Menso J Nubé

VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (75)242.35 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Online hemodiafiltration may diminish inflammatory activity through amelioration of the uremic milieu. However, impurities in water quality might provoke inflammatory responses. We therefore compared the long-term effect of low-flux hemodialysis to hemodiafiltration on the systemic inflammatory activity in a randomized controlled trial. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured for up to 3 years in 405 patients of the CONvective TRAnsport STudy, and albumin was measured at baseline and every 3 months in 714 patients during the entire follow-up. Differences in the rate of change over time of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and albumin were compared between the two treatment arms. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 concentrations increased in patients treated with hemodialysis, and remained stable in patients treated with hemodiafiltration. There was a statistically significant difference in rate of change between the groups after adjustments for baseline variables (C-reactive protein difference 20%/year and interleukin-6 difference 16%/year). The difference was more pronounced in anuric patients. Serum albumin decreased significantly in both treatment arms, with no difference between the groups. Thus, long-term hemodiafiltration with ultrapure dialysate seems to reduce inflammatory activity over time compared to hemodialysis, but does not affect the rate of change in albumin.Kidney International advance online publication, 19 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.9.
    Kidney International 02/2014; · 7.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased left ventricular mass (LVM), low ventricular ejection fraction (EF), and high pulse-wave velocity (PWV) relate to overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of online hemodiafiltration (HDF) versus low-flux hemodialysis (HD) on LVM, EF, and PWV. Echocardiography was used to assess LVM and EF in 342 patients in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy followed for up to 4 years. PWV was measured in 189 patients for up to 3 years. Effect of HDF versus HD on LVM, EF, and PWV was evaluated using linear mixed models. Patients had a mean age of 63 years, and 61% were male. At baseline, median LVM was 227 g (interquartile range [IQR], 183-279 g), and median EF was 65% (IQR, 55%-72%). Median PWV was 9.8 m/s (IQR, 7.5-12.0 m/s). There was no significant difference between the HDF and HD treatment groups in rate of change in LVM (HDF: change, -0.9 g/yr [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -8.9 to 7.7 g]; HD: change, 12.5 g/yr [95% CI, -3.0 to 27.5 g]; P for difference=0.13), EF (HDF: change, -0.3%/yr [95% CI, -2.3% to 1.8%]; HD: change, -3.4%/yr [95% CI, -5.9% to -0.9%]; P=0.17), or PWV (HDF: change, -0.0 m/s per year [95% CI, -0.4 to 0.4 m/s); HD: change, 0.0 m/s per year [95% CI, -0.3 to 0.2 m/s]; P=0.89). No differences in rate of change between treatment groups were observed for subgroups of age, sex, residual kidney function, dialysis vintage, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or convection volume. Treatment with online HDF did not affect changes in LVM, EF, or PWV over time compared with HD.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is known to be related to overall and cardiovascular mortality in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. The aims of the present study are 1) to determine whether LVM is associated with mortality and various cardiovascular events and 2) to identify determinants of LVM including biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis. Analysis was performed with data of 327 ESKD patients, a subset from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST). Echocardiography was performed at baseline. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relation of LVM tertiles with clinical events. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with LVM. Median age was 65 (IQR: 54-73) years, 203 (61%) were male and median LVM was 227 (IQR: 183-279) grams. The risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.11-2.99), cardiovascular death (HR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.35-10.05) and sudden death (HR = 13.06; 95% CI: 6.60-107) was increased in the highest tertile (>260grams) of LVM. In the multivariable analysis positive relations with LVM were found for male gender (B = 38.8±10.3), residual renal function (B = 17.9±8.0), phosphate binder therapy (B = 16.9±8.5), and an inverse relation for a previous kidney transplantation (B = -41.1±7.6) and albumin (B = -2.9±1.1). Interleukin-6 (Il-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), hepcidin-25 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were not related to LVM. We confirm the relation between a high LVM and outcome and expand the evidence for increased risk of sudden death. No relationship was found between LVM and markers of inflammation and fibrosis. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN38365125.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e84587. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Muriel Grooteman, Menso Nubé
    Nature Reviews Nephrology 06/2013; · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mild-to-chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a variety of haemostatic disorders, ranging from an increased clotting tendency and reductions in the levels of natural inhibitors of coagulation to defective fibrinolysis. In addition, platelet (PLT) abnormalities are common. In this minireview, we report on aspects of haemodialysis (HD)-induced PLT activation. It is demonstrated that PLTs from HD patients are exhausted due to repeated stimulation of HD treatment and recurrent release of PLT degranulation products. During HD, additional aberrations of the haemostatic process occur. Besides deviations of coagulation and fibrinolysis, PLT activation and a reduction in their granule content have been observed during HD treatment. As HD treatment is carried out three times per week, month after month, chronic HD patients may suffer persistently from coagulation defects and PLT disorders on top of the alterations induced by the uraemic state itself. PLT activation occurs together with thrombin and fibrin generation. However, macro fibrin depositions in clot devices are not demonstrated, microaggregates occur not only in the extracorporeal circuit (ECC) but are also present in the blood circulation. As vascular access thrombosis is a frequent complication in patients with HD treatment, it is believed that hypercoagulability could result from vascular changes combined with PLTs and activation of coagulation factors.
