Ietje Kathmann

University of Porto, Oporto, Porto, Portugal

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Publications (33)163.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cellular folate concentration was earlier reported to be a critical factor in the activity and expression of the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 (ABCC1). Since MRP1 mediates resistance to a variety of therapeutic drugs, we investigated whether the cellular folate concentration influences the MRP1-mediated cellular resistance against drugs. As a model system, we used the human ovarian carcinoma cell line 2008wt, and its stably MRP1/ABCC1-transfected subline 2008/MRP1. These cell types have a moderate and high expression of MRP1, respectively. In folate-deprived 2008/MRP1 cells, the MRP1-mediated efflux of its model substrate calcein decreased to ~55 % of the initial efflux rate under folate-rich conditions. In 2008wt cells, only a small decrease in efflux was observed. Folate depletion for 5-10 days markedly increased (~500 %) cellular steady-state accumulation of calcein in 2008/MRP1 cells and moderately in 2008wt cells. A subsequent short (24 h) exposure to 2.3 μM L-leucovorin decreased calcein levels again in MRP1-overexpressing cells. Folate deprivation markedly increased growth inhibitory effects of the established MRP1 substrates daunorubicin (~twofold), doxorubicin (~fivefold), and methotrexate (~83-fold) in MRP1-overexpressing cells, proportional to MRP1 expression. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that increased cellular folate concentrations induce MRP1/ABCC1-related drug efflux and drug resistance. These results have important implications in the understanding of the role of MRP1 and its homologs in clinical drug resistance.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel cytidine analog fluorocyclopentenylcytosine (RX-3117; TV-1360) was characterized for its cytotoxicity in a 59-cell line panel and further characterized for cytotoxicity, metabolism and mechanism of action in 15 additional cancer cell lines, including gemcitabine-resistant variants. In both panels sensitivity varied 75-fold (IC50: 0.4- > 30 μM RX-3117). RX-3117 showed a different sensitivity profile compared to cyclopentenyl-cytosine (CPEC) and azacytidine, substrates for uridine-cytidine-kinase (UCK). Dipyridamole, an inhibitor of the equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter protected against RX-3117. Uridine and cytidine protected against RX-3117, but deoxycytidine (substrate for deoxycytidine-kinase [dCK]) not, although it protected against gemcitabine, demonstrating that RX-3117 is a substrate for UCK and not for dCK. UCK activity was abundant in all cell lines, including the gemcitabine-resistant variants. RX-3117 was a very poor substrate for cytidine deaminase (66,000-fold less than gemcitabine). RX-3117 was rapidly metabolised to its nucleotides predominantly the triphosphate, which was highest in the most sensitive cells (U937, A2780) and lowest in the least sensitive (CCRF-CEM). RX-3117 did not significantly affect cytidine and uridine nucleotide pools. Incorporation of RX-3117 into RNA and DNA was higher in sensitive A2780 and low in insensitive SW1573 cells. In sensitive U937 cells 1 μM RX-3117 resulted in 90 % inhibition of RNA synthesis but 100 μM RX-3117 was required in A2780 and CCRF-CEM cells. RX-3117 at IC50 values did not affect the integrity of RNA. DNA synthesis was completely inhibited in sensitive U937 cells at 1 μM, but in other cells even higher concentrations only resulted in a partial inhibition. At IC50 values RX-3117 downregulated the expression of DNA methyltransferase. In conclusion, RX-3117 showed a completely different sensitivity profile compared to gemcitabine and CPEC, its uptake is transporter dependent and is activated by UCK. RX-3117 is incorporated into RNA and DNA, did not affect RNA integrity, depleted DNA methyltransferase and inhibited RNA and DNA synthesis. Nucleotide formation is related with sensitivity.
    Investigational New Drugs 09/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of novel N(10)-substituted acridone derivatives bearing alkyl side-chain with tertiary amine groups at the terminal position were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic effects against drug sensitive and resistant cancer cell lines. All the molecules were designed on the basis of hydrogen bond acceptors, carbonyl, fluoro groups with precise spatial separation and structural features of lipophilicity, positive charge at neutral pH and presence of aromatic rings. The in vitro cytotoxic effects in comparison with reference drugs doxorubicin (DX) and C(1311) against cancer cell lines SW 1573, SW 1573 2R 160 (Pg-P expressing) which are non-small cell lung cancer cells, human embryo kidney cells HEK 293, HEK 293 MRP4, HEK 293 MRP5i, human promyelocytic leukemia sensitive cell line HL-60, including its multidrug cross-resistant of two main (P-gp and MRP) phenotype sublines vincristine resistant HL-60/VINC and doxorubicin resistant HL-60/DX cancer cell lines are presented. Compounds 14, 15 and 16 exhibited highest cytotoxicity among the derivatives. On the other hand, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of compound 14 (with butyl side-chain and tertiary amino group β-hydroxy ethyl piperizine) against resistant cancer cell lines indicate that it might be a promising new hit for further development as an anti-MDR agent. The non-covalent interaction of these molecules with DNA duplexes have been investigated by ESI-MS technique. The results indicate, these acridone derivatives interact with duplex DNA by intercalation, possesses higher affinity to GC than AT base pairs of the DNA and they could not interact non-covalently with the minor grooves of the DNA. The ability of acridones to inhibit calmodulin dependent cAMP phosphodiesterase has been determined. The results suggest that acridones inhibit the Ca(2+)/calmodulin stimulated cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity and have no direct effects on the enzyme itself and a strong correlation between calmodulin inhibition and cytotoxicity against HL-60/VINC and HL-60/DX MDR cancer cell lines.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2011; 43(4):217-24. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The deoxynucleoside analogs cytarabine (Ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC) are widely used in the treatment of cancer. Due to their hydrophilic nature they need the equilibrative (hENT) and concentrative (hCNT) nucleoside transporters to enter the cell. To bypass drug resistance due to decreased uptake, lipophilic 5'elaidic acid esters were synthesized, elacytarabine (CP-4055, from ara-C) and CP-4126 (from gemcitabine), which are currently in clinical development for solid and hematological tumors. We investigated whether resistance can be induced in vitro, and treated the CEM leukemic cell line with weekly increasing elacytarabine concentrations, up to 0.28 microM (10 times IC(50)). The IC(50) of the resistant CEM/CP-4055 was 35 microM, about 1,000 times that of the wildtype CEM, and comparable to that of CEM/dCK- (deoxycytidine kinase deficient) (22 microM). CEM/CP-4055 was also cross-resistant to Ara-C, gemcitabine and CP-4126 (28 and 33 microM, respectively). A low level of mRNA dCK was observed, and similar to CEM/dCK-, CEM/CP-4055 did not accumulate Ara-CTP after exposure to Ara-C or elacytarabine, which is consistent with a deficiency in dCK. In conclusion, elacytarabine induced resistance similar to Ara-C. This resistance was caused by downregulation of dCK.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 06/2010; 29(4-6):394-9. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 2-fluoro N(10)-substituted acridone derivatives with varying alkyl side chain length with propyl, butyl substitution, and a tertiary amine group at the terminal end of the alkyl side chain were synthesized and screened against cancer cell lines SW 1573, SW 1573 2R 160 (P-gp substrate) which are non-small lung cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MCF-7/MR (BCRP substrate) are breast cancer cell lines, 2008 WT, 2008MRP1, 2008MRP2, 2008MRP3 are ovarian cancer cell lines, and human embryo kidney cell lines like HEK293, HEK293 MRP4, and HEK293 MRP5i. The propyl-series compounds showed lipophilicity in the range of 1.93 to 4.40 and the butyl series in the range of 2.37 to 4.78. The compounds 4, 7, and 8 showed good cytotoxicity against the 60 human cancer cell line panel of the National Cancer Institute, USA. The compounds 14 and 15 showed a better cytotoxicity in most of the cancer cell lines compared to other compounds tested. The DNA-binding properties of the compounds were evaluated based on their affinity or intercalation with CT-DNA measured with absorption titration. The compound 11 bearing planar tricyclic ring linked with a butyl methylpiperazino side chain showed the highest binding affinity with a binding constant (K(i)) of 10.38 x 10 M(-1). Evaluation of the compounds in cell lines with an overexpression of various multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), or Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) showed that all compounds are not substrates for any of these transporters.
    Archiv der Pharmazie 11/2009; 342(11):640-50. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of folate status on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-mediated drug resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted drugs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, was investigated in two human colon cancer cell lines, WiDr and Caco-2, of which the latter displayed greater sensitivity to these drugs due to high EGFR expression. Caco-2 LF/LV cells, growing under low-folate (LF) conditions, showed increased BCRP protein expression compared with the high-folate (HF) counterpart, which was associated with 1.8-fold resistance to gefitinib. Of note, the BCRP-specific inhibitor Ko143 completely reverted this phenotype. WiDr LF cells also showed slightly increased BCRP expression compared with the HF cells, but no differences in gefitinib sensitivity were observed. Both Caco-2 LF/LV and WiDr LF cells showed 2.4- and 2.3-fold resistance to erlotinib, respectively, compared with their HF counterparts, which mechanistically seemed BCRP unrelated, as Ko143 had no effect on erlotinib activity. In conclusion, our data suggest that in EGFR-expressing Caco-2 cells, BCRP is one of the determinants of gefitinib resistance but not of erlotinib resistance. Beyond this, folate depletion can provoke an additional decrease in gefitinib and erlotinib activity by mechanisms dependent or independent of BCRP modulation.
    British Journal of Cancer 05/2009; 100(7):1120-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of folate status on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-mediated drug resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted drugs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, was investigated in two human colon cancer cell lines, WiDr and Caco-2, of which the latter displayed greater sensitivity to these drugs due to high EGFR expression. Caco-2 LF/LV cells, growing under low-folate (LF) conditions, showed increased BCRP protein expression compared with the high-folate (HF) counterpart, which was associated with 1.8-fold resistance to gefitinib. Of note, the BCRP-specific inhibitor Ko143 completely reverted this phenotype. WiDr LF cells also showed slightly increased BCRP expression compared with the HF cells, but no differences in gefitinib sensitivity were observed. Both Caco-2 LF/LV and WiDr LF cells showed 2.4- and 2.3-fold resistance to erlotinib, respectively, compared with their HF counterparts, which mechanistically seemed BCRP unrelated, as Ko143 had no effect on erlotinib activity. In conclusion, our data suggest that in EGFR-expressing Caco-2 cells, BCRP is one of the determinants of gefitinib resistance but not of erlotinib resistance. Beyond this, folate depletion can provoke an additional decrease in gefitinib and erlotinib activity by mechanisms dependent or independent of BCRP modulation.
    Cancer 04/2009; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As cellular folate levels seem to have a different effect on cancer cells from different origins, we extended our initial study to a broader panel of cancer cells. BCRP and MRP1-5 expression was determined in KB, OVCAR-3, IGROV-1, ZR75-1/R/MTX, SCC-11B, SCC-22B, and WiDr either grown in standard RPMI 1640 containing 2.3 micromol/L supraphysiologic concentration of folic acid [high folate (HF)] or adapted to more physiologic concentrations [1-5 nmol/L folic acid or leucovorin; low folate (LF)]. Compared with the HF counterparts, KB LF cells displayed 16.1-fold increased MRP3 and OVCAR-3 LF cells showed 4.8-fold increased MRP4 mRNA levels along with increased MRP3 and MRP4 protein expression, respectively. A marked increase on BCRP protein and mRNA expression was observed in WiDr LF cells. These cells acquired approximately 2-fold resistance to mitoxantrone compared with the HF cell line, a phenotype that could be reverted by the BCRP inhibitor Ko143. Of note, WiDr cells expressed BCRP in the intracellular compartment, similarly to what we have described for Caco-2 cells. Our results provide further evidence for an important role of cellular folate status in the modulation of the expression of multidrug resistance transporters in cancer cells. We show that up-regulation of intracellularly localized BCRP in response to adaptation to LF conditions may be a common feature within a panel of colon cancer cell lines. Under these circumstances, folate supplementation might improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs by decreasing BCRP expression.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 03/2009; 8(3):655-64. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Folates can induce the expression and activity of the breast-cancer-resistance-protein (BCRP) and the multidrug-resistance-protein-1 (MRP1). Our aim was to study the time-dependent effect of folate deprivation/supplementation on (i) BCRP and MRP expression and (ii) on drug resistance mediated by these transporters. Therefore Caco-2 colon cancer cells usually grown in standard RPMI-medium containing supraphysiological folic acid (FA) concentrations (2.3 muM; high-folate, HF) were gradually adapted to more physiological folate concentrations (1 nM leucovorin (LV) or 1 nM FA; low-folate, LF), resulting in the sublines Caco-2-LF/LV and Caco-2-LF/FA. Caco-2-LF/LV and LF/FA cells exhibited a maximal increase of 5.2- and 9.6-fold for BCRP-mRNA and 3.9- and 5.7-fold for BCRP protein expression, respectively, but no major changes on MRP expression. Overexpression of BCRP in the LF-cells resulted in 3.6- to 6.3-fold resistance to mitoxantrone (MR), which was completely reverted by the BCRP inhibitor Ko143. On the other hand, LF-adapted cells were markedly more sensitive to methotrexate than the HF-counterpart, both after 4-hr (9,870- and 23,923-fold for Caco-2-LF/LV and LF/FA, respectively) and 72-hr (11- and 22-fold for Caco-2-LF/LV and LF/FA, respectively) exposure. Immunofluorescent staining observed with a confocal-laser-scan-microscope revealed that in Caco-2 cells (both HF and LF), BCRP is mainly located in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, folate deprivation induces BCRP expression associated with MR resistance in Caco-2 cells. The intracellular localization of BCRP in these cells suggests that this transporter is not primarily extruding its substrates out of the cell, but rather to an intracellular compartment where folates can be kept as storage.
    International Journal of Cancer 08/2008; 123(7):1712-20. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin is used for treatment of colon cancer in combination with 5-fluorouracil or irinotecan. Oxaliplatin has similar, but also different resistant mechanisms as cisplatin. We studied the activity of oxaliplatin in ovarian and colon cancer cells with different resistance patterns to cisplatin. The 40-fold cisplatin-resistant cell line ADDP was only 7.5-fold resistant to oxaliplatin. The gemcitabine-resistant AG6000 cell line, 9-fold resistant to cisplatin, was not cross-resistant. LoVo-175X2, with mutant p53 showed no resistance compared to the empty vector control. However, LoVo-Li, with inactive p53, was 3.6-fold resistant corresponding to decreased accumulation and Pt adducts. Accumulation and DNA adducts formation showed no significant correlation with oxaliplatin sensitivity. Cell cycle distribution after exposure to oxaliplatin showed arrest in G2/M (A2780) or in S-phase (LoVo-92) for wt-p53 cells. ADDP and LoVo-Li showed G1 arrest followed by S-phase arrest and no changes in distribution, respectively. The cell cycle related proteins Cyclins A and B1 and (p)CDC25C were marginally affected by oxaliplatin. Expression of hCTR1 was decreased in ADDP, LoVo-Li and AG6000, OCT1 decreased in ADDP and AG6000 and OCT3 in LoVo-175X2, compared to the parental cell lines. In ADDP and LoVo-175X2 ATP7A and B were decreased but were increased in AG6000. From this study it can be concluded that changes in cell cycle distribution were cell line dependent and not related to changes in expression of Cyclin A or B1. Oxaliplatin accumulation was related to hCTR1 and, at low concentration, ATP7A to DNA adducts formation while the retention was related to hCTR1, OCT2 and ATP7B.
    Biochemical pharmacology 08/2008; 76(1):53-61. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Murine L1210 leukaemia cells expressing either the reduced folate carrier (RFC) or the membrane folate receptor (MFR) were studied in vitro and in vivo to assess the dynamics of membrane transport of two categories antifolates; folate-based inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (methotrexate, edatrexate, aminopterin, PT523, and PT644) and thymidylate synthase (TS) [CB3717, raltitrexed, plevitrexed (BGC9331), pemetrexed and GW1843]. The potency of in situ inhibition of TS was used as an endpoint to analyze the in vitro dynamics of RFC/MFR-membrane transport of these antifolates. Both for L1210-RFC and L1210-MFR cells, the potency of in situ TS inhibition was closely correlated with increasing affinities of these transporters for the antifolates (r = 0.64, P < 0.05 and r = -0.65, P < 0.05, respectively). Within the group of antifolates for which MFR had a low binding affinity, those that had the ability to become polyglutamylated, were more potent inhibitors of TS in situ activity than non-polyglutamatable antifolates. In vivo activity of methotrexate, edatrexate, raltitrexed and pemetrexed was assessed in L1210-RFC and L1210-MFR bearing mice that were fed either a standard or a folate-deficient chow. Dietary folate depletion significantly reduced the MTD for methotrexate (sevenfold), edatrexate (sevenfold), raltitrexed (50-fold) and pemetrexed (150-fold). Based on increased life spans, antitumor effects of methotrexate and edatrexate were markedly better in L1210-RFC bearing mice on the folate-deficient chow (ILS: 455 and 544%, respectively) than on standard chow (ILS: 213 and 263%, respectively). No therapeutic effects of methotrexate and edatrexate were observed for L1210-MFR bearing mice on either chow condition, which may be consistent with the low binding affinity for MFR. Irrespective of the folate diet status, pemetrexed and raltitrexed were inactive against both L1210-RFC and L1210-MFR bearing mice, which may be due to high circulating plasma thymidine levels. Collectively, this study underscores that modulation of dietary folate status can provide a basis within which the therapeutic effect of antifolates may be further improved.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2008; 62(6):937-48. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABCG2 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that confers resistance to various chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies have established that an Arg (wild-type) to Gly mutation at amino acid 482 in ABCG2 alters substrate specificity. Here, we explored the role of this G482 mutation in antifolate resistance using a clinically relevant 4-hour drug exposure. Stable transfectants overexpressing the mutant G482 transporter displayed 120-, 1,000-, and >6,250-fold resistance to the antifolates methotrexate, GW1843, and Tomudex, respectively, relative to parental human embryonic kidney cells. Moreover, although overexpressing equal transporter levels at the plasma membrane, G482-ABCG2 cells were 6-, 23-, and >521-fold more resistant to methotrexate, GW1843, and Tomudex, respectively, than R482-ABCG2 cells. In contrast, upon a continuous (72-hour) drug exposure, both the G482- and R482-ABCG2 cells lost almost all their antifolate resistance; this result was consistent with the inability of ABCG2 to extrude long-chain antifolate polyglutamates. Ko143, a specific and potent ABCG2 inhibitor reversed methotrexate resistance in both G482- and R482-ABCG2 cells. Consistently, whereas the pool of free methotrexate in parental human embryonic kidney cells was prominent after 4 hours of transport with 1 micromol/L [3H]methotrexate, in R482- and G482-ABCG2 cells, it was minimal. Furthermore, G482-ABCG2 cells contained marked decreases in the di- and triglutamate species of [3H]methotrexate at 4 hours of incubation with methotrexate and in the tetra- and pentaglutamates at 24 hours. These changes were not associated with any significant decrease in folylypoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase activity. These results provide the first evidence that the G482-ABCG2 mutation confers high-level resistance to various hydrophilic antifolates.
    Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(18):8414-22. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the multidrug resistance protein family, notably MRP1-4/ABCC1-4, and the breast cancer resistance protein BCRP/ABCG2 have been recognized as cellular exporters for the folate antagonist methotrexate (MTX). Here we show that MRP5/ABCC5 is also an antifolate and folate exporter based on the following evidence: (a) Using membrane vesicles from HEK293 cells, we show that MRP5 transports both MTX (KM = 1.3 mmol/L and VMAX = 780 pmol per mg protein per minute) and folic acid (KM = 1.0 mmol/L and VMAX = 875 pmol per mg protein per minute). MRP5 also transports MTX-glu2 (KM = 0.7 mmol/L and VMAX = 450 pmol per mg protein per minute) but not MTX-glu3. (b) Both accumulation of total [3H]MTX and of MTX polyglutamates were significantly reduced in MRP5 overexpressing cells. (c) Cell growth inhibition studies with MRP5 transfected HEK293 cells showed that MRP5 conferred high-level resistance (>160-fold) against the antifolates MTX, GW1843, and ZD1694 (raltitrexed) in short-term (4 hours) incubations with high drug concentrations; this resistance was proportional to the MRP5 level. (d) MRP5-mediated resistance (8.5- and 2.1-fold) was also found in standard long-term incubations (72 hours) at low concentrations of ZD1694 and GW1843. These results show the potential of MRP5 to mediate transport of (anti)folates and contribute to resistance against antifolate drugs.
    Cancer Research 05/2005; 65(10):4425-30. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the leading drugs in the treatment of leukemia, but extensive metabolism to 7-hydroxymethotrexate (7-OHMTX) can limit its therapeutic efficacy. In this study we investigated whether 7-OHMTX itself can provoke anti-folate resistance that may further disrupt MTX efficacy. For this purpose, we developed resistance to 7-OHMTX as well as MTX in 2 human leukemia cell lines (CCRF-CEM and MOLT-4) by stepwise exposure to increasing concentrations of 7-OHMTX and MTX. Consequently, both leukemia cell lines displayed marked levels of resistance to 7-OHMTX (> 10-fold) and MTX (> 75-fold). The underlying mechanism of resistance in the MTX-exposed cells was a marked decrease (> 10-fold) in reduced folate carrier (RFC)-mediated cellular uptake of MTX. This was associated with transcriptional silencing of the RFC gene in MTX-resistant CCRF-CEM cells. In contrast, the molecular basis for the resistance to 7-OHMTX was due solely to a marked decreased (> 95%) in folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) activity, which conferred more than 100-fold MTX resistance upon a short-term exposure to this drug. This is the first demonstration that 7-OHMTX can provoke distinct modalities of antifolate resistance compared with the parent drug MTX. The implications of this finding for MTX efficacy and strategies to circumvent MTX resistance are discussed.
    Blood 01/2005; 104(13):4194-201. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Multidrug Resistance Protein MRP1 (ABCC1) can confer resistance to a variety of therapeutic drugs. In addition, MRP1/ABCC1 mediates cellular export of natural folates, such as folic acid and l-leucovorin. In this study we determined whether cellular folate status affected the functional activity of MRP1/ABCC1 mediated efflux of an established substrate, the anthracycline daunorubicin (DNR). As a model system we used the human ovarian carcinoma cell line 2008wt, and its MRP1/ABCC1 transfected subline 2008/MRP1. Both types of these moderate- and high-MRP1/ABCC1 expressing cells displayed efflux of DNR when maintained in standard culture media (2.3microM folic acid). The initial total cellular DNR efflux rate in 2008/MRP1 cells was approximately 2-fold higher compared to 2008wt cells. This efflux consisted of MRP1/ABCC1 mediated transport, possibly non-MRP1 mediated transport, as well as passive diffusion. Benzbromarone, a specific MRP1 inhibitor, decreased the initial efflux rate in 2008/MRP1 cells (4-fold) and in 2008wt cells (2-fold). When 2008/MRP1 cells were challenged for 2 days in folate-free medium, total cellular DNR efflux was decreased to 43% of the initial efflux rate under folate-rich conditions. In 2008wt cells DNR efflux was decreased to 84% of the folate-rich conditions. Benzbromarone did not inhibit DNR efflux after the folate-free period in both cell lines. Repletion of folate by a 2-24hr exposure to 2.5microM l-leucovorin or folic acid resulted in a complete restoration of DNR efflux. In contrast, expression of MRP1/ABCC1 protein was not changed significantly during the folate-free period or the repletion-period, nor were cellular ATP or ADP pools. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the cellular folate status can influence the transport activity of MRP1/ABCC1. These results have potentially important implications in the understanding of the (patho-)physiological roles of MRP1/ABCC1, and possibly other ABC transporter proteins in cellular folate homeostasis and drug resistance.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 05/2004; 67(8):1541-8. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent study from our laboratory showed that induction of the multidrug resistance related drug efflux pump ABCG2 contributed to acquired resistance of human T cells to the disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) sulfasalazine (SSZ). To investigate the duration of SSZ resistance and ABCG2 expression after withdrawal of SSZ and rechallenging with SSZ, and to assess the impact of SSZ resistance on responsiveness to other DMARDs. Human CEM cells (T cell origin) with acquired resistance to SSZ (CEM/SSZ) were characterised for (a) SSZ sensitivity and ABCG2 expression during withdrawal and rechallenge of SSZ, and (b) antiproliferative efficacy of other DMARDs. ABCG2 protein expression was stable for at least 4 weeks when CEM/SSZ cells were grown in the absence of SSZ, but gradually declined, along with SSZ resistance levels, to non-detectable levels after withdrawal of SSZ for 6 months. Rechallenging with SSZ led to a rapid (<2.5 weeks) resumption of SSZ resistance and ABCG2 expression as in the original CEM/SSZ cells. CEM/SSZ cells displayed diminished sensitivity to the DMARDs leflunomide (5.1-fold) and methotrexate (1.8-fold), were moderately more sensitive (1.6-2.0 fold) to cyclosporin A and chloroquine, and markedly more sensitive (13-fold) to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone as compared with parental CEM cells. The drug efflux pump ABCG2 has a major role in conferring resistance to SSZ. The collateral sensitivity of SSZ resistant cells for some other (non-related) DMARDs may provide a further rationale for sequential mono- or combination therapies with distinct DMARDs upon decreased efficacy of SSZ.
    Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 03/2004; 63(2):131-7. · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether overexpression of cell membrane associated drug efflux pumps belonging to the family of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins contributes to a diminished efficacy of sulfasalazine (SSZ) after prolonged cellular exposure to this disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). A model system of human T cells (CEM) was used to expose cells in vitro to increasing concentrations of SSZ for a period of six months. Cells were then characterised for the expression of drug efflux pumps: P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2). Prolonged exposure of CEM cells to SSZ provoked resistance to SSZ as manifested by a 6.4-fold diminished antiproliferative effect of SSZ compared with parental CEM cells. CEM cells resistant to SSZ (CEM/SSZ) showed a marked induction of ABCG2/BCRP, Pgp expression was not detectable, while MRP1 expression was even down regulated. A functional role of ABCG2 in SSZ resistance was demonstrated by 60% reversal of SSZ resistance by the ABCG2