[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) depends on a pathophysiological process that targets the sensory neuron in the posterior root ganglia.
These rare diseases are sometimes difficult to diagnose because the site of impairment is not directly assessable by conventional neurophysiological techniques.
After recalling the general data concerning SNN, we propose an easy to use clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis criteria and guidelines for clinicians in their search for an etiology in a patient with NNS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) depends on a pathophysiological process that targets the sensory neuron in the posterior root ganglia. These rare diseases are sometimes difficult to diagnose because the site of impairment is not directly assessable by conventional neurophysiological techniques. After recalling the general data concerning SNN, we propose an easy to use clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis criteria and guidelines for clinicians in their search for an etiology in a patient with NNS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are no validated criteria for the diagnosis of sensory neuronopathy (SNN) yet. In a preliminary monocenter study a set of criteria relying on clinical and electrophysiological data showed good sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of probable SNN. The aim of this study was to test these criteria on a French multicenter study. 210 patients with sensory neuropathies from 15 francophone reference centers for neuromuscular diseases were included in the study with an expert diagnosis of non-SNN, SNN or suspected SNN according to the investigations performed in these centers. Diagnosis was obtained independently from the set of criteria to be tested. The expert diagnosis was taken as the reference against which the proposed SNN criteria were tested. The set relied on clinical and electrophysiological data easily obtainable with routine investigations. 9/61 (16.4 %) of non-SNN patients, 23/36 (63.9 %) of suspected SNN, and 102/113 (90.3 %) of SNN patients according to the expert diagnosis were classified as SNN by the criteria. The SNN criteria tested against the expert diagnosis in the SNN and non-SNN groups had 90.3 % (102/113) sensitivity, 85.2 % (52/61) specificity, 91.9 % (102/111) positive predictive value, and 82.5 % (52/63) negative predictive value. Discordance between the expert diagnosis and the SNN criteria occurred in 20 cases. After analysis of these cases, 11 could be reallocated to a correct diagnosis in accordance with the SNN criteria. The proposed criteria may be useful for the diagnosis of probable SNN in patients with sensory neuropathy. They can be reached with simple clinical and paraclinical investigations.
Journal of Neurology 08/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease which prognosis is poor. Early diagnosis permits to set up immediately adapted treatment and cares.
Available diagnostic criteria are based on the detection of both the central and peripheral motor neuron injury in bulbar, cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions.
Electromyographic study is the key tool to identify peripheral motor neuron involvement.
Conduction velocities are systematically performed to rule out differential diagnosis.
Needle examination records abnormal activities at rest and looks for neurogenic pattern during muscle contraction.
Motor unit potentials morphology is modified primary to recruitment.
Motor evoked potentials remain the test of choice to identify impairment of central motor neurons.
For the monitoring of ALS patients, the MUNE technique (motor unit number estimation) seems the most interesting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease which prognosis is poor. Early diagnosis permits to set up immediately adapted treatment and cares. Available diagnostic criteria are based on the detection of both the central and peripheral motor neuron injury in bulbar, cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions. Electromyographic study is the key tool to identify peripheral motor neuron involvement. Conduction velocities are systematically performed to rule out differential diagnosis. Needle examination records abnormal activities at rest and looks for neurogenic pattern during muscle contraction. Motor unit potentials morphology is modified primary to recruitment. Motor evoked potentials remain the test of choice to identify impairment of central motor neurons. For the monitoring of ALS patients, the MUNE technique (motor unit number estimation) seems the most interesting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are rare but can affect any part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) including motor neurons, sensory ganglia, nerve roots, plexuses, cranial and peripheral nerves, and neuromuscular junctions. The type of cancer, lymphoma or solid tumour, is a determinant factor of the underlying mechanism. With solid tumour, antibodies directed to intracellular (anti-Hu or anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies) or surface antigens (anti-VGCC,or LGI1 and Caspr2 antibodies) have been identified while with lymphoma, the neuropathy is usually linked to a monoclonal gammopathy. This review discusses the different etiologies and mechanisms of paraneoplastic disorders of the PNS in patients emphasising their evaluation, diagnosis and treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:This study aimed to assess factors which predict good tolerance of noninvasive ventilation (NIV), in order to improve survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients.METHODS:We conducted a prospective study on ALS patients requiring NIV. The study's primary endpoint was NIV tolerance at one month. Patients, several of whom failed to complete the study, were classified as 'tolerant' or 'poorly tolerant' according to the number of hours of NIV use (more or less than 4 hours per night, respectively).RESULTS:81 patients, 73 of whom also attended the one-month follow-up visit, participated over 34 months. NIV tolerance after the first day of utilisation predicted tolerance at 1 month (77.6 % and 75.3 % of patients, respectively). Multivariate analysis disclosed three factors predicting good NIV tolerance: 1° absence of airway secretion accumulation prior to NIV onset (odds ratio, OR=11.5); 2° normal bulbar function at initiation of NIV (OR= 8.5) and 3° older age (weakly significant, OR=1.1).CONCLUSION:Our study reveals three factors which are predictive of good NIV tolerance, in particular the absence of airway secretion accumulation, which should prompt NIV initiation before its appearance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: Paraneoplastic disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are the most frequent manifestation of paraneoplasia. As with the central nervous system, two categories of immune mechanisms are distinguished. On one side, antibodies toward intracellular antigens (HuD and CV2-CRMP5) occur with subacute sensory neuronopathy or sensorimotor neuropathy probably depending on a T cell mediated disorder (group 1). On the other side, the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) occur with antibodies to cell membrane antigens, respectively, the voltage gated calcium channel and CASPR2 proteins, which are responsible for the disease (group 2). Treatment recommendation mostly depends on class IV studies. Three lines of therapeutics can be proposed, namely tumor, immunomodulatory and symptomatic treatments. Cancer treatment is crucial since an early tumor cure is the best way to stabilize patients in group 1 and improve those in group 2. This implies the use of an efficient strategy for cancer diagnosis. With group 2 symptomatic treatment including 3,4 diaminopyridine for LEMS and carbamazepine for PNH may suffice to obtain good quality remission. Immunomodulatory treatments like IVIg and plasma exchange, which have a well-established efficacy in antibody dependent diseases, may be used as second line treatments. Rituximab, for which there is only little evidence in this context, may be kept in a third line for severe refractory patients. With group 1 patients, who frequently develop an evolving and disabling disorder, bolus of methylprednisolone and or IVIg may be recommended while searching for and treating the tumor. If the tumor is not found and the patient deteriorates, monthly pulses of cyclophosphamide may stabilize the patients. Antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain are to be used as symptomatic treatment when necessary. The choice is then based on the cost effectiveness and tolerance of these drugs.
Current Treatment Options in Neurology 01/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ropinirole, a specific non-ergoline dopamine D2-receptor agonist, belongs to the drugs applied in treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and acts as a D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptor agonist with highest affinity for D3. Therapeutic ropinirole plasma levels in adults are defined between 0.4 and 6 ng/mL. This case report documents a fatal intoxication involving ropinirole. Information about lethal ropinirole concentrations is hitherto lacking in the literature and the assessed ropinirole levels of this case may present a step towards defining potentially lethal concentrations. A 37-year-old man without medical history was found dead in a converted van used as place of residence and an autopsy was performed. The pathological findings did not reveal an apparent cause of death but the toxicological analysis revealed the presence of ropinirole, paracetamol, and alcohol in the peripheral blood sample. Quantitative analysis revealed that ropinirole was present at a peripheral blood concentration of 64 ng/mL. The ropinirole concentrations determined in vitreous humor, urine and bile were respectively, 11 ng/mL, 2670 ng/mL and 826 ng/mL. Paracetamol was detected at a blood level of <2 μg/mL. Based on the autopsy findings and toxicological results, the cause of death was primarily attributed to intoxication with ropinirole in combination with alcohol.
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 10/2012; 19(7):422-5. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensory neuronopathies (SNNs) encompass paraneoplastic, infectious, dysimmune, toxic, inherited, and idiopathic disorders. Recently described diagnostic criteria allow SNN to be differentiated from other forms of sensory neuropathy, but there is no validated strategy based on routine clinical investigations for the etiological diagnosis of SNN. In a multicenter study, the clinical, biological, and electrophysiological characteristics of 148 patients with SNN were analyzed. Multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression were used to identify patterns differentiating between forms of SNNs with different etiologies. Models were constructed using a study population of 88 patients and checked using a test population of 60 cases. Four patterns were identified. Pattern A, with an acute or subacute onset in the four limbs or arms, early pain, and frequently affecting males over 60 years of age, identified mainly paraneoplastic, toxic, and infectious SNN. Pattern B identified patients with progressive SNN and was divided into patterns C and D, the former corresponding to patients with inherited or slowly progressive idiopathic SNN with severe ataxia and electrophysiological abnormalities and the latter to patients with idiopathic, dysimmune, and sometimes paraneoplastic SNN with a more rapid course than in pattern C. The diagnostic strategy based on these patterns correctly identified 84/88 and 58/60 patients in the study and test populations, respectively.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 09/2012; 17(3):331-340. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 75-year-old female who had a trismus as the first, long-lasting and, isolated symptom of ALS. We discuss also therapeutic possibilities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collapsin response mediator protein 5 (CRMP5) is one of the rare peripheral nerve antigens that is a target of autoantibodies in a paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy. The pattern of axonal and myelin alterations suggests that CRMP5 is involved in axon-Schwann cell interaction. We examined CRMP5 expression and function in primary cultures of Schwann cells and neurons and at various developmental and regenerating stages of rat sciatic nerve and in CRMP5-deficient mice in vivo. Collapsin response mediator protein 5 was strongly expressed during postnatal development and regeneration and decreased with myelination. It was mainly expressed by immature Schwann cells and persisted in Remak cells in the adult; however, a subpopulation of Schwann cells that were induced to myelinate also expressed CRMP5. We identified 2 axonal molecular cues regulating CRMP5 expression: human neuregulin type 1, which induces CRMP5 expression in immature and premyelinating Schwann cells, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which inhibits CRMP5 expression when Schwann cells begin myelination. Collapsin response mediator protein 5-deficient mice showed abnormal Schwann process extension resulting in abnormal cell-axon segregation, indicating that CRMP5 is involved in the morphologic adaptation of Schwann cells to surround axons. These results demonstrate the importance of CRMP5 in axon-Schwann cell cooperation during development and regeneration.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 04/2012; 71(4):298-311. · 4.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins (CRMPS) are highly expressed in the developing brain, and in adult brain areas that retain neurogenesis, ie: the olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate gyrus (DG). During brain development, CRMPs are essentially involved in signaling of axon guidance and neurite outgrowth, but their functions in the adult brain remain largely unknown. CRMP5 has been initially identified as the target of auto-antibodies involved in paraneoplasic neurological diseases and further implicated in a neurite outgrowth inhibition mediated by tubulin binding. Interestingly, CRMP5 is also highly expressed in adult brain neurogenic areas where its functions have not yet been elucidated. Here we observed in both neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain that CRMP5 was present in proliferating and post-mitotic neuroblasts, while they migrate and differentiate into mature neurons. In CRMP5(-/-) mice, the lack of CRMP5 resulted in a significant increase of proliferation and neurogenesis, but also in an excess of apoptotic death of granule cells in the OB and DG. These findings provide the first evidence that CRMP5 is involved in the generation and survival of newly generated neurons in areas of the adult brain with a high level of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity.
PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e23721. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with TARDBP mutations have so far been classified as ALS, sometimes with frontal lobe dysfunction. A 66-year-old patient progressively developed a severe sensory disorder, followed by a motor disorder, which evolved over nine years. Symptoms started in the left hand and slowly involved the four limbs. Investigations were consistent with a mixed sensory and motor neuronopathy. A heterozygous change from an alanine to a proline at amino acid 382 was identified in exon 6 of the TARDPB gene (p.A382P). This case expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in the TARDBP gene and shows that sensory neurons can be severely damaged early in the course of the disease, following a propagating process, with an orderly progression from a focal starting point. A combination of severe sensory and motor neuronopathy is rarely encountered in clinical practice. The possibility of an A382P TDP-43 mutation should be considered in patients with such an association.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (AHLE) is a rare condition associated with H1N1. In this condition the infection triggers an autoimmune response which results in perivascular demyelination and hemorrhage in the brain parenchyma.
We report a case of a patient who developed brain edema and herniation as a result of AHLE.
A 27-year-old presented to a community hospital with fever, dyspnea, and malaise and was found to have H1N1-associated pneumonia. Despite treatment he progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome and required mechanical ventilation. Due to failure on conventional ventilation, he was transferred to our hospital and was placed on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. He was showing improvement until day 6 of transfer to our hospital when he was suddenly noted to have a rise in his blood pressure followed by hypotension. The following morning he was noted to have non-reactive pupils and was declared brain dead. Autopsy of the brain was consistent with AHLE.
This case emphasizes the importance of awareness of this disease. The non-specific signs and symptoms, and the use of sedatives, make diagnosis challenging in the early stages of this disease. If suspected early, appropriate imaging can aid in the diagnosis. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents and plasmapheresis may prevent rapid progression and death. This is the first published case of AHLE in association with H1N1 that has been confirmed pathologically.
Journal of Neurology 10/2010; 258(3):513-4. · 3.84 Impact Factor