    Clinical kidney journal. 06/2013; 6(3):266-271.
  • PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):61155-. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: During haemodialysis (HD) treatment, increase of platelet (PLT) activation and induction of procoagulant activity is demonstrated. Although the role of the endothelium and its direct interaction with coagulation and homeostasis is known, it is not elucidated how PLT activation markers and activation of coagulation coincide with markers of endothelial integrity during HD treatment. In the present study uraemia and HD induced changes, with particular emphasis on PLT granules depletion, activation of coagulation and endothelial integrity were investigated. METHODS: To detect depletion of PLT granules, peripheral blood slide smears were screened by light microscopy for qualitative evaluation of PLT granule containing cytoplasm, as indicated by its granules staining density. Activation of coagulation was investigated by establishement of thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and fibrinogen concentrations. To evaluate endothelial integrity proendothelin (proET-1) plasma concentrations were established. RESULTS: Results of our study demonstrate that proET-1 plasma concentrations were obviously increased in the subjects' group with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal failure if compared with a group of apparently healthy subjects. The amount of depleted PLT granules was obviously increased in the subjects' group with end-stage CKD if compared with the group with renal failure. Mean plasma concentrations of TAT and fibrinogen revealed results within the reference range. CONCLUSIONS: It is demonstrated that uraemia is associated with endothelial damage and aberrations in PLT granules morphology in subjects with HD treatment. We hypothesize that increased proET-1 concentrations reflect ongoing stress on endothelial cells amongst others due to uraemia. Biomarkers like proET-1 and aberrations in PLT granules morphology assist in the early detection of procoagulant activity of the endothelium.
    BMC Nephrology 03/2013; 14(1):72. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The development of atherosclerosis may be enhanced by iron accumulation in macrophages. Hepcidin-25 is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, which downregulates the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. In haemodialysis (HD) patients, hepcidin-25 levels are increased. Therefore, it is conceivable that hepcidin-25 is associated with all-cause mortality and/or fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events in this patient group. The aim of the current analysis was to study the relationship between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality and both fatal and non-fatal CV events in chronic HD patients.Methods Data from 405 chronic HD patients included in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (NCT00205556) were studied (62% men, age 63.7 ± 13.9 years [mean ± SD]). The median (range) follow-up was 3.0 (0.8-6.6) years. Hepcidin-25 was measured with mass spectrometry. The relationship between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality or fatal and non-fatal CV events was investigated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.ResultsMedian (interquartile range) hepcidin-25 level was 13.8 (6.6-22.5) nmol/L. During follow-up, 158 (39%) patients died from any cause and 131 (32%) had a CV event. Hepcidin-25 was associated with all-cause mortality in an unadjusted model [hazard ratio (HR) 1.14 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.03-1.26; P = 0.01], but not after adjustment for all confounders including high-sensitive C-reactive protein (HR 1.02 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 0.87-1.20; P = 0.80). At the same time, hepcidin-25 was significantly related to fatal and non-fatal CV events in a fully adjusted model (HR 1.24 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.01).Conclusion Hepcidin-25 was associated with fatal and non-fatal CV events, even after adjustment for inflammation. Furthermore, inflammation appears to be a significant confounder in the relation between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that hepcidin-25 might be a novel determinant of CV disease in chronic HD patients.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear if hemodiafiltration leads to a better quality of life compared with hemodialysis. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to assess the effect of hemodiafiltration on quality of life compared with hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This study analyzed the data of 714 patients with a median follow-up of 2 years from the Convective Transport Study. The patients were enrolled between June of 2004 and December of 2009. The Convective Transport Study is a randomized controlled trial on the effect of online hemodiafiltration versus low-flux hemodialysis on all-cause mortality. Quality of life was assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form. This questionnaire provides data for a physical and mental composite score and describes kidney disease-specific quality of life in 12 domains. The domains have scales from 0 to 100. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in changes in health-related quality of life over time between patients treated with hemodialysis (n=358) or hemodiafiltration (n=356). The quality of life domain patient satisfaction declined over time in both dialysis modalities (hemodialysis: -2.5/yr, -3.4 to -1.5, P<0.001; hemodiafiltration: -1.4/yr, -2.4 to -0.5, P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration had no significant effect on quality of life over time.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Guidelines for the management of anemia and iron deficiency in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients have been developed to standardize therapy and improve clinical outcome. The present study evaluated compliance with anemia guidelines and investigated whether differences between centers were present. Methods: Data on anemia management from patients in the baseline cohort of the CONTRAST study (NCT00205556) were analyzed. 598 chronic HD patients (62% male, age 63.6 ± 14.0 years) from 26 Dutch dialysis centers were included. Results: Mean hemoglobin (Hb) level was 11.9 ± 1.3 g/dl and Hb was ≥11.0 g/dl in 81% of the patients. Compliance with all anemia targets (Hb 11.0-12.0 g/dl, transferrin saturation ratio ≥20%, ferritin 100-500 ng/ml) was reached in 11.6% (95% CI 7.8-17.0) of the patients, with a wide range among centers (4-26%, adjusted for case mix, treatment-related factors and center-specific characteristics). Conclusion: Compliance with anemia targets in stable HD patients was poor and showed a wide variation between treatment facilities.
    Blood Purification 08/2012; 34(1):19-27. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with ESRD, the effects of online hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events are unclear. In this prospective study, we randomly assigned 714 chronic hemodialysis patients to online postdilution hemodiafiltration (n=358) or to continue low-flux hemodialysis (n=356). The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. The main secondary endpoint was a composite of major cardiovascular events, including death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, therapeutic coronary intervention, therapeutic carotid intervention, vascular intervention, or amputation. After a mean 3.0 years of follow-up (range, 0.4-6.6 years), we did not detect a significant difference between treatment groups with regard to all-cause mortality (121 versus 127 deaths per 1000 person-years in the online hemodiafiltration and low-flux hemodialysis groups, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.20). The incidences of cardiovascular events were 127 and 116 per 1000 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.39). Receiving high-volume hemodiafiltration during the trial associated with lower all-cause mortality, a finding that persisted after adjusting for potential confounders and dialysis facility. In conclusion, this trial did not detect a beneficial effect of hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events compared with low-flux hemodialysis. On-treatment analysis suggests the possibility of a survival benefit among patients who receive high-volume hemodiafiltration, although this subgroup finding requires confirmation.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2012; 23(6):1087-96. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepcidin-25, the bioactive form of hepcidin, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis as it induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes. Hepcidin levels are increased in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, but as of yet, limited information on factors associated with hepcidin-25 in these patients is available. In the current cross-sectional study, potential patient-, laboratory- and treatment-related determinants of serum hepcidin-20 and -25, were assessed in a large cohort of stable, prevalent HD patients. Baseline data from 405 patients (62% male; age 63.7 ± 13.9 [mean SD]) enrolled in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556) were studied. Predialysis hepcidin concentrations were measured centrally with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Patient-, laboratory- and treatment related characteristics were entered in a backward multivariable linear regression model. Hepcidin-25 levels were independently and positively associated with ferritin (p<0.001), hsCRP (p<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (p = 0.02) and inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01), absolute reticulocyte count (p = 0.02) and soluble transferrin receptor (p<0.001). Men had lower hepcidin-25 levels as compared to women (p = 0.03). Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or iron therapy. In conclusion, in the currently studied cohort of chronic HD patients, hepcidin-25 was a marker for iron stores and erythropoiesis and was associated with inflammation. Furthermore, hepcidin-25 levels were influenced by residual kidney function. Hepcidin-25 did not reflect ESA or iron dose in chronic stable HD patients on maintenance therapy. These results suggest that hepcidin is involved in the pathophysiological pathway of renal anemia and iron availability in these patients, but challenges its function as a clinical parameter for ESA resistance.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e39783. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Microvascular function was compared between 52 patients with advanced CKD (stage 4-5: n = 16; end-stage renal disease: n = 36) and 33 healthy control subjects. As aging has an important effect on microvascular function, both control subjects and CKD patients were divided in subgroups younger and older than 45 years. Linear regression analysis was applied to assess potential associations between microvascular function and various demographic and clinical parameters. There were three main findings. (1) In young patients with advanced CKD, both ACh- and SNP-mediated vasodilations were impaired if compared to young healthy controls (p = 0.04 and p = 0.056, respectively). (2) In young patients with advanced CKD, microvascular function was similar to old healthy controls and elderly patients with advanced CKD. (3) Whereas age was inversely associated with microvascular function in healthy controls (log ACh-mediated vasodilation R = -0.41; p = 0.02 and log SNP-mediated vasodilation R = -0.38; p = 0.03), no such relation was found in patients with advanced CKD. Our results are consistent with premature aging of the microvascular vasodilatory capacity in patients with advanced CKD.
    Nephron extra. 01/2012; 2(1):283-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients value health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over survival. It was our aim to study the relation between attainment of widely accepted performance targets and HRQOL in hemodialysis patients. This study included baseline data from 715 hemodialysis patients from 29 dialysis centers. Six clinical performance targets, as recommended by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI), were evaluated: single-pool Kt/V (≥1.2), hemoglobin (11-13 g/dl), vascular access (fistula), phosphorus (2.3-4.5 mg/dl), parathyroid hormone (150-300 pg/ml), and blood pressure (predialysis <140/90 and postdialysis <130/ 80 mm Hg). After correction for case-mix and multiple comparisons, no association was found between the 6 KDOQI clinical performance targets and the 14 HRQOL domains, or between the number of performance targets reached and HRQOL. Attainment with widely accepted clinical performance targets was not related to the HRQOL of hemodialysis patients. Hence, in clinical guidelines, HRQOL should be adopted as an explicit treatment goal for these individuals.
    Blood Purification 12/2011; 33(1-3):73-9. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During haemodialysis (HD), platelets (PLTs) are activated and release granule contents. As HD treatment occurs three times a week, it has been demonstrated that PLTs are exhausted due to the repetitive character of the treatment. To identify PLT depletion morphologically, PLT evaluation was performed by light microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) in a chronic HD subject and a healthy reference subject. Blood samples were taken before the start of HD treatment for measurement of PLT count, PLT volume and size parameters. Blood smears were screened by light microscopy for qualitative evaluation of PLT granule containing cytoplasm, as indicated by its staining density. Morphological PLT parameters of surface area and size of dense bodies were assessed by EM. Data were compared with results of a group of 20 chronic HD subjects and a group of 20 healthy reference subjects. With respect to the percentage of PLTs with appropriate staining density (>75%), light microscopic evaluation showed that this value (9%) was within the range of a group of chronic HD subjects, but considerably below the reference range (70%). EM evaluation revealed an average PLT surface area and dense bodies area of respectively 42% and 31%, if the healthy reference subject was set on 100%. PLTs from a chronic HD subject are considerably smaller and substantially less granular than PLTs from a healthy reference subject. These findings support the hypothesis of PLT depletion in chronic HD subjects due to frequent PLT activation and/or increased urea concentrations.
    Hematology reports. 08/2011; 3(2):e15.
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    Quality of Life Research 07/2011; 21(2):309. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Seminars in Dialysis 07/2011; 24(4):411-3. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis patients undergo frequent and long visits to the clinic to receive adequate dialysis treatment, medical guidance, and support. This may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Although HRQOL is a very important management aspect in hemodialysis patients, there is a paucity of information on the differences in HRQOL between centers. We set out to assess the differences in HRQOL of hemodialysis patients between dialysis centers and explore which modifiable center characteristics could explain possible differences. This cross-sectional study evaluated 570 hemodialysis patients from 24 Dutch dialysis centers. HRQOL was measured with the Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF). After adjustment for differences in case-mix, three HRQOL domains differed between dialysis centers: the physical composite score (PCS, P = 0.01), quality of social interaction (P = 0.04), and dialysis staff encouragement (P = 0.001). These center differences had a range of 11-21 points on a scale of 0-100, depending on the domain. Two center characteristics showed a clinical relevant relation with patients' HRQOL: dieticians' fulltime-equivalent and the type of dialysis center. This study showed that clinical relevant differences exist between dialysis centers in multiple HRQOL domains. This is especially remarkable as hemodialysis is a highly standardized therapy.
    Quality of Life Research 06/2011; 21(2):299-307. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), disorders of mineral metabolism are associated with vascular calcifications and mortality. Microvascular dysfunction, by affecting flow resistance and tissue perfusion, may explain the cardiovascular sequelae of CKD-associated disorders of mineral metabolism. We investigated whether advanced CKD is associated with a decrease in the functional and structural number of capillaries in skin and subsequently whether capillary rarefaction is related to mineral metabolism. Capillary density was measured by nailfold microscopy in 19 predialysis and 35 CKD Stage 5 (CKD5) patients and 19 controls. In CKD patients, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitaminD3 (25vitD3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (1,25vitD3) were analysed as well. Capillary density at baseline was 42 ± 15/mm(2) in predialysis patients, 45 ± 17/mm(2) in CKD5 patients and 56 ± 20/mm(2) in controls (patients versus controls, respectively, P < 0.05 and P = 0.05). Absolute capillary recruitment during post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia was 17 ± 7/mm(2), 14 ± 6/mm(2) and 23 ± 8/mm(2), respectively (P < 0.05 for both patients and controls). Capillary density during venous occlusion was 59 ± 20/mm(2), 59 ± 21/mm(2) and 77 ± 21/mm(2), respectively (P < 0.05 for both patients and controls). In multiple regression analysis, both serum phosphorus and bicarbonate values were independently and inversely associated with capillary density at baseline (r(2) of model = 19%) as well as during venous occlusion (r(2) of model = 28%). Furthermore, both serum phosphorus and bicarbonate were inversely and female gender positively correlated with capillary density during recruitment (r(2) of model = 37%). Advanced CKD is characterized by an impaired functional and structural capillary density in skin, which is related to both high phosphorus and bicarbonate values.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2011; 26(11):3529-36. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioincompatibility is the total of side effects during hemodialysis (HD) including, amongst others, changes in platelet (PLT) level. Deviations in PLT count, immature PLT count, PLT morphology, CD62p expression, Platelet Factor 4 (PF4), β-Thromboglobulin (β-TG), serotonin, Thrombin-Antithrombin III (TAT) and Prothrombin Fragment 1+2 (F1+2) are monitored before and during treatment with HD in order to elucidate the interaction between modifications in PLT morphology, PLT activation and markers concerning activation of coagulation. Different patterns with time indicate that there is no correlation between an increased amount of depleted PLTs and increased amounts of PLT activation markers such as CD62p, PF4, β-TG and serotonin. A statistically significant correlation between increased PLT activation markers and markers for increased activation of coagulation such as TAT and F1+2 has not been established. Only a weak correlation is demonstrated between the increase of markers for activation of coagulation and the decrease in PLT counts, immature PLT counts and depleted PLTs during HD treatment. The change in the extracorporeal circuit during HD is probably a more critical factor in the mechanism leading to activation of the coagulation pathway than the modifications in PLT morphology.
    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 02/2011; 71(3):240-7. · 1.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

577 Citations
604 Downloads
242.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • VU University Medical Center
      • Department of Nephrology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Nephrology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Nephrology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005–2012
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Nephrology
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1993–2009
    • Medisch Centrum Alkmaar
      • Department of Nephrology
      Alkmaar, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Nephrology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands