[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of high-efficiency on-line hemodiafiltration (OLHDF) compared with low-flux hemodialysis (LF-HD) for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) based on the Canadian (Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montreal) arm of a parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT), the CONvective TRAnsport STudy.
Methods An economic evaluation was conducted for the period of the RCT (74 months). In addition, a Markov state transition model was constructed to simulate costs and health benefits over lifetime. The primary outcome was costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. The analysis had the perspective of the Quebec public healthcare system.
Results A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to OL-HDF (n = 67) and LF-HD (n = 63). The cost-utility ratio of OL-HDF versus LF-HD was Can$53,270 per QALY gained over lifetime. This ratio was fairly robust in the sensitivity analysis. The cost-utility ratio was lower than that of LF-HD compared with no treatment (immediate death), which was Can$93,008 per QALY gained.
Conclusions High-efficiency OL-HDF can be considered a cost-effective treatment for ESRD in a Canadian setting. Further research is needed to assess cost effectiveness in other settings and healthcare systems.
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40258-015-0179-0
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis (HD) patients have a high risk of infections. The uremic milieu has a negative impact on several immune responses. Online hemodiafiltration (HDF) may reduce the risk of infections by ameliorating the uremic milieu through enhanced clearance of middle molecules. Since there are few data on infectious outcomes in HDF, we compared the effects of HDF with low-flux HD on the incidence and type of infections.
We used data of the 714 HD patients (age 64 ±14, 62% men, 25% Diabetes Mellitus, 7% catheters) participating in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST), a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of HDF as compared to low-flux HD. The events were adjudicated by an independent event committee. The risk of infectious events was compared with Cox regression for repeated events and Cox proportional hazard models. The distributions of types of infection were compared between the groups.
Thirty one percent of the patients suffered from one or more infections leading to hospitalization during the study (median follow-up 1.96 years). The risk for infections during the entire follow-up did not differ significantly between treatment arms (HDF 198 and HD 169 infections in 800 and 798 person-years respectively, hazard ratio HDF vs. HD 1.09 (0.88-1.34), P = 0.42. No difference was found in the occurrence of the first infectious event (either fatal, non-fatal or type specific). Of all infections, respiratory infections (25% in HDF, 28% in HD) were most common, followed by skin/musculoskeletal infections (21% in HDF, 13% in HD).
HDF as compared to HD did not result in a reduced risk of infections, larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.
PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(8):e0135908. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135908 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney International aims to inform the renal researcher and practicing nephrologists on all aspects of renal research. Clinical and basic renal research, commentaries, The Renal Consult, Nephrology sans Frontieres, minireviews, reviews, Nephrology Images, Journal Club. Published weekly online and twice a month in print.
Kidney International 09/2014; 86(3):651. DOI:10.1038/ki.2014.159 · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose:
High volume hemodiafiltration (HDF) is associated with improved survival in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). It is unknown if high volume HDF is feasible in the majority of these patients.
High volume HDF is feasible in the majority of patients with ESKD.
51st Congress of the European Renal Association and European Dialysis and Transplant Association 2014; 07/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) is common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) treatment. ESA responsiveness might be improved by enhanced clearance of uremic toxins of middle molecular weight, as can be obtained by hemodiafiltration (HDF). In this analysis of the randomized controlled CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556), the effect of online HDF on ESA resistance and iron parameters was studied. This was a pre-specified secondary endpoint of the main trial. A 12 months' analysis of 714 patients randomized to either treatment with online post-dilution HDF or continuation of low-flux HD was performed. Both groups were treated with ultrapure dialysis fluids. ESA resistance, measured every three months, was expressed as the ESA index (weight adjusted weekly ESA dose in daily defined doses [DDD]/hematocrit). The mean ESA index during 12 months was not different between patients treated with HDF or HD (mean difference HDF versus HD over time 0.029 DDD/kg/Hct/week [-0.024 to 0.081]; P = 0.29). Mean transferrin saturation ratio and ferritin levels during the study tended to be lower in patients treated with HDF (-2.52% [-4.72 to -0.31]; P = 0.02 and -49 ng/mL [-103 to 4]; P = 0.06 respectively), although there was a trend for those patients to receive slightly more iron supplementation (7.1 mg/week [-0.4 to 14.5]; P = 0.06). In conclusion, compared to low-flux HD with ultrapure dialysis fluid, treatment with online HDF did not result in a decrease in ESA resistance.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94434. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094434 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The general objective assigned to the European DIALysis (EUDIAL) Working Group by the European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) was to enhance the quality of dialysis therapies in Europe in the broadest possible sense. Given the increasing interest in convective therapies, the Working Group has started by focusing on hemodiafiltration (HDF) therapies. A EUDIAL consensus conference was held in Paris on 13 October 2011 to discuss definitions, safety standards, clinical outcome and educational issues. Recently, the first report of the EUDIAL group was published, revisiting the definition, dose quantification, and safety of HDF. Since the meeting in Paris, new evidence has become available regarding the clinical benefits of HDF. This is the second report of the expert group in which the relation between HDF and clinical outcomes is systematically reviewed and analyzed, with emphasis on the relation between achieved convection volume and treatment effect.
Seminars in Dialysis 03/2014; 27(2):119-27. DOI:10.1111/sdi.12200 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Online hemodiafiltration may diminish inflammatory activity through amelioration of the uremic milieu. However, impurities in water quality might provoke inflammatory responses. We therefore compared the long-term effect of low-flux hemodialysis to hemodiafiltration on the systemic inflammatory activity in a randomized controlled trial. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured for up to 3 years in 405 patients of the CONvective TRAnsport STudy, and albumin was measured at baseline and every 3 months in 714 patients during the entire follow-up. Differences in the rate of change over time of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and albumin were compared between the two treatment arms. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 concentrations increased in patients treated with hemodialysis, and remained stable in patients treated with hemodiafiltration. There was a statistically significant difference in rate of change between the groups after adjustments for baseline variables (C-reactive protein difference 20%/year and interleukin-6 difference 16%/year). The difference was more pronounced in anuric patients. Serum albumin decreased significantly in both treatment arms, with no difference between the groups. Thus, long-term hemodiafiltration with ultrapure dialysate seems to reduce inflammatory activity over time compared to hemodialysis, but does not affect the rate of change in albumin.Kidney International advance online publication, 19 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.9.
Kidney International 02/2014; 86(2). DOI:10.1038/ki.2014.9 · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is known to be related to overall and cardiovascular mortality in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. The aims of the present study are 1) to determine whether LVM is associated with mortality and various cardiovascular events and 2) to identify determinants of LVM including biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis.
Analysis was performed with data of 327 ESKD patients, a subset from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST). Echocardiography was performed at baseline. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relation of LVM tertiles with clinical events. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with LVM.
Median age was 65 (IQR: 54-73) years, 203 (61%) were male and median LVM was 227 (IQR: 183-279) grams. The risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.11-2.99), cardiovascular death (HR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.35-10.05) and sudden death (HR = 13.06; 95% CI: 6.60-107) was increased in the highest tertile (>260grams) of LVM. In the multivariable analysis positive relations with LVM were found for male gender (B = 38.8±10.3), residual renal function (B = 17.9±8.0), phosphate binder therapy (B = 16.9±8.5), and an inverse relation for a previous kidney transplantation (B = -41.1±7.6) and albumin (B = -2.9±1.1). Interleukin-6 (Il-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), hepcidin-25 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were not related to LVM.
We confirm the relation between a high LVM and outcome and expand the evidence for increased risk of sudden death. No relationship was found between LVM and markers of inflammation and fibrosis.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e84587. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084587 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation and malnutrition are important features in patients with ESRD; however, data on changes in these parameters over time are scarce. This study aimed to gain insight into changes over time in serum albumin, body mass index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and IL-6 in patients with ESRD and aimed to identify clinical risk factors for deterioration of these parameters.
Data were analyzed from the Convective Transport Study, a randomized controlled trial conducted from June 2004 to January 2011, in which 714 patients with chronic ESRD were randomized to either online hemodiafiltration or low-flux hemodialysis. Albumin and body mass index were measured up to 6 years and predialysis C-reactive protein and IL-6 were measured up to 3 years in a subset of 405 participants. Rates of change in these parameters over time were estimated across strata of predefined risk factors with linear mixed-effects models.
Albumin and body mass index decreased and C-reactive protein and IL-6 increased over time. For every incremental year of age at baseline, the yearly excess decline in albumin was 0.003 g/dl (-0.004 to -0.002; P<0.001) and the excess decline in body mass index was 0.02 kg/m(2) per year (-0.02 to -0.01; P<0.001). In patients with diabetes mellitus, there was a yearly excess decline of 0.05 g/dl in albumin (-0.09 to -0.02; P=0.002). Compared with women, men had an excess decline of 0.03 g/dl per year in albumin (-0.06 to -0.001; P=0.05) and an excess increase of 11.6% per year in IL-6 (0.63%-23.6%; P=0.04).
Despite guideline-based care, all inflammatory and nutritional parameters worsened over time. The deterioration of some of these parameters was more pronounced in men, older patients, and patients with diabetes mellitus. Special focus on the nutritional status of at-risk patients by individualizing medical care might improve their prognosis.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2014; 9(2):318-25. DOI:10.2215/CJN.04470413 · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased left ventricular mass (LVM), low ventricular ejection fraction (EF), and high pulse-wave velocity (PWV) relate to overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of online hemodiafiltration (HDF) versus low-flux hemodialysis (HD) on LVM, EF, and PWV.
Echocardiography was used to assess LVM and EF in 342 patients in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy followed for up to 4 years. PWV was measured in 189 patients for up to 3 years. Effect of HDF versus HD on LVM, EF, and PWV was evaluated using linear mixed models.
Patients had a mean age of 63 years, and 61% were male. At baseline, median LVM was 227 g (interquartile range [IQR], 183-279 g), and median EF was 65% (IQR, 55%-72%). Median PWV was 9.8 m/s (IQR, 7.5-12.0 m/s). There was no significant difference between the HDF and HD treatment groups in rate of change in LVM (HDF: change, -0.9 g/yr [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -8.9 to 7.7 g]; HD: change, 12.5 g/yr [95% CI, -3.0 to 27.5 g]; P for difference=0.13), EF (HDF: change, -0.3%/yr [95% CI, -2.3% to 1.8%]; HD: change, -3.4%/yr [95% CI, -5.9% to -0.9%]; P=0.17), or PWV (HDF: change, -0.0 m/s per year [95% CI, -0.4 to 0.4 m/s); HD: change, 0.0 m/s per year [95% CI, -0.3 to 0.2 m/s]; P=0.89). No differences in rate of change between treatment groups were observed for subgroups of age, sex, residual kidney function, dialysis vintage, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or convection volume.
Treatment with online HDF did not affect changes in LVM, EF, or PWV over time compared with HD.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2014; 9(3). DOI:10.2215/CJN.07140713 · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest in haemodiafiltration (HDF), there is no information on the costs and cost-utility of this dialysis modality yet. It was therefore our objective to study the cost-utility of HDF versus haemodialysis (HD). METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was performed using a Markov model. It included data from the Convective Transport Study (CONTRAST), a randomized controlled trial that compared online HDF with low-flux HD. Costs were estimated using a societal perspective. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to study uncertainty. RESULTS: Total annual costs for HDF and HD were €88 622 ± 19 272 and €86 086 ± 15 945, respectively (in 2009 euros). When modelled over a 5-year period, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of HDF versus HD was €287 679. Sensitivity analyses revealed that this amount will not fall below €140 000, even under the most favourable assumptions like a high-convection volume (>20.3 L). CONCLUSIONS: Based on accepted societal willingness-to-pay thresholds, HDF cannot be considered a cost-effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease at present. Apparently, minor additional costs of HDF are not counterbalanced by a relevant QALY gain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with mild-to-chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a variety of haemostatic disorders, ranging from an increased clotting tendency and reductions in the levels of natural inhibitors of coagulation to defective fibrinolysis. In addition, platelet (PLT) abnormalities are common. In this minireview, we report on aspects of haemodialysis (HD)-induced PLT activation. It is demonstrated that PLTs from HD patients are exhausted due to repeated stimulation of HD treatment and recurrent release of PLT degranulation products. During HD, additional aberrations of the haemostatic process occur. Besides deviations of coagulation and fibrinolysis, PLT activation and a reduction in their granule content have been observed during HD treatment. As HD treatment is carried out three times per week, month after month, chronic HD patients may suffer persistently from coagulation defects and PLT disorders on top of the alterations induced by the uraemic state itself. PLT activation occurs together with thrombin and fibrin generation. However, macro fibrin depositions in clot devices are not demonstrated, microaggregates occur not only in the extracorporeal circuit (ECC) but are also present in the blood circulation. As vascular access thrombosis is a frequent complication in patients with HD treatment, it is believed that hypercoagulability could result from vascular changes combined with PLTs and activation of coagulation factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the distribution of causes of death in the CONTRAST cohort and compared the proportion of cardiovascular deaths with other populations to answer the question whether cardiovascular mortality is still the principal cause of death in end stage renal disease. In addition, we compared patients who died from the three most common death causes. Finally, we aimed to study factors related to dialysis withdrawal.
We used data from CONTRAST, a randomized controlled trial in 714 chronic hemodialysis patients comparing the effects of online hemodiafiltration versus low-flux hemodialysis. Causes of death were adjudicated. The distribution of causes of death was compared to that of the Dutch dialysis registry and of the Dutch general population.
In CONTRAST, 231 patients died on treatment. 32% died from cardiovascular disease, 22% due to infection and 23% because of dialysis withdrawal. These proportions were similar to those in the Dutch dialysis registry and the proportional cardiovascular mortality was similar to that of the Dutch general population. cardiovascular death was more common in patients <60 years. Patients who withdrew were older, had more co-morbidity and a lower mental quality of life at baseline. Patients who withdrew had much co-morbidity. 46% died within 5 days after the last dialysis session.
Although the absolute risk of death is much higher, the proportion of cardiovascular deaths in a prevalent end stage renal disease population is similar to that of the general population. In older hemodialysis patients cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death risk are equally important. Particularly the registration of dialysis withdrawal deserves attention. These findings may be partly limited to the Dutch population.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):61155-. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061155 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
During haemodialysis (HD) treatment, increase of platelet (PLT) activation and induction of procoagulant activity is demonstrated. Although the role of the endothelium and its direct interaction with coagulation and homeostasis is known, it is not elucidated how PLT activation markers and activation of coagulation coincide with markers of endothelial integrity during HD treatment. In the present study uraemia and HD induced changes, with particular emphasis on PLT granules depletion, activation of coagulation and endothelial integrity were investigated.
To detect depletion of PLT granules, peripheral blood slide smears were screened by light microscopy for qualitative evaluation of PLT granule containing cytoplasm, as indicated by its granules staining density. Activation of coagulation was investigated by establishement of thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and fibrinogen concentrations. To evaluate endothelial integrity proendothelin (proET-1) plasma concentrations were established.
Results of our study demonstrate that proET-1 plasma concentrations were obviously increased in the subjects’ group with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal failure if compared with a group of apparently healthy subjects. The amount of depleted PLT granules was obviously increased in the subjects’ group with end-stage CKD if compared with the group with renal failure. Mean plasma concentrations of TAT and fibrinogen revealed results within the reference range.
It is demonstrated that uraemia is associated with endothelial damage and aberrations in PLT granules morphology in subjects with HD treatment. We hypothesize that increased proET-1 concentrations reflect ongoing stress on endothelial cells amongst others due to uraemia. Biomarkers like proET-1 and aberrations in PLT granules morphology assist in the early detection of procoagulant activity of the endothelium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD.
Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Microvascular function was compared between 52 patients with advanced CKD (stage 4-5: n = 16; end-stage renal disease: n = 36) and 33 healthy control subjects. As aging has an important effect on microvascular function, both control subjects and CKD patients were divided in subgroups younger and older than 45 years. Linear regression analysis was applied to assess potential associations between microvascular function and various demographic and clinical parameters.
There were three main findings. (1) In young patients with advanced CKD, both ACh- and SNP-mediated vasodilations were impaired if compared to young healthy controls (p = 0.04 and p = 0.056, respectively). (2) In young patients with advanced CKD, microvascular function was similar to old healthy controls and elderly patients with advanced CKD. (3) Whereas age was inversely associated with microvascular function in healthy controls (log ACh-mediated vasodilation R = -0.41; p = 0.02 and log SNP-mediated vasodilation R = -0.38; p = 0.03), no such relation was found in patients with advanced CKD.
Our results are consistent with premature aging of the microvascular vasodilatory capacity in patients with advanced CKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The development of atherosclerosis may be enhanced by iron accumulation in macrophages. Hepcidin-25 is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, which downregulates the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. In haemodialysis (HD) patients, hepcidin-25 levels are increased. Therefore, it is conceivable that hepcidin-25 is associated with all-cause mortality and/or fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events in this patient group. The aim of the current analysis was to study the relationship between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality and both fatal and non-fatal CV events in chronic HD patients.Methods
Data from 405 chronic HD patients included in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (NCT00205556) were studied (62% men, age 63.7 ± 13.9 years [mean ± SD]). The median (range) follow-up was 3.0 (0.8-6.6) years. Hepcidin-25 was measured with mass spectrometry. The relationship between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality or fatal and non-fatal CV events was investigated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.ResultsMedian (interquartile range) hepcidin-25 level was 13.8 (6.6-22.5) nmol/L. During follow-up, 158 (39%) patients died from any cause and 131 (32%) had a CV event. Hepcidin-25 was associated with all-cause mortality in an unadjusted model [hazard ratio (HR) 1.14 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.03-1.26; P = 0.01], but not after adjustment for all confounders including high-sensitive C-reactive protein (HR 1.02 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 0.87-1.20; P = 0.80). At the same time, hepcidin-25 was significantly related to fatal and non-fatal CV events in a fully adjusted model (HR 1.24 per 10 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.05-1.46, P = 0.01).Conclusion
Hepcidin-25 was associated with fatal and non-fatal CV events, even after adjustment for inflammation. Furthermore, inflammation appears to be a significant confounder in the relation between hepcidin-25 and all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that hepcidin-25 might be a novel determinant of CV disease in chronic HD patients.