Edward M Erin

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (21)98.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ciclesonide is a novel inhaled corticosteroid for the treatment of asthma, and it is important to measure the onset of effect of this therapy on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and levels of eosinophils in induced sputum. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 21 patients with mild asthma inhaled ciclesonide 320 microg (ex-actuator) qd, ciclesonide 640 microg (ex-actuator) bid, and placebo for 7 days. Exhaled NO and AHR to adenosine monophosphate (AMP), measured as the provocative concentration of AMP producing a 20% reduction in FEV1 (PC20FEV1), were assessed after inhalation on days 1, 3 and 7. Eosinophil levels in induced sputum were also measured. Ciclesonide 320 microg qd and 640 microg bid produced significantly greater improvements in PC20FEV1 compared with placebo on day 1 (within 2.5 h), and on days 3 and 7 (all p < 0.0001). On day 3, both ciclesonide doses significantly reduced exhaled NO levels by - 17.7 parts per billion (p < 0.0001) and - 15.4 parts per billion (p < 0.003) vs placebo, respectively. Significant reductions were maintained during the study with both ciclesonide doses (p < 0.01). A nonsignificant trend towards a decrease in eosinophil cell numbers was observed after 7 days of ciclesonide treatment, especially in patients receiving the higher dose. A single dose of ciclesonide decreased AHR to AMP and exhaled NO within 3 h, while FEV, improved at 3 days and 7 days.
    Chest 05/2008; 134(4):740-5. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dithiothreitol (DTT) is commonly used to liquefy induced sputum samples before assessment of cytology, but causes reduction of disulfide bonds and denaturation of proteins. To process sputum supernatants containing DTT to enable quantification of cytokines and chemokines. A standard solution of 22 pooled chemokines and cytokines was incubated with DTT at the concentrations used during sputum liquefaction and then dialyzed under 20 different denaturant and redox conditions. After incubation of the standard solution with DTT there was loss of detectable protein mediators on immunoassay, but optimized dialysis permitted recovery of chemokines to 96 +/- 4% and cytokines to 91 +/- 6%. Optimized dialysis of DTT supernatants from subjects with asthma covering a range of severities (n = 35) was performed in the presence of a cocktail of protease inhibitors and demonstrated significantly elevated levels of the chemokine CXCL10 (IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10), CXCL8 (IL-8), and CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha); with lower but significantly elevated levels of CCL2 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), CCL11 (eotaxin), and CCL5 (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) in severe asthma. In sputum from subjects with severe asthma there were also significantly elevated levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-12(p40). The technique of optimized dialysis and protease inhibition of sputum DTT supernatants aids the detection of chemokines and cytokines. The detection of elevated levels of particular sputum chemokines and cytokines in individual patients may provide a rationale for specific therapies.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 02/2008; 177(2):132-41. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    AJRCCM Articles in Press. Published on October. 01/2007; 25.
  • Am J Respir Crit Care. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Neutralization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an effective antiinflammatory therapy for several chronic inflammatory diseases. We undertook a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design study in 38 patients with moderate asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids but symptomatic during a run-in phase. Infliximab (5 mg/kg) or placebo was administered by intravenous infusion at Weeks 0, 2, and 6. We assessed clinical response by monitoring lung function, symptoms, and inhaled beta(2)-agonist usage using hand-held electronic devices. The primary endpoint, change in morning PEF at Days 50-56 compared with the last 7 d of the run-in, was not significantly different on treatment. However, infliximab was associated with a decrease in mean diurnal variation of PEF at Week 8 (p = 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.1 to -0.72). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of patients with exacerbations of asthma (p = 0.01; 95% CI, 4.4 to 52.7) and an increased probability of freedom from exacerbation with time (p = 0.03) in patients on infliximab (n = 14) compared with placebo (n = 18). In addition, infliximab decreased levels of TNF-alpha (p = 0.01) and other cytokines in sputum supernatants. There were no serious adverse events related to the study agent. Treatment with infliximab was well tolerated and caused a decrease in the number of patients with exacerbations in symptomatic moderate asthma. The promising preliminary findings underscore the need to evaluate therapy directed against TNF-alpha in larger trials enrolling patients with more severe asthma.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 11/2006; 174(7):753-62. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of pediatric asthma is currently based on symptoms (often a second-hand report from parents) and lung function. Inhaled steroids are the mainstay of asthma management targeted at controlling airway inflammation. They should be used in the lowest possible doses. A number of noninvasive methods to assess inflammation have been developed in an effort to optimize anti-inflammatory treatment. The first longitudinal studies have been published demonstrating an improvement in asthma control in children by adding noninvasive monitoring of inflammation into the clinical management. New methods include exhaled nitric oxide measurements, induced sputum and markers in exhaled breath condensate. Further studies will show the practicability of including these measurement methods into everyday clinical practice. Their addition to the conventional assessment of asthma control appears promising. Using these methods to evaluate the current inflammatory state seems obligatory in research into new asthma therapeutics and management strategies. Managing asthma in children in specialist practice relying only on symptoms and lung function is no longer state of the art.
    Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 07/2006; 6(3):155-60. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: beta-Tryptase is a multifunctional mast cell serine protease released during mast cell degranulation and tryptase/trypsin inhibitors are a novel potential therapeutic approach for allergic inflammatory diseases. This study was performed to assess the effects of RWJ-58643 on nasal symptoms, eosinophil influx, and cytokine and chemokine release following nasal allergen challenge (NAC). Male patients with grass pollen allergic rhinitis (n=16) out of season received single doses of RWJ-58643 (100, 300, 600 microg) or matched placebo given 30 min before NAC in a double-blind, randomized crossover design. A single dose of 200 microg budesonide was studied in an open-label extension phase. NAC was performed with Timothy grass pollen (ALK) via a nasal device, and nasal lavage was performed at times 0 (pre-drug, pre-allergen), 0.5 (30 min post-drug, pre-NAC) 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, 6.5, 8.5, and 24 h after drug administration. Nasal lavage mediators were analysed using a sensitive multiplexed bead immunoassay system. Low-dose RWJ-58643 (100 microg) and budesonide (200 microg) significantly reduced symptoms, eosinophils and levels of IL-5 following NAC. However, higher doses of RWJ-58643 (300 and 600 microg) caused a late eosinophilia and preceding increases in IL-5 compared with placebo. This study suggests that combined beta-tryptase and trypsin inhibition has therapeutic potential in allergic inflammation, however, this property is dose responsive and higher doses are ineffective and may cause eosinophilia.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 05/2006; 36(4):458-64. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokines and chemokines produced by allergen-reactive T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells may be pivotal to the pathophysiology of allergic disorders. This study was performed to assess the effect of 7 days of topical corticosteroid on nasal allergen challenge (NAC) in terms of eosinophils, cytokines and chemokines obtained by nasal lavage and filter paper methods. Patients with grass pollen seasonal-allergic rhinitis (n = 13) out of season received nasal challenge following matched placebo (twice daily into each nostril for 7 days) and fluticasone propionate (100 microg twice daily into each nostril for 7 days). Chemokine and cytokine levels were analysed using a sensitive automated bead immunoassay system at intervals up to 8 h after NAC. Levels of cytokines and chemokines from filter paper were generally higher than from nasal lavage. Fluticasone propionate caused a reduction in symptoms, total leukocyte counts and eosinophils, and abrogation of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13 responses in the filter paper taken in the late phase (P < 0.05 for IL-4 and IL-13, P < 0.01 for IL-5 and IL-6). Levels of chemokines (eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, IL-8 and IP-10) were also reduced in the late phase (P < 0.01 at 8 h). However, levels of IL-2, IL-3, IL-7, IL-12 (p40 and p70), -15, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF were not affected. Fluticasone propionate has selective inhibitory effects on Th2 cytokine synthesis following nasal challenge, while also decreasing release of chemokines, but not affecting levels of Th1 cytokines.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 12/2005; 35(12):1608-14. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nasal lavage is a noninvasive method of obtaining inflammatory exudates following nasal allergen challenge (NAC), and permits cells and released mediators to be evaluated. Objective: To determine the effects of a single dose of topical steroid on eosinophils and levels of chemokines and cytokines in nasal lavage fluid following NAC in patients with allergic rhinitis. Patients with grass pollen seasonal allergic rhinitis (n = 32) out of the allergy season received either nasal budesonide (100 microg per nostril) or matched placebo before allergen challenge in a double blind two-way crossover design. A semi-automated mixed bead array system was employed to measure multiple chemokines and cytokines in small volumes (50 microl) of nasal lavage supernatants. Following NAC there was a rapid onset of nasal symptoms together with nasal eosinophilia, and the appearance of IL-5 and IL-13 in lavages between 4 and 8 h. Elevated levels of eotaxin, RANTES, IL-8 and MCP-1 were also detected following allergen challenge. A single dose of nasal budesonide caused a decrease in symptoms (P < 0.05) and nasal eosinophils (P < 0.05) with selective abrogation of IL-5 and IL-13 responses (P < 0.05), but a lack of effect on levels of eotaxin, RANTES, IL-8 and MCP-1. This study suggests that a single dose of nasal steroid has the capacity to selectively abolish IL-5 and IL-13 responses following NAC. This model should be convenient for testing novel anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory agents intended for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
    Allergy 12/2005; 60(12):1524-9. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled anticholinergic drugs are effective bronchodilators in the treatment of COPD, and tiotropium bromide has recently been introduced as a once-daily bronchodilator for use as a maintenance treatment. Racemic glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic drug that has been used orally to control gastric acidity, parenterally as an antisialogogue and to reverse neuromuscular blockade, and has been studied by inhalation for asthma and COPD. We investigated the duration of protection against the constrictor effects of inhaled methacholine of a single dose of inhaled nebulized racemic glycopyrrolate (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg) compared with ipratropium bromide (0.5 mg) and placebo in 10 atopic asthmatic volunteers in a double-blind, five-way, crossover study. Protection against methacholine-induced bronchospasm after administering glycopyrrolate was maintained to 30 h, the last time point measured. Both bronchodilatation and bronchoprotection were significantly longer with glycopyrrolate than after ipratropium bromide, and bronchoprotection was significant at all time points from 2 to 30 h compared to placebo. Dryness of the mouth and nose was described in 18% of patients after the highest dose of glycopyrrolate. The prolonged bronchodilator response and the protection against methacholine-induced bronchospasm demonstrated in asthma suggests that inhaled racemic glycopyrrolate would be superior to ipratropium bromide for treatment of stable COPD.
    Chest 11/2005; 128(4):1974-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Clinical & Experimental Allergy 09/2005; 35(8):981-5. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of noninvasive methods of monitoring airway inflammation, such as exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and induced sputum, has been shown to improve asthma monitoring and optimize treatment in adult patients with asthma. There is a lack of comparable data in children. Forty children with stable asthma eligible for inhaled steroid reduction were reviewed every 8 weeks, and their inhaled steroid dose halved if clinically indicated. eNO, sputum induction combined with bronchial hyperreactivity testing, and exhaled breath condensate collection were performed at each visit to predict success or failure of reduction of inhaled steroids. Thirty of 40 (75%) children tolerated at least one dose reduction, 12 of 40 (30%) were successfully weaned off, and in total, 15 of 40 (38%) children experienced loss of asthma control. Treatment reduction was successful in all children who had no eosinophils in induced sputum before the attempted reduction. Using multiple logistic regression, increased eNO (odds ratio, 6.3; confidence interval, 3.75-10.58) and percentage of sputum eosinophils (odds ratio, 1.38; confidence interval, 1.06-1.81) were significant predictors of failed reduction. These findings suggest that monitoring airway inflammation may be useful in optimizing treatment in children with asthma.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2005; 171(10):1077-82. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite having been recognized for a long time as a cheap and effective therapy for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), theophylline is relegated to third-line therapy in the treatment of airway diseases due to the drug's frequent side effects and relatively low efficacy. However, regardless of the current situation, there are reasons for thinking that the use of theophylline, in addition to inhaled steroids, may come back into fashion for the treatment of chronic asthma, as it may have an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect when given in low doses. At these low doses, the drug is easier to use, side effects are uncommon and the problems of drug interaction are less of an issue, thus making the clinical use of theophylline less complicated. In COPD, low-dose theophylline is the first drug to demonstrate clear anti-inflammatory effects, and thus it may even have a role in preventing progression of the disease. Furthermore, the reversal of the steroid resistance induced by oxidative stress suggests that theophylline may increase responsiveness to corticosteroids.
    Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998) 02/2004; 40(1):55-69. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a pressing need to develop new treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as no currently available drug has been shown to reduce the relentless progression of this disease. Furthermore, recognition of the global importance and rising prevalence of COPD and the absence of effective therapies has now led to a concerted effort to develop new drugs for this disease [1, 2]. However, there have been disappointingly few therapeutic advances in the drug therapy of COPD, in contrast to the enormous advances made in asthma management that reflect a much better understanding of the underlying disease [3, 4].
    01/2004;
  • Am J Respiratory and Crit care. 01/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken to assess the correlation between cough frequency in asthmatic children with lung function and two non-invasive markers of airway inflammation. Thirty two children of median age 12.0 years (interquartile range (IQR) 9.5-13.4) with stable asthma were recruited. They underwent spirometric testing, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) measurement, sputum induction for differential cell count, and ambulatory cough monitoring over 17 hours and 40 minutes. Coughing episodes were counted both as individual spikes and as clusters. Complete cough frequency data were available in 29 children (90%) and their median forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and eNO were 88.5% (IQR 79.5-98) and 23.9 ppb (IQR 11.4-41.5), respectively. The median number of cough episodes was 14 (IQR 7.0-24.0) which was significantly higher than that of normal children (6.7 (IQR 4.1-10.5), p<0.001). Sputum induction was successful in 61% of the subjects; the median induced sputum eosinophil count was 0.05% (IQR 0-9.0). Cough frequency was found to have a significant positive correlation with eNO (Spearman's r =0.781, p<0.001) but not with FEV1 or sputum eosinophil count (r =-0.270, p=0.157; r =0.173, p=0.508, respectively). Children with stable asthma have increased cough frequency compared with normal controls and cough frequency was greater during the day than at night. Cough may be a more sensitive marker of airway inflammation than simple spirometry.
    Thorax 12/2003; 58(11):974-8. · 8.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inducible isoenzyme of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generates nitric oxide (NO) in inflammatory diseases such as asthma. The prodrug L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine 5-tetrazole amide (SC-51) is rapidly converted in vivo to the active metabolite L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). Initially, we performed in vitro experiments in human primary airway epithelial cells to demonstrate that L-NIL causes inhibition of iNOS. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, SC-51 was administered as a single oral dose (20 or 200 mg) in separate cohorts of healthy volunteers (two groups of n=12) and mild asthmatic patients (two groups of n=12). SC-51 (200 mg) reduced exhaled breath NO levels to <2 ppb in both healthy volunteers (P<0.001) and mild asthmatics (P<0.001) within 15 min, representing >90% inhibition of baseline levels of NO in asthmatic patients, with the effects lasting at least 72 h. There were no significant effects on blood pressure, pulse rate, or respiratory function (FEV1). This study demonstrates that an inhibitor of iNOS produces marked inhibition of exhaled breath NO in normal and asthmatic subjects without producing the side effects observed following the systemic administration of non-selective NOS inhibitors, and thus provides support for the potential use of iNOS inhibitors to treat a range of inflammatory clinical disorders.
    The FASEB Journal 08/2003; 17(10):1298-300. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy for patients with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but, at present, the majority of patients use short-acting agents. There is increasing evidence that long-acting agents, such as the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists salmeterol and formeterol, and the new anticholinergic tiotropium bromide provide a better therapeutic option. In the treatment of COPD, long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) given twice daily cause the same degree of bronchodilation as tiotropium bromide given once daily. Combined use of an inhaled LABA with tiotropium bromide should provide important therapeutic benefits, as these drugs have distinct and complementary pharmacological actions in the airways. Although clinical trials of this combination have not been performed, clinical experience with Combivent, a combination of a short-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (salbutamol) and a short-acting anticholinergic (ipratropium bromide), in COPD is encouraging because the bronchodilation produced is of a magnitude greater than that of either component alone. However, because LABAs are given twice daily but tiotropium bromide is required only once daily, the challenge is to develop a combined inhaler that can be employed on a daily basis.
    Current Opinion in Pharmacology 07/2003; 3(3):270-6. · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A range of low molecular weight chemicals have been developed to antagonise the eotaxin receptor, cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3), with the aim of selectively inhibiting eosinophil recruitment into tissue sites. However, the results of recent clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies directed against interleukin-5 (IL-5) question the role of eosinophils in mediating the symptoms of asthma and allergic disease. For this reason, the plans for clinical development of certain CCR3 antagonists have been halted. However, eotaxin 1-3 and a variety of other chemokines interact with CCR3; and this receptor is expressed not only on eosinophils but also on basophils, mast cell subpopulations, activated Th2 cells, macrophages, and airway epithelial cells. Hence, CCR3 is closely associated with asthma and allergy and blockade of this receptor may have pronounced beneficial effects in these diseases. We consider the chemical structures of CCR3 antagonist molecules from a range of pharmaceutical companies, and present an early clinical development plan for a hypothetical CCR3 antagonist. CCR3 antagonists are likely to be safe and effective therapies for allergic diseases, and their clinical pharmacology can readily be defined within phase I/II studies in patients with allergy and asthma.
    Current Drug Targets - Inflammation & Allergy 07/2002; 1(2):201-14.
  • E M Erin, P J Barnes, T T Hansel
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 06/2002; 32(5):653-7. · 4.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

627 Citations
98.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2008
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
      • Division of Respiratory Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States