Garold S Yost

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States

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Publications (119)391.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled glucocorticoids, such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), are the mainstay treatment for asthma. However, ~30% of patients exhibit little to no benefit from treatment. It has been postulated that glucocorticoid resistance, or insensitivity, is due to individual differences in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated processes. It is possible that variations in cytochrome P450 3A enzyme-mediated metabolism of BDP may contribute to this phenomenon. This hypothesis has been explored by evaluating the contributions of CYP3A4, 3A5, 3A7 and esterase enzymes in the metabolism of BDP in vitro and relating metabolism to changes in CYP3A enzyme mRNA expression via the glucocorticoid receptor in lung and liver cells. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolized BDP via hydroxylation ([M4] and [M6]) and dehydrogenation ([M5]) at similar rates; CYP3A7 did not metabolize BDP. A new metabolite [M6], formed by the combined action of esterases and CYP3A4 hydroxylation, was also characterized. To validate the results observed using microsomes and recombinant enzymes, studies were also conducted using A549 lung and DPX2 liver cells. Both liver and lung cells produced esterase-dependent metabolites [M1-M3], with [M1] correlating with CYP3A5 mRNA induction in A549 cells. Liver cells produced both hydroxylated and dehydrogenated metabolites [M4, M5, and M6], but lung cells produced only the dehydrogenated metabolite [M5]. These studies show that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolize BDP to inactive metabolites and suggest that differences in the expression or function of these enzymes in the lung and/or liver could influence BDP disposition in humans.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2013; · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Styrene (S) is lung tumorigenic in mice but not in rats. S and its alkene-oxidized metabolite styrene oxide (SO) were not lung toxic in CYP2F2(-/-) [knockout] mice, indicating S-induced mouse lung tumors are mediated through mouse-specific CYP2F2-generated ring-oxidized metabolite(s) in lung bronchioles. The human relevance of the CYP2F MOA was assessed by insertion of a human CYP2F1,2A13,2B6 transgene into CYP2F2(-/-) mice; CYP2F1 expression and activity were confirmed in the transgenic (TG) mice. No evidence of cytotoxicity or increased cell proliferation (BrdU labeling) was seen in TG mice treated with either S or SO (200 mg/kg/day ip for 5 days). In contrast to S and SO, 4HS (105 mg/kg/day ip for 5 days) increased BrdU labeling 5-10 fold in WT mice, < 3 fold increase in KO mice and 2-4 fold in TG mice. The limited response of 4HS in KO and TG mice may result from intrinsic toxicity or from further metabolism; regardless of the MOA, these findings indicate that the CYP2F-mediated tumorigenic MOA in WT mice is not operative for S, SO, or for 4HS putatively derived from metabolism of S by CYP2F1 in humans, and thus S-induced mouse lung tumors are unlikely to be relevant to human risk.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 02/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between allelic variations in genes involved in fluticasone propionate (FP) metabolism and asthma control among children with asthma managed with inhaled FP. STUDY DESIGN: The relationship between variability in asthma control scores and genetic variation in drug metabolism was assessed by genotyping 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 genes. Genotype information was compared with asthma control scores (0 = well controlled to 15 = poorly controlled), determined using a questionnaire modified from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Expert Panel 3 guidelines. RESULTS: Our study cohort comprised 734 children with asthma (mean age, 8.8 ± 4.3 years) and was predominantly male (61%) and non-Hispanic white (53%). More than one-half of the children (56%; n = 413) were receiving an inhaled glucocorticoid daily, with FP the most frequently prescribed agent (65%). Among the children receiving daily FP, single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were not associated with asthma control scores. In contrast, asthma control scores were significantly improved in the 20 children (7%) with the CYP3A4*22 allele (median, 3; range, 0-6) compared with the 201 children without the CYP3A4*22 allele (median, 4; range, 0-15; P = .02). The presence of CYP3A4*22 was associated with improved asthma control scores by 2.1 points (95% CI, 0.5-3.8). CONCLUSION: The presence of CYP3A4*22, which is associated with decreased hepatic CYP3A4 expression and activity, was accompanied by improved asthma control in the FP-treated children. Decreased CYP3A4 activity may improve asthma control with inhaled FP.
    The Journal of pediatrics 01/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled glucocorticoids are the first-line treatment for patients with persistent asthma. However, approximately thirty percent of patients exhibit glucocorticoid insensitivity, which may involve excess metabolic clearance of the glucocorticoids by CYP3A enzymes in the lung. CYP3A4, 3A5, and 3A7 enzymes metabolize glucocorticoids, which in turn induce CYP3A genes. However, the mechanism of CYP3A5 mRNA regulation by glucocorticoids in lung cells has not been determined. In hepatocytes, glucocorticoids bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which induces the expression of the constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor; both of which bind to the retinoid X receptor alpha, leading to the induction of CYP3A4, 3A5, and 3A7. There is also evidence to suggest a direct induction of CYP3A5 by GR activation in liver cells. In this study, these pathways were evaluated as the mechanism for CYP3A5 mRNA induction by glucocorticoids in freshly isolated primary tracheal epithelial, adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549), immortalized bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B), primary normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE), primary small airway epithelial (SAEC), and primary lobar epithelial lung cells. In A549 cells, beclomethasone 17-monopropionate ([M1]) induced CYP3A5 mRNA through the glucocorticoid receptor. CYP3A5 mRNA induction by five different glucocorticoids was attenuated by inhibiting the glucocorticoid receptor using ketoconazole, and for beclomethasone dipropionate, using siRNA-mediated knock-down of the glucocorticoid receptor. The constitutive androstane receptor was not expressed in lung cells. SAEC cells, a primary lung cell line, expressed CYP3A5, but CYP3A5 mRNA was not induced by glucocorticoid treatment despite evaluating a multitude of cell culture conditions. None of the other lung cells expressed CYP3A4, 3A5 or 3A7 mRNA. These studies demonstrate that CYP3A5 mRNA is induced by glucocorticoids in A549 cells via the glucocorticoid receptor, but that additional undefined regulatory processes exist in primary lung cells.
    F1000Research. 01/2013; 2:173.
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    ABSTRACT: This study characterized electrophilic and radical products derived from metabolism of capsaicin by cytochrome P450 and peroxidase enzymes. Multiple glutathione and ß-mercaptoethanol conjugates (a.k.a., adducts), derived from trapping of quinone methide and quinone intermediates of capsaicin, its analogue nonivamide, and O-demethylated and aromatic hydroxylated metabolites thereof, were produced by human liver microsomes and individual recombinant human P450 enzymes. Conjugates derived from concomitant dehydrogenation of the alkyl terminus of capsaicin, were also characterized. Modifications to the 4-OH substituent of the vanilloid ring of capsaicinoids largely prevented the formation of electrophilic intermediates, consistent with the proposed structures and mechanisms of formation for the various conjugates. 5,5'-Dicapsaicin, presumably arising from bi-molecular coupling of free radical intermediates, was also characterized. Finally, the analysis of hepatic glutathione conjugates and urinary N-acetylcysteine conjugates from mice dosed with capsaicin confirmed the formation of glutathione conjugates of O-demethylated, quinone methide, and 5-OH-capsaicin in vivo. These data demonstrated that capsaicin and structurally similar analogues are converted to reactive intermediates by certain P450 enzymes, which may partially explain conflicting reports related to the cytotoxic, pro-carcinogenic, and chemoprotective effects of capsaicinoids in different cells and/or organ systems.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 10/2012; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2F1 (P450 2F1) is expressed exclusively in the human respiratory tract and is implicated in 3-methylindole (3MI)-induced pneumotoxicity via dehydrogenation of 3MI to a reactive electrophilic intermediate, 3-methyleneindolenine (3-MEI). Studies of P450 2F1 to date have been limited by the failure to express this enzyme in Escherichia coli. By contrast, P450 2F3, a caprine homologue that shares 84% sequence identity with P450 2F1 (86 amino acid differences), has been expressed in E. coli at yields greater than 250 nmol/L culture. We hypothesized that a limited number of sequence differences between P450s 2F1 and 2F3 could limit P450 2F1 expression in E. coli and that problematic P450 2F1 sequence elements could be identified by directed evolution. A library of P450 2F1/2F3 mutants was created by DNA family shuffling and screened for expression in E. coli. Three generations of DNA shuffling revealed a mutant (named JH_2F_F3_1_007) with 96.5% nucleotide sequence identity to P450 2F1 and which expressed 119 ± 40 pmol (n = 3, mean ± SD) hemoprotein in 1 mL microaerobic cultures. Across all three generations, two regions were observed where P450 2F3-derived sequence was consistently substituted for P450 2F1 sequence in expressing mutants, encoding nine amino acid differences between P450s 2F1 and 2F3: nucleotides 191-278 (amino acids 65-92) and 794-924 (amino acids 265-305). Chimeras constructed to specifically test the importance of these two regions confirmed that P450 2F3 sequence is essential in both regions for expression in E. coli but that other non-P450 2F1 sequence elements outside of these regions also improved the expression of mutant JH_2F_F3_1_007. Mutant JH_2F_F3_1_007 catalyzed the dehydrogenation of 3MI to 3-MEI as indicated by the observation of glutathione adducts after incubation in the presence of glutathione. The JH_2F_F3_1_007 protein differs from P450 2F1 at only 20 amino acids and should facilitate further studies of the structure-activity relationships of P450s of the 2F subfamily.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2012; 25(9):1964-74. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structure-based methods for P450 substrates are commonly used during drug development to identify sites of metabolism. However, docking studies using available X-ray structures for the major drug-metabolizing P450, CYP3A4, do not always identify binding modes supportive of the production of high-energy toxic metabolites. Minor pathways such as P450-catalyzed dehydrogenation have been experimentally shown to produce reactive products capable of forming biomolecular adducts which can lead to increased risk toxicities. 4-Hydroxy-tamoxifen (4OHT) is metabolized by CYP3A4 via competing hydroxylation and dehydrogenation reactions. Ab initio gas-phase electronic structural characterization of 4OHT was used to develop a docking scoring scheme. Conformational sampling of CYP3A4 with molecular dynamics simulations along multiple trajectories were used to generate representative structures for docking studies using recently published heme parameters. A key predicted binding mode was tested experimentally using site-directed mutagenesis of CYP3A4 and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. Docking with MD-refined CYP3A4 structures incorporating hexa-coordinate heme parameters identifies a unique binding mode involving ARG212 and channel 4, unobserved in the starting PDB ID: 1TQN X-ray structure. The models supporting dehydrogenation are consistent with results from in vitro incubations. Our models indicate that coupled structural contributions of the ingress, egress and solvent channels to the CYP3A4 active site geometries play key roles in the observed 4OHT binding modes. Thus adequate sampling of the conformational space of these drug-metabolizing promiscuous enzymes is important for substrates that may bind in malleable regions of the enzyme active-site.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2012; 1820(10):1605-17. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanics (MM) methods are computationally affordable tools for screening chemical libraries of novel compounds for sites of P450 metabolism. One challenge for MM methods has been the absence of a consistent and transferable set of parameters for the heme within the P450 active site. Experimental data indicate that mammalian P450 enzymes vary greatly in the size, architecture, and plasticity of their active sites. Thus, obtaining X-ray-based geometries for the development of accurate MM parameters for the major classes of hepatic P450 remains a daunting task. Our previous work with preliminary gas-phase quantum mechanics (QM)-derived atomic partial charges greatly improved the accuracy of docking studies of raloxifene to CYP3A4. We have therefore developed and tested a consistent set of transferable MM parameters based on gas-phase QM calculations of two model systems of the heme-a truncated (T-HM) and a full (F-HM) for four states of the P450 catalytic cycle. Our results indicate that the use of the atomic partial charges from the F-HM further improves the accuracy of docked predictions for raloxifene to CYP3A4. Different patterns for substrate docking are also observed depending on the choice of heme model and state. Newly parameterized heme models are tested in implicit and explicitly solvated MD simulations in the absence and presence of enzyme structures, for CYP3A4, and appear to be stable on the nanosecond simulation timescale. The new force field for the various heme states may aid the community for simulations of P450 enzymes and other heme-containing enzymes.
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 01/2012; 33(2):119-33. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether mouse CYP2A5 and CYP2F2 play critical roles in the bioactivation of 3-methylindole (3MI), a tissue-selective toxicant, in the target tissues, the nasal olfactory mucosa (OM) and lung. Five metabolites of 3MI were identified in NADPH- and GSH-fortified microsomal reactions, including 3-glutathionyl-S-methylindole (GS-A1), 3-methyl-2-glutathionyl-S-indole (GS-A2), 3-hydroxy-3-methyleneindolenine (HMI), indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C), and 3-methyloxindole (MOI). The metabolite profiles and enzyme kinetics of the reactions were compared between OM and lung, and among wild-type, Cyp2a5-null, and Cyp2f2-null mice. In lung reactions, GS-A1, GS-A2, and HMI were detected as major products, and I-3-C and MOI, as minor metabolites. In OM reactions, all five metabolites were detected in ample amounts. The loss of CYP2F2 affected formation of all 3MI metabolites in the lung and formation of HMI, GS-A1, and GS-A2 in the OM. In contrast, loss of CYP2A5 did not affect formation of 3MI metabolites in the lung but caused substantial decreases in I-3-C and MOI formation in the OM. Thus, whereas CYP2F2 plays a critical role in the 3MI metabolism in the lung, both CYP2A5 and CYP2F2 play important roles in 3MI metabolism in the OM. Furthermore, the fate of the reactive metabolites produced by the two enzymes through common dehydrogenation and epoxidation pathways seemed to differ with CYP2A5 supporting direct conversion to stable metabolites and CYP2F2 supporting further formation of reactive iminium ions. These results provide the basis for understanding the respective roles of CYP2A5 and CYP2F2 in 3MI's toxicity in the respiratory tract.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 01/2012; 40(4):642-7. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4α (C4α), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue.
    Molecular pharmacology 12/2011; 81(3):411-9. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous agonists of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) (endovanilloids) are implicated as mediators of lung injury during inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that endovanilloids produced following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment activate TRPV1 and cause endoplasmic reticulum stress/GADD153 expression in lung cells, representing a mechanistic component of lung injury. The TRPV1 agonist nonivamide induced GADD153 expression and caused cytotoxicity in immortalized and primary human bronchial, bronchiolar/alveolar, and microvascular endothelial cells, proportional to TRPV1 mRNA expression. In CF-1 mice, Trpv1 mRNA was most abundant in the alveoli, and intratracheal nonivamide treatment promoted Gadd153 expression in the alveolar region. Treatment of CF-1 mice with LPS increased Gadd153 in the lung, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and lung wet-to-dry weight ratio. Cotreating mice with LPS and the TRPV1 antagonist LJO-328 reduced Gadd153 induction and LDH in BAL but did not inhibit increases in lung wet-to-dry ratio. In Trpv1(-/-) mice treated with LPS, Gadd153 induction and LDH in BAL were reduced relative to wild-type mice, and the wet-to-dry weight ratios of lungs from both wild-type and Trpv1(-/-) mice decreased. Organic extracts of blood collected from LPS-treated mice were more cytotoxic to TRPV1-overexpressing cells compared with BEAS-2B cells and extracts from control mice, however, most pure endovanilloids did not produce cytotoxicity in a characteristic TRPV1-dependent manner. Collectively, these data indicate a role for TRPV1, and endogenous TRPV1 agonists, in ER stress and cytotoxicity in lung cells but demonstrate that ER stress and cytotoxicity are not essential for pulmonary edema.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 09/2011; 302(1):L111-9. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhalation of environmental particulate matter (PM) is correlated with adverse health effects in humans, but gene products that couple detection with cellular responses, and the specific properties of PM that target different pathways, have not been fully elucidated. TRPA1 and V1 are two cation channels expressed by sensory neurons and non-neuronal cells of the respiratory tract that have been implicated as possible mediators of PM toxicity. The goals of this research were to determine if environmental PM preferentially activated TRPA1 and to elucidate the criteria responsible for selectivity. Quantification of TRPA1 activation by 4 model PM revealed that diesel exhaust PM (DEP) and coal fly ash PM (CFA1) were TRPA1 agonists at concentrations >0.077 mg/mL. DEP was more potent, and approximately 97% of the activity of DEP was recovered by serial extraction of the solid DEP with ethanol and hexane/n-butyl chloride. Modification of the electrophile/agonist binding sites on TRPA1 (C621, C641, C665, and K710) to non-nucleophilic residues reduced TRPA1 activation by DEP and abolished activation by DEP extracts as well as multiple individual electrophilic chemical components of DEP. However, responses to CFA1 and DEP solids were not affected by these mutations. Activity-guided fractionation of DEP and high resolution mass spectroscopy identified several new DEP-derived TRPA1 agonists, and activation of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons demonstrated that TRPA1 is a primary target for DEP in a heterogeneous population of primary sensory nerves. It is concluded that TRPA1 is a specific target for electrophilic chemical components of DEP and proposed that activation of TRPA1 in the respiratory tract is likely to be an important mechanism for DEP pneumotoxicity.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 06/2011; 24(6):950-9. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of intracellular transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) in human lung cells causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased expression of proapoptotic GADD153 (growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible transcript 3), and cytotoxicity. However, in cells with low TRPV1 expression, cell death is not inhibited by TRPV1 antagonists, despite preventing GADD153 induction. In this study, chemical variants of the capsaicin analog nonivamide were synthesized and used to probe the relationship between TRPV1 receptor binding, ER calcium release, GADD153 expression, and cell death in TRPV1-overexpressing BEAS-2B, normal BEAS-2B, and primary normal human bronchial epithelial lung cells. Modification of the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylamide vanilloid ring pharmacophore of nonivamide reduced the potency of the analogs and rendered several analogs mildly inhibitory. Correlation analysis of analog-induced calcium flux, GADD153 induction, and cytotoxicity revealed a direct relationship for all three endpoints in all three lung cell types for nonivamide and N-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)nonanamide. However, the N-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)nonanamide analog also produced cytotoxicity through redox cycling/reactive oxygen species formation, shown by inhibition of cell death by N-acetylcysteine. Molecular modeling of binding interactions between the analogs and TRPV1 agreed with data for reduced potency of the analogs, and only nonivamide was predicted to form a "productive" ligand-receptor complex. This study provides vital information on the molecular interactions of capsaicinoids with TRPV1 and substantiates TRPV1-mediated ER stress as a conserved mechanism of lung cell death by prototypical TRPV1 agonists.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2011; 337(2):400-10. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3-Methylindole (3MI) is a preferential pneumotoxicant found in cigarette smoke. A number of lung-expressed human cytochrome P450 enzymes, including 1A1, 2F1, and 2A13, catalyze the metabolism of 3MI to reactive intermediates that fragment DNA, measured with the Comet assay to assess DNA damage, in a cytochrome P450-dependent manner in primary normal human lung cells in culture, but the mutagenesis of 3MI has been controversial. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of 3MI was compared to the prototypical cigarette smoke carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). 3MI, B(a)P, and NNK were incubated with the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98, which is known to detect the most common subtype of cigarette smoke-induced mutagenicity, frameshift mutations in DNA, and with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, which detects base pair substitution mutants, with five sources of P450-mediated bioactivation: rat liver S9, human lung microsomes, recombinant CYP2A13, purified CYP2F3, and recombinant CYP1A1. Only B(a)P was mutagenic in TA100, and it was bioactivated by human lung microsomes and rat liver S9 sources of P450s. However, with the TA98 strain, CYP1A1, CYP2A13, CYP2F3, and human lung microsomes bioactivated 3MI to highly mutagenic intermediates, whereas neither human nor rat liver S9 subcellular fractions formed mutagenic intermediates from 3MI. Quantitative Western blot analysis verified that all three respiratory enzymes were present in human lung microsomes in widely varying amounts. These results indicate that metabolism of 3MI by human lung-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes but not hepatic P450s elicits equivalent or higher mutagenicity than the prototype cigarette smoke mutagens B(a)P and NNK and indicates that 3MI is a likely human pulmonary carcinogen.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 11/2010; 23(11):1682-90. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of molecular modeling in conjunction with site-directed mutagenesis has been extensively used to study substrate orientation within cytochrome P450 active sites and to identify potential residues involved in the positioning and catalytic mechanisms of these substrates. However, because docking studies utilize static models to simulate dynamic P450 enzymes, the effectiveness of these studies is strongly dependent on accurate enzyme models. This study employed a cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) crystal structure (Protein Data Bank entry 1W0E) to predict the sites of metabolism of the known CYP3A4 substrate raloxifene. In addition, partial charges were incorporated into the P450 heme moiety to investigate the effect of the modified CYP3A4 model on metabolite prediction with the ligand docking program Autodock. Dehydrogenation of raloxifene to an electrophilic diquinone methide intermediate has been linked to the potent inactivation of CYP3A4. Active site residues involved in the positioning and/or catalysis of raloxifene supporting dehydrogenation were identified with the two models, and site-directed mutagenesis studies were conducted to validate the models. The addition of partial charges to the heme moiety improved the accuracy of the docking studies, increasing the number of conformations predicting dehydrogenation and facilitating the identification of substrate-active site residue interactions. On the basis of the improved model, the Phe215 residue was hypothesized to play an important role in orienting raloxifene for dehydrogenation through a combination of electrostatic and steric interactions. Substitution of this residue with glycine or glutamine significantly decreased dehydrogenation rates without concurrent changes in the rates of raloxifene oxygenation. Thus, the improved structural model predicted novel enzyme-substrate interactions that control the selective dehydrogenation of raloxifene to its protein-binding intermediate.
    Biochemistry 10/2010; 49(41):9011-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is a vital part of the management of chronic asthma. GCs are metabolized by members of the cytochrome P450 3A family in both liver and lung, but the enzymes are differentially expressed. Selective inhibition of one or more P450 3A enzymes could substantially modify target and systemic concentrations of GCs. In this study, we have evaluated the mechanism-based inactivation of P450 3A4, 3A5, and 3A7 enzymes by GCs. Among the five major inhaled GCs approved for clinical use in the United States, fluticasone propionate (FLT) was the most potent mechanism-based inactivator of P450 3A5, the predominant P450 enzyme in the lung. FLT inactivated P450 3A5 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with K(I), k(inact), and partition ratio of 16 muM, 0.027 min(-1), and 3, respectively. In contrast, FLT minimally inactivated P450 3A4 and did not inactivate 3A7, even with a concentration of 100 muM. The inactivation of P450 3A5 by FLT was irreversible because dialysis did not restore enzyme activity. In addition, the exogenous nucleophilic scavenger GSH did not attenuate inactivation. The prosthetic heme of P450 3A5 was not modified by FLT. The loss of P450 3A5 activity in lung cells could substantially decrease the metabolism of FLT, which would increase the effective FLT concentration at its target site, the respiratory epithelium. Also, inactivation of lung P450 3A5 could increase the absorption of inhaled FLT, which could lead to high systemic concentrations and adverse effects, such as life-threatening adrenal crises or cataracts that have been documented in children receiving high doses of inhaled GCs.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2010; 23(8):1356-64. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raloxifene was approved in 2007 by the FDA for the chemoprevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women at high risk for invasive breast cancer. Approval was based in part on the improved safety profile for raloxifene relative to the standard treatment of tamoxifen. However, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of raloxifene to form reactive intermediates and act as a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) by forming adducts with the apoprotein. However, previous studies could not differentiate between dehydrogenation to a diquinone methide and the more common oxygenation pathway to an arene oxide as the most likely intermediate to inactivate CYP3A4. In the current work, (18)O-incorporation studies were utilized to carefully elucidate CYP3A4-mediated oxygenation versus dehydrogenation of raloxifene. These studies established that 3'-hydroxyraloxifene is produced exclusively via CYP3A4-mediated oxygenation and provide convincing evidence for the mechanism of CYP3A4-mediated dehydrogenation of raloxifene to a reactive diquinone methide, while excluding the alternative arene oxide pathway. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that 7-hydroxyraloxifene, which was previously believed to be a typical O(2)-derived metabolite of CYP3A4, is in fact produced by a highly unusual hydrolysis pathway from a putative ester, formed by the conjugation of raloxifene diquinone methide with a carboxylic acid moiety of CYP3A4, or other proteins in the reconstituted system. These findings not only confirm CYP3A4-mediated dehydrogenation of raloxifene to a reactive diquinone methide but also suggest a novel route of raloxifene toxicity.
    Biochemistry 06/2010; 49(21):4466-75. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    Jessica M Weems, Garold S Yost
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    ABSTRACT: 3-Methylindole (3MI) is a highly selective pneumotoxicant that is present in abundant amounts (as high as 1.4 mug/cigarette) in cigarette smoke. Several human cytochrome P450 enzymes that are expressed in lung, such as CYP1A1, CYP2F1, CYP2A13, and CYP4B1, catalyze the dehydrogenation of 3MI to the reactive intermediate 3-methyleneindolenine, which alkylates DNA and induces cell death through apoptosis. In addition, 3MI potently damages DNA at low concentrations (observable at 0.1 muM). However, it seemed possible that 3MI could induce the levels of P450 enzymes, so transcription and translation of 1A1 and 2F1 genes were measured in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, 3MI-induced DNA damage at the 10 muM concentration was ameliorated when P450 turnover was inactivated with the cytochrome P450 suicide substrate inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole. Thus, the observed DNA damage was cytochrome P450-dependent. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed both concentration- and time-dependent increases in CYP1A1 and CYP2F1 transcription by the same 3MI concentrations that damaged DNA. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation lead to CYP1A1 induction. Treatment with 3MI in combination with the AhR antagonist alpha-naphthoflavone prevented 3MI-mediated CYP1A1 induction, indicating that the induction was AhR-dependent. Conversely, CYP2F1 induction did not appear to require activation of AhR. These intriguing findings show that not only is induction of 1A1 and 2F1 caused by 3MI metabolites, rather than 3MI itself, but transcriptional activation of these pulmonary genes occurs through disparate mechanisms. Thus, the induction process, and subsequent increased bioactivation of 3MI to toxic intermediates, is a facile process that might enhance the acute toxicity and/or mutagenicity of this chemical.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 02/2010; 23(3):696-704. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that bioactivation of the cigarette smoke pneumotoxicant 3-methylindole (3MI) by pulmonary cytochrome P450 enzymes is directly associated with formation of DNA adducts. Here, we present evidence that normal human lung epithelial cells, exposed to low micromolar concentrations of 3MI, showed extensive DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay, with similar potency to the prototypical genotoxic agents, doxorubicin and irinotecan. The DNA damage caused by 3MI was predominantly caused by single-strand breaks. Furthermore, we show that this damage decreased with time, given a subtoxic concentration, with detectable DNA fragmentation peaking 4 h after exposure and diminishing to untreated levels within 24 h. Pretreatment with an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), NU1025, nearly doubled the DNA damage produced by 5 microM 3MI, implying that PARP1, which among other activities, functions to repair single-strand breaks in DNA, repaired at least some of the 3MI-induced DNA fragmentation. A key cellular response to DNA damage, phosphorylation, and nuclear localization of p53 was seen at subtoxic levels of 3MI exposure. 3MI was highly mutagenic, with essentially the same potency as the prototype carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene, only when a lung-expressed CYP2F3 enzyme was used to dehydrogenate 3MI to its putative DNA-alkylating intermediate. Conversely, a rat liver S9 metabolic system did not bioactivate 3MI to its mutagenic intermediate(s). Concentrations higher than 25 microM caused apoptosis, which became extensive at 100 microM, similar to the response seen with 10 microM doxorubicin. Our findings indicate that there is a low concentration window in which 3MI can cause extensive DNA damage and mutation, without triggering apoptotic defenses, reinforcing the hypothesis that inhaled 3MI from cigarette smoke may be a potent lung-selective carcinogen.
    Toxicological Sciences 09/2009; 112(1):59-67. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3-Methylindole (3MI), a respiratory tract toxicant, can be metabolized by a number of cytochromes P450 (P450), primarily through either dehydrogenation or epoxidation of the indole. In the present study, we assessed the bioactivation of 3MI by recombinant CYP2A13, a human P450 predominantly expressed in the respiratory tract. Four metabolites were detected, and the two principal ones were identified as indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C) and 3-methyloxindole (MOI). Bioactivation of 3MI by CYP2A13 was verified by the observation of three glutathione (GSH) adducts designated as GS-A1 (glutathione adduct 1), GS-A2 (glutathione adduct 2), and GS-A3 (glutathione adduct 3) in a NADPH- and GSH-fortified reaction system. GS-A1 and GS-A2 gave the same molecular ion at m/z 437, an increase of 305 Da over 3MI. Their structures are assigned to be 3-glutathionyl-S-methylindole and 3-methyl-2-glutathionyl-S-indole, respectively, on the basis of the mass fragmentation data obtained by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were determined for the formation of I-3-C (V(max) = 1.5 nmol/min/nmol of P450; K(m) = 14 muM), MOI (V(max) = 1.9 nmol/min/nmol of P450; K(m) = 15 muM) and 3-glutathionyl-S-methylindole (V(max) = 0.7 nmol/min/nmol of P450; K(m) = 13 muM). The structure of GS-A3, a minor adduct with a protonated molecular ion at m/z 453, is proposed to be 3-glutathionyl-S-3-methyloxindole. We also discovered that 3MI is a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2A13, given that it produced a time-, cofactor-, and 3MI concentration-dependent loss of activity toward 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, with a relatively low K(I) value of approximately 10 muM and a k(inact) of 0.046 min(-1). Thus, CYP2A13 metabolizes 3MI through multiple bioactivation pathways, and the process can lead to a suicide inactivation of CYP2A13.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 08/2009; 37(10):2018-27. · 3.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
391.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2011
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • 2007
    • Johnson & Johnson
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • Government of Alberta, Agriculture and Rural Development
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1983–1996
    • Washington State University
      • • Department of Animal Sciences
      • • College of Pharmacy
      Pullman, WA, United States