Menso J Nubé

VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (87)273.2 Total impact

  • American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2014; 64(5):819–820. · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Kidney international. 09/2014; 86(3):651.
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    ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose: High volume hemodiafiltration (HDF) is associated with improved survival in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). It is unknown if high volume HDF is feasible in the majority of these patients. Main conclusion: High volume HDF is feasible in the majority of patients with ESKD.
    51st Congress of the European Renal Association and European Dialysis and Transplant Association 2014; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Sub-analyses of three large trials showed that hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients who achieved the highest convection volumes had the lowest mortality risk. The aims of this study were (1) to identify determinants of convection volume and (2) to assess whether differences exist between patients achieving high and low volumes. Methods: HDF patients from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST) with a complete dataset at 6 months (314 out of a total of 358) were included in this post hoc analysis. Determinants of convection volume were identified by regression analysis. Results: Treatment time, blood flow rate, dialysis vintage, serum albumin and hematocrit were independently related. Neither vascular access nor dialyzer characteristics showed any relation with convection volume. Except for some variation in body size, patient characteristics did not differ across tertiles of convection volume. Conclusion: Treatment time and blood flow rate are major determinants of convection volume. Hence, its magnitude depends on center policy rather than individualized patient prescription. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Blood Purification 06/2014; 37(3):229-237. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The general objective assigned to the European DIALysis (EUDIAL) Working Group by the European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) was to enhance the quality of dialysis therapies in Europe in the broadest possible sense. Given the increasing interest in convective therapies, the Working Group has started by focusing on hemodiafiltration (HDF) therapies. A EUDIAL consensus conference was held in Paris on 13 October 2011 to discuss definitions, safety standards, clinical outcome and educational issues. Recently, the first report of the EUDIAL group was published, revisiting the definition, dose quantification, and safety of HDF. Since the meeting in Paris, new evidence has become available regarding the clinical benefits of HDF. This is the second report of the expert group in which the relation between HDF and clinical outcomes is systematically reviewed and analyzed, with emphasis on the relation between achieved convection volume and treatment effect.
    Seminars in Dialysis 03/2014; 27(2):119-27. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Online hemodiafiltration may diminish inflammatory activity through amelioration of the uremic milieu. However, impurities in water quality might provoke inflammatory responses. We therefore compared the long-term effect of low-flux hemodialysis to hemodiafiltration on the systemic inflammatory activity in a randomized controlled trial. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured for up to 3 years in 405 patients of the CONvective TRAnsport STudy, and albumin was measured at baseline and every 3 months in 714 patients during the entire follow-up. Differences in the rate of change over time of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and albumin were compared between the two treatment arms. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 concentrations increased in patients treated with hemodialysis, and remained stable in patients treated with hemodiafiltration. There was a statistically significant difference in rate of change between the groups after adjustments for baseline variables (C-reactive protein difference 20%/year and interleukin-6 difference 16%/year). The difference was more pronounced in anuric patients. Serum albumin decreased significantly in both treatment arms, with no difference between the groups. Thus, long-term hemodiafiltration with ultrapure dialysate seems to reduce inflammatory activity over time compared to hemodialysis, but does not affect the rate of change in albumin.Kidney International advance online publication, 19 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.9.
    Kidney International 02/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation and malnutrition are important features in patients with ESRD; however, data on changes in these parameters over time are scarce. This study aimed to gain insight into changes over time in serum albumin, body mass index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and IL-6 in patients with ESRD and aimed to identify clinical risk factors for deterioration of these parameters. Data were analyzed from the Convective Transport Study, a randomized controlled trial conducted from June 2004 to January 2011, in which 714 patients with chronic ESRD were randomized to either online hemodiafiltration or low-flux hemodialysis. Albumin and body mass index were measured up to 6 years and predialysis C-reactive protein and IL-6 were measured up to 3 years in a subset of 405 participants. Rates of change in these parameters over time were estimated across strata of predefined risk factors with linear mixed-effects models. Albumin and body mass index decreased and C-reactive protein and IL-6 increased over time. For every incremental year of age at baseline, the yearly excess decline in albumin was 0.003 g/dl (-0.004 to -0.002; P<0.001) and the excess decline in body mass index was 0.02 kg/m(2) per year (-0.02 to -0.01; P<0.001). In patients with diabetes mellitus, there was a yearly excess decline of 0.05 g/dl in albumin (-0.09 to -0.02; P=0.002). Compared with women, men had an excess decline of 0.03 g/dl per year in albumin (-0.06 to -0.001; P=0.05) and an excess increase of 11.6% per year in IL-6 (0.63%-23.6%; P=0.04). Despite guideline-based care, all inflammatory and nutritional parameters worsened over time. The deterioration of some of these parameters was more pronounced in men, older patients, and patients with diabetes mellitus. Special focus on the nutritional status of at-risk patients by individualizing medical care might improve their prognosis.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2014; 9(2):318-25. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased left ventricular mass (LVM), low ventricular ejection fraction (EF), and high pulse-wave velocity (PWV) relate to overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of online hemodiafiltration (HDF) versus low-flux hemodialysis (HD) on LVM, EF, and PWV. Echocardiography was used to assess LVM and EF in 342 patients in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy followed for up to 4 years. PWV was measured in 189 patients for up to 3 years. Effect of HDF versus HD on LVM, EF, and PWV was evaluated using linear mixed models. Patients had a mean age of 63 years, and 61% were male. At baseline, median LVM was 227 g (interquartile range [IQR], 183-279 g), and median EF was 65% (IQR, 55%-72%). Median PWV was 9.8 m/s (IQR, 7.5-12.0 m/s). There was no significant difference between the HDF and HD treatment groups in rate of change in LVM (HDF: change, -0.9 g/yr [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -8.9 to 7.7 g]; HD: change, 12.5 g/yr [95% CI, -3.0 to 27.5 g]; P for difference=0.13), EF (HDF: change, -0.3%/yr [95% CI, -2.3% to 1.8%]; HD: change, -3.4%/yr [95% CI, -5.9% to -0.9%]; P=0.17), or PWV (HDF: change, -0.0 m/s per year [95% CI, -0.4 to 0.4 m/s); HD: change, 0.0 m/s per year [95% CI, -0.3 to 0.2 m/s]; P=0.89). No differences in rate of change between treatment groups were observed for subgroups of age, sex, residual kidney function, dialysis vintage, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or convection volume. Treatment with online HDF did not affect changes in LVM, EF, or PWV over time compared with HD.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) is common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) treatment. ESA responsiveness might be improved by enhanced clearance of uremic toxins of middle molecular weight, as can be obtained by hemodiafiltration (HDF). In this analysis of the randomized controlled CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556), the effect of online HDF on ESA resistance and iron parameters was studied. This was a pre-specified secondary endpoint of the main trial. A 12 months' analysis of 714 patients randomized to either treatment with online post-dilution HDF or continuation of low-flux HD was performed. Both groups were treated with ultrapure dialysis fluids. ESA resistance, measured every three months, was expressed as the ESA index (weight adjusted weekly ESA dose in daily defined doses [DDD]/hematocrit). The mean ESA index during 12 months was not different between patients treated with HDF or HD (mean difference HDF versus HD over time 0.029 DDD/kg/Hct/week [-0.024 to 0.081]; P = 0.29). Mean transferrin saturation ratio and ferritin levels during the study tended to be lower in patients treated with HDF (-2.52% [-4.72 to -0.31]; P = 0.02 and -49 ng/mL [-103 to 4]; P = 0.06 respectively), although there was a trend for those patients to receive slightly more iron supplementation (7.1 mg/week [-0.4 to 14.5]; P = 0.06). In conclusion, compared to low-flux HD with ultrapure dialysis fluid, treatment with online HDF did not result in a decrease in ESA resistance. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00205556.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94434. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is known to be related to overall and cardiovascular mortality in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. The aims of the present study are 1) to determine whether LVM is associated with mortality and various cardiovascular events and 2) to identify determinants of LVM including biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis. Analysis was performed with data of 327 ESKD patients, a subset from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST). Echocardiography was performed at baseline. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relation of LVM tertiles with clinical events. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with LVM. Median age was 65 (IQR: 54-73) years, 203 (61%) were male and median LVM was 227 (IQR: 183-279) grams. The risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.11-2.99), cardiovascular death (HR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.35-10.05) and sudden death (HR = 13.06; 95% CI: 6.60-107) was increased in the highest tertile (>260grams) of LVM. In the multivariable analysis positive relations with LVM were found for male gender (B = 38.8±10.3), residual renal function (B = 17.9±8.0), phosphate binder therapy (B = 16.9±8.5), and an inverse relation for a previous kidney transplantation (B = -41.1±7.6) and albumin (B = -2.9±1.1). Interleukin-6 (Il-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), hepcidin-25 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were not related to LVM. We confirm the relation between a high LVM and outcome and expand the evidence for increased risk of sudden death. No relationship was found between LVM and markers of inflammation and fibrosis. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN38365125.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e84587. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Muriel Grooteman, Menso Nubé
    Nature Reviews Nephrology 06/2013; · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest in haemodiafiltration (HDF), there is no information on the costs and cost-utility of this dialysis modality yet. It was therefore our objective to study the cost-utility of HDF versus haemodialysis (HD). METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was performed using a Markov model. It included data from the Convective Transport Study (CONTRAST), a randomized controlled trial that compared online HDF with low-flux HD. Costs were estimated using a societal perspective. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to study uncertainty. RESULTS: Total annual costs for HDF and HD were €88 622 ± 19 272 and €86 086 ± 15 945, respectively (in 2009 euros). When modelled over a 5-year period, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of HDF versus HD was €287 679. Sensitivity analyses revealed that this amount will not fall below €140 000, even under the most favourable assumptions like a high-convection volume (>20.3 L). CONCLUSIONS: Based on accepted societal willingness-to-pay thresholds, HDF cannot be considered a cost-effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease at present. Apparently, minor additional costs of HDF are not counterbalanced by a relevant QALY gain.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 06/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mild-to-chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a variety of haemostatic disorders, ranging from an increased clotting tendency and reductions in the levels of natural inhibitors of coagulation to defective fibrinolysis. In addition, platelet (PLT) abnormalities are common. In this minireview, we report on aspects of haemodialysis (HD)-induced PLT activation. It is demonstrated that PLTs from HD patients are exhausted due to repeated stimulation of HD treatment and recurrent release of PLT degranulation products. During HD, additional aberrations of the haemostatic process occur. Besides deviations of coagulation and fibrinolysis, PLT activation and a reduction in their granule content have been observed during HD treatment. As HD treatment is carried out three times per week, month after month, chronic HD patients may suffer persistently from coagulation defects and PLT disorders on top of the alterations induced by the uraemic state itself. PLT activation occurs together with thrombin and fibrin generation. However, macro fibrin depositions in clot devices are not demonstrated, microaggregates occur not only in the extracorporeal circuit (ECC) but are also present in the blood circulation. As vascular access thrombosis is a frequent complication in patients with HD treatment, it is believed that hypercoagulability could result from vascular changes combined with PLTs and activation of coagulation factors.
    Clinical kidney journal. 06/2013; 6(3):266-271.
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the distribution of causes of death in the CONTRAST cohort and compared the proportion of cardiovascular deaths with other populations to answer the question whether cardiovascular mortality is still the principal cause of death in end stage renal disease. In addition, we compared patients who died from the three most common death causes. Finally, we aimed to study factors related to dialysis withdrawal. We used data from CONTRAST, a randomized controlled trial in 714 chronic hemodialysis patients comparing the effects of online hemodiafiltration versus low-flux hemodialysis. Causes of death were adjudicated. The distribution of causes of death was compared to that of the Dutch dialysis registry and of the Dutch general population. In CONTRAST, 231 patients died on treatment. 32% died from cardiovascular disease, 22% due to infection and 23% because of dialysis withdrawal. These proportions were similar to those in the Dutch dialysis registry and the proportional cardiovascular mortality was similar to that of the Dutch general population. cardiovascular death was more common in patients <60 years. Patients who withdrew were older, had more co-morbidity and a lower mental quality of life at baseline. Patients who withdrew had much co-morbidity. 46% died within 5 days after the last dialysis session. Although the absolute risk of death is much higher, the proportion of cardiovascular deaths in a prevalent end stage renal disease population is similar to that of the general population. In older hemodialysis patients cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death risk are equally important. Particularly the registration of dialysis withdrawal deserves attention. These findings may be partly limited to the Dutch population.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):61155-. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: During haemodialysis (HD) treatment, increase of platelet (PLT) activation and induction of procoagulant activity is demonstrated. Although the role of the endothelium and its direct interaction with coagulation and homeostasis is known, it is not elucidated how PLT activation markers and activation of coagulation coincide with markers of endothelial integrity during HD treatment. In the present study uraemia and HD induced changes, with particular emphasis on PLT granules depletion, activation of coagulation and endothelial integrity were investigated. METHODS: To detect depletion of PLT granules, peripheral blood slide smears were screened by light microscopy for qualitative evaluation of PLT granule containing cytoplasm, as indicated by its granules staining density. Activation of coagulation was investigated by establishement of thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and fibrinogen concentrations. To evaluate endothelial integrity proendothelin (proET-1) plasma concentrations were established. RESULTS: Results of our study demonstrate that proET-1 plasma concentrations were obviously increased in the subjects' group with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal failure if compared with a group of apparently healthy subjects. The amount of depleted PLT granules was obviously increased in the subjects' group with end-stage CKD if compared with the group with renal failure. Mean plasma concentrations of TAT and fibrinogen revealed results within the reference range. CONCLUSIONS: It is demonstrated that uraemia is associated with endothelial damage and aberrations in PLT granules morphology in subjects with HD treatment. We hypothesize that increased proET-1 concentrations reflect ongoing stress on endothelial cells amongst others due to uraemia. Biomarkers like proET-1 and aberrations in PLT granules morphology assist in the early detection of procoagulant activity of the endothelium.
    BMC Nephrology 03/2013; 14(1):72. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The development of atherosclerosis may be enhanced by iron accumulation in macrophages. Hepcidin-25 is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, which downregulates the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. In haemodialysis (HD) patients, hepcidin-25 levels are increased. Therefore, it is conceivable that hepcidin-25 is associated with all-cause mortality and/or fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events in this patient group. The aim of the current analysis was to study the relationship between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality and both fatal and non-fatal CV events in chronic HD patients.Methods Data from 405 chronic HD patients included in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (NCT00205556) were studied (62% men, age 63.7 ± 13.9 years [mean ± SD]). The median (range) follow-up was 3.0 (0.8-6.6) years. Hepcidin-25 was measured with mass spectrometry. The relationship between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality or fatal and non-fatal CV events was investigated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.ResultsMedian (interquartile range) hepcidin-25 level was 13.8 (6.6-22.5) nmol/L. During follow-up, 158 (39%) patients died from any cause and 131 (32%) had a CV event. Hepcidin-25 was associated with all-cause mortality in an unadjusted model [hazard ratio (HR) 1.14 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.03-1.26; P = 0.01], but not after adjustment for all confounders including high-sensitive C-reactive protein (HR 1.02 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 0.87-1.20; P = 0.80). At the same time, hepcidin-25 was significantly related to fatal and non-fatal CV events in a fully adjusted model (HR 1.24 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.01).Conclusion Hepcidin-25 was associated with fatal and non-fatal CV events, even after adjustment for inflammation. Furthermore, inflammation appears to be a significant confounder in the relation between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that hepcidin-25 might be a novel determinant of CV disease in chronic HD patients.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear if hemodiafiltration leads to a better quality of life compared with hemodialysis. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to assess the effect of hemodiafiltration on quality of life compared with hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This study analyzed the data of 714 patients with a median follow-up of 2 years from the Convective Transport Study. The patients were enrolled between June of 2004 and December of 2009. The Convective Transport Study is a randomized controlled trial on the effect of online hemodiafiltration versus low-flux hemodialysis on all-cause mortality. Quality of life was assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form. This questionnaire provides data for a physical and mental composite score and describes kidney disease-specific quality of life in 12 domains. The domains have scales from 0 to 100. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in changes in health-related quality of life over time between patients treated with hemodialysis (n=358) or hemodiafiltration (n=356). The quality of life domain patient satisfaction declined over time in both dialysis modalities (hemodialysis: -2.5/yr, -3.4 to -1.5, P<0.001; hemodiafiltration: -1.4/yr, -2.4 to -0.5, P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration had no significant effect on quality of life over time.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Guidelines for the management of anemia and iron deficiency in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients have been developed to standardize therapy and improve clinical outcome. The present study evaluated compliance with anemia guidelines and investigated whether differences between centers were present. Methods: Data on anemia management from patients in the baseline cohort of the CONTRAST study (NCT00205556) were analyzed. 598 chronic HD patients (62% male, age 63.6 ± 14.0 years) from 26 Dutch dialysis centers were included. Results: Mean hemoglobin (Hb) level was 11.9 ± 1.3 g/dl and Hb was ≥11.0 g/dl in 81% of the patients. Compliance with all anemia targets (Hb 11.0-12.0 g/dl, transferrin saturation ratio ≥20%, ferritin 100-500 ng/ml) was reached in 11.6% (95% CI 7.8-17.0) of the patients, with a wide range among centers (4-26%, adjusted for case mix, treatment-related factors and center-specific characteristics). Conclusion: Compliance with anemia targets in stable HD patients was poor and showed a wide variation between treatment facilities.
    Blood Purification 08/2012; 34(1):19-27. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with ESRD, the effects of online hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events are unclear. In this prospective study, we randomly assigned 714 chronic hemodialysis patients to online postdilution hemodiafiltration (n=358) or to continue low-flux hemodialysis (n=356). The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. The main secondary endpoint was a composite of major cardiovascular events, including death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, therapeutic coronary intervention, therapeutic carotid intervention, vascular intervention, or amputation. After a mean 3.0 years of follow-up (range, 0.4-6.6 years), we did not detect a significant difference between treatment groups with regard to all-cause mortality (121 versus 127 deaths per 1000 person-years in the online hemodiafiltration and low-flux hemodialysis groups, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.20). The incidences of cardiovascular events were 127 and 116 per 1000 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.39). Receiving high-volume hemodiafiltration during the trial associated with lower all-cause mortality, a finding that persisted after adjusting for potential confounders and dialysis facility. In conclusion, this trial did not detect a beneficial effect of hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events compared with low-flux hemodialysis. On-treatment analysis suggests the possibility of a survival benefit among patients who receive high-volume hemodiafiltration, although this subgroup finding requires confirmation.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2012; 23(6):1087-96. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepcidin-25, the bioactive form of hepcidin, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis as it induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes. Hepcidin levels are increased in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, but as of yet, limited information on factors associated with hepcidin-25 in these patients is available. In the current cross-sectional study, potential patient-, laboratory- and treatment-related determinants of serum hepcidin-20 and -25, were assessed in a large cohort of stable, prevalent HD patients. Baseline data from 405 patients (62% male; age 63.7 ± 13.9 [mean SD]) enrolled in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556) were studied. Predialysis hepcidin concentrations were measured centrally with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Patient-, laboratory- and treatment related characteristics were entered in a backward multivariable linear regression model. Hepcidin-25 levels were independently and positively associated with ferritin (p<0.001), hsCRP (p<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (p = 0.02) and inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01), absolute reticulocyte count (p = 0.02) and soluble transferrin receptor (p<0.001). Men had lower hepcidin-25 levels as compared to women (p = 0.03). Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or iron therapy. In conclusion, in the currently studied cohort of chronic HD patients, hepcidin-25 was a marker for iron stores and erythropoiesis and was associated with inflammation. Furthermore, hepcidin-25 levels were influenced by residual kidney function. Hepcidin-25 did not reflect ESA or iron dose in chronic stable HD patients on maintenance therapy. These results suggest that hepcidin is involved in the pathophysiological pathway of renal anemia and iron availability in these patients, but challenges its function as a clinical parameter for ESA resistance.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e39783. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

708 Citations
273.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Nephrology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005–2014
    • VU University Medical Center
      • Department of Nephrology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Nephrology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Nephrology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Maasstad Ziekenhuis
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005–2012
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Nephrology
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1993–2009
    • Medisch Centrum Alkmaar
      • Department of Nephrology
      Alkmaar, North Holland, Netherlands