercalcemia in an acute rat model of bone resorption. To evaluate the ability of SB 331750 to inhibit bone matrix degradation in vivo, it was administered for 4 weeks at 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.), u.i.d. in the ovariectomized (ovx) rat. Both 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of compound prevented the ovx-induced elevation in urinary deoxypyridinoline and prevented the ovx-induced increase in percent eroded perimeter. Histological evaluation of the bones from compound-treated animals indicated that SB 331750 retarded bone matrix degradation in vivo at all three doses. The inhibition of bone resorption at the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses resulted in prevention of the ovx-induced reduction in percent trabecular area, trabecular number, and increase in trabecular spacing. These effects on bone resorption were also reflected in inhibition of the ovx-induced loss in trabecular bone volume as assessed using microcomputerized tomography (microCT; approximately 60% at 30 mg/kg). Together, these data indicate that the cathepsin K inhibitor, SB 331750, prevented bone resorption in vivo and this inhibition resulted in prevention of ovariectomy-induced loss in trabecular structure.
    Bone 06/2002; 30(5):746-53. DOI:10.1016/S8756-3282(02)00675-0 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To prepare, sequence and analyse adult human cartilage cDNA libraries to study the gene expression pattern between normal and osteoarthritic cartilage. Poly A(+)RNA from adult human normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage was isolated and used to prepare cDNA libraries. Approximately 5000 ESTs from each library were sequenced and analysed using bioinformatic tools. The expression of select genes was confirmed by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis. Multiple gene families including several classical cartilage matrix protein encoding genes were identified. Approximately 28-40% of the genes sequenced from these libraries were novel, while half of the genes encoded known proteins and 4-6% of the genes encoded novel homologs of known proteins. Several known genes, whose expression has not been reported previously in cartilage, were also identified. We have confirmed the cartilage expression of three known (CTGF, CTGF-L and clusterin) and two novel homologs of known genes (PCPE-2 and Gal-Nac transferase) by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis. This is the first report of the preparation and sequencing of cDNA libraries from adult human normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Further analysis of genes identified from these libraries may provide molecular targets for diagnosis and/or treatment of osteoarthritis (OA).
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 11/2001; 9(7):641-53. DOI:10.1053/joca.2001.0421 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis, in vitro activities, and pharmacokinetics of a series of azepanone-based inhibitors of the cysteine protease cathepsin K (EC 3.4.22.38) are described. These compounds show improved configurational stability of the C-4 diastereomeric center relative to the previously published five- and six-membered ring ketone-based inhibitor series. Studies in this series have led to the identification of 20, a potent, selective inhibitor of human cathepsin K (K(i) = 0.16 nM) as well as 24, a potent inhibitor of both human (K(i) = 0.0048 nM) and rat (K(i,app) = 4.8 nM) cathepsin K. Small-molecule X-ray crystallographic analysis of 20 established the C-4 S stereochemistry as being critical for potent inhibition and that unbound 20 adopted the expected equatorial conformation for the C-4 substituent. Molecular modeling studies predicted the higher energy axial orientation at C-4 of 20 when bound within the active site of cathepsin K, a feature subsequently confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Pharmacokinetic studies in the rat show 20 to be 42% orally bioavailable. Comparison of the transport of the cyclic and acyclic analogues through CaCo-2 cells suggests that oral bioavailability of the acyclic derivatives is limited by a P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux mechanism. It is concluded that the introduction of a conformational constraint has served the dual purpose of increasing inhibitor potency by locking in a bioactive conformation as well as locking out available conformations which may serve as substrates for enzyme systems that limit oral bioavailability.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2001; 44(9):1380-95. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin K is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and has been proposed to play a pivotal role in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We have developed a sensitive cytochemical assay to localize and quantify osteoclast cathepsin K activity in sections of osteoclastoma and human bone. In tissue sections, osteoclasts that are distant from bone express high levels of cathepsin K messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. However, the majority of the cathepsin K in these cells is in an inactive zymogen form, as assessed using both the cytochemical assay and specific immunostaining. In contrast, osteoclasts that are closer to bone contain high levels of immunoreactive mature cathepsin K that codistributes with enzyme activity in a polarized fashion toward the bone surface. Polarization of active enzyme was clearly evident in osteoclasts in the vicinity of bone. The osteoclasts apposed to the bone surface were almost exclusively expressing the mature form of cathepsin K. These cells showed intense enzyme activity, which was polarized at the ruffled border. These results suggest that the in vivo activation of cathepsin K occurs intracellularly, before secretion into the resorption lacunae and the onset of bone resorption. The processing of procathepsin K to mature cathepsin K occurs as the osteoclast approaches bone, suggesting that local factors may regulate this process.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 04/2001; 16(3):478-86. DOI:10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.3.478 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin K (cat K) is the major cysteine protease expressed in osteoclasts and is thought to play a key role in matrix degradation during bone resorption. However, little is known regarding the synthesis, activation, or turnover of the endogenous enzyme in osteoclasts. In this study, we show that mature cat K protein and enzyme activity are localized within osteoclasts. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that, following the synthesis of pro cat K, intracellular conversion to the mature enzyme occurred in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the level of mature enzyme decreased. Little or no cat K was observed in the culture media at any timepoint. Pretreatment of osteoclasts with either chloroquine or monensin resulted in complete inhibition of the processing of newly synthesized cat K. In addition, pro cat K demonstrated susceptibility to treatment with N-glycosidase F, suggesting the presence of high-mannose-containing oligosaccharides. Treatment of osteoclasts with the PI3-kinase inhibitor, Wortmannin (WT), not only prevented the intracellular processing of cat K but also resulted in the secretion of proenzyme into the culture media. Taken together, these results suggest that the biosynthesis, processing, and turnover of cat K in human osteoclasts is constitutive and occurs in a manner similar to that of other known cysteine proteases. Furthermore, cat K is not secreted as a proenzyme, but is processed intracellularly, presumably in lysosomal compartments prior to the release of active enzyme into the resorption lacunae.
    Bone 04/2001; 28(3):282-9. DOI:10.1016/S8756-3282(00)00445-2 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis, in vitro activities, and pharmacokinetics of a series of azepanone-based inhibitors of the cysteine protease cathepsin K (EC 3.4.22.38) are described. These compounds show improved configurational stability of the C-4 diastereomeric center relative to the previously published five- and six-membered ring ketone-based inhibitor series. Studies in this series have led to the identification of 20, a potent, selective inhibitor of human cathepsin K (Ki = 0.16 nM) as well as 24, a potent inhibitor of both human (Ki = 0.0048 nM) and rat (Ki,app = 4.8 nM) cathepsin K. Small-molecule X-ray crystallographic analysis of 20 established the C-4 S stereochemistry as being critical for potent inhibition and that unbound 20 adopted the expected equatorial conformation for the C-4 substituent. Molecular modeling studies predicted the higher energy axial orientation at C-4 of 20 when bound within the active site of cathepsin K, a feature subsequently confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Pharmacokinetic studies in the rat show 20 to be 42% orally bioavailable. Comparison of the transport of the cyclic and acyclic analogues through CaCo-2 cells suggests that oral bioavailability of the acyclic derivatives is limited by a P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux mechanism. It is concluded that the introduction of a conformational constraint has served the dual purpose of increasing inhibitor potency by locking in a bioactive conformation as well as locking out available conformations which may serve as substrates for enzyme systems that limit oral bioavailability.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2001; 44(9). DOI:10.1021/jm000481x · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An orally active, nonpeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic αvβ3 antagonist, (S)-3-Oxo-8-[2-[6-(methylamino)pyridin-2-yl]-1-ethoxy]-2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-2-benzazepine-4-acetic acid (compound 1), has been generated, which prevented net bone loss and inhibited cancellous bone turnover in vivo. The compound binds αvβ3 and the closely related integrin αvβ5 with low nanomolar affinity but binds only weakly to the related integrins αIIbβ3, and α5β1. Compound 1 inhibited αvβ3-mediated cell adhesion with an IC50 = 3 nM. More importantly, the compound inhibited human osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro with an IC50 = 11 nM. In vivo, compound 1 inhibited bone resorption in a dose-dependent fashion, in the acute thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rat model of bone resorption with a circulating EC50 ∼ 20 μM. When dosed orally at 30 mg/kg twice a day (b.i.d.) in the chronic ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rat model of osteopenia, compound 1 also prevented bone loss. At doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg b.i.d., compound 1 partially prevented the OVX-induced increase in urinary deoxypyridinoline. In addition, the compound prevented the OVX-induced reduction in cancellous bone volume (BV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), as assessed by quantitative microcomputerized tomography (μCT) and static histomorphometry. Furthermore, both the 10-mg/kg and 30-mg/kg doses of compound prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as measured by percent osteoid perimeter (%O.Pm). Together, these data indicate that the αVβ3 antagonist compound 1 inhibits OVX-induced bone loss. Mechanistically, compound 1 prevents bone loss in vivo by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, ultimately preventing cancellous bone turnover.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 01/2001; 16(2):319 - 327. DOI:10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.2.319 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize a novel secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) and determine its tissue distribution at the mRNA and protein level. The FrzB-2 gene was identified by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of human tissue-derived libraries. Tissue distribution of FrzB-2 mRNA was determined by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. FrzB-2 protein reactivity was localized in human OA articular cartilage by immunocytochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against a peptide sequence unique to FrzB-2. Apoptosis was detected in articular cartilage sections using Tunel staining. ESTs corresponding to FrzB-2 were found in osteoblast, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, osteoclastoma and synovial fibroblast libraries. FrzB-2 mRNA is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types including bone-related cells and tissues such as primary human osteoblasts and osteoclastoma. In situ hybridization studies showed strong FrzB-2 mRNA expression in human chondrocytes in human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage but negligible levels in normal cartilage chondrocytes. The FrzB-2 cDNA encodes a secreted 40 kDa protein consisting of 346 amino acids. FrzB-2 is 92. 5% identical to the rat orthologue, DDC-4, which has been shown to be associated with physiological apoptosis. FrzB-2 protein was selectively detected in human OA articular cartilage by immunocytochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody. Consistent with its potential role in apoptosis, positive FrzB-2 staining and Tunel positive nuclei staining were detected in chondrocyte clones in sections of human OA cartilage. These data suggest that FrzB-2 may play a role in apoptosis and that the expression of this protein may be important in the pathogenesis of human OA.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 12/2000; 8(6):452-63. DOI:10.1053/joca.1999.0321 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ossification state of the meniscus in the guinea-pig stifle joint using micro-computerized tomography.Design Hind limbs from six (N=12) and 24 (N=11) month-old male Hartley guinea-pigs were removed and the joints were imaged using high resolution micro-computerized tomography. The ossified volume of the medial and lateral menisci from both groups of animals was quantified.Results Ossification of both the medial and lateral menisci of the both the 6- and 24-month-old animals was observed. In both age goups, the ossified region of the medial meniscus was significantly larger than the lateral meniscus. In addition, there is a significant increase in ossified volume of the medial meniscus between 6 and 24 months of age.Conclusions There is a significant amount of ossification of the menisci in the male Hartley guinea-pig, with the medial compartment showing more bone than the lateral. In addition, as the animals age, there is an increase in ossification within the medial compartment. Bone remodeling and cartilage degeneration is evident in the medial compartment within these animals as they age. It is possible that the increased ossification of the medial meniscus could alter the joint biomechanics and, in part, stimulate this medial compartment joint destruction.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2000; 8(5-8):374-377. DOI:10.1053/joca.1999.0312 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A potent and selective inhibitor of the osteoclastic V-H(+)-ATPase, (2Z,4E)-5-(5,6-dichloro-2-indolyl)-2-methoxy-N-(1,2,2,6, 6-pentamethylpiperidin-4-yl)-2,4-pentadienamide (SB 242784), was evaluated in two animal models of bone resorption. SB 242784 completely prevented retinoid-induced hypercalcemia in thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats when administered orally at 10 mg/kg. SB 242784 was highly efficacious in the prevention of ovariectomy-induced bone loss in the rat when administered orally for 6 months at 10 mg/kg/d and was partially effective at 5 mg/kg/d. Its activity was demonstrated by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical markers of bone resorption, and histomorphometry. SB 242784 was at least as effective in preventing bone loss as an optimal dose of estrogen. There were no adverse effects of compound administration and no effects on kidney function or urinary acidity. Selectivity of the inhibitor was further studied using an in situ cytochemical assay for bafilomycin-sensitive V-H(+)-ATPase using sections of osteoclastoma and numerous other tissues. SB 242784 inhibited the osteoclast enzyme at 1,000-fold lower concentrations than enzymes in any of the other tissues evaluated. SB 242784 demonstrates the utility of selective inhibition of the osteoclast V-H(+)-ATPase as a novel approach to the prevention of bone loss in humans.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/2000; 106(2):309-18. DOI:10.1172/JCI6145 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a "calcilytic") of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17beta-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/2000; 105(11):1595-604. DOI:10.1172/JCI9038 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive subpopulation of mononuclear cells isolated from collagenase digests of human osteoclastoma tissue exhibits an osteoclast phenotype and can be induced to resorb bone. Using these osteoclast precursors as a model system, we have assessed the chemotactic potential of 16 chemokines. Three CC chemokines, the recently described CKbeta-8, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha elicited significant chemotactic responses. In contrast, 10 other CC chemokines (MIP-1beta, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, HCC-1, eotaxin-2, PARC, SLC, ELC) and 3 CXC chemokines (IL-8, GROalpha, SDF-1) were inactive. None of these chemokines showed any chemotactic activity for either primary osteoblasts derived from human bone explants or the osteoblastic MG-63 cell line. The identity of the osteoclast receptor that mediates the chemotactic response remains to be established. However, all three active chemokines have been reported to bind to CCR1 and cross-desensitization studies demonstrate that RANTES and MIP-1alpha can partially inhibit the chemotactic response elicited by CKbeta-8. CKbeta-8, the most potent of the active CC chemokines (EC(max) 0.1-0.3 nM), was further characterized with regard to expression in human bone and cartilage. Although expression is not restricted to these tissues, CKbeta-8 mRNA was shown to be highly expressed in osteoblasts and chondrocytes in human fetal bone by in situ hybridization. In addition, CKbeta-8 protein was shown to be present in human osteophytic tissue by immunolocalization. These observations suggest that CKbeta-8, and perhaps other chemokines, may play a role in the recruitment of osteoclast precursors to sites of bone resorption.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 06/2000; 183(2):196-207. · 3.87 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
389.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2009
    • University of Bath
      Bath, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–2009
    • Royal Veterinary College
      • Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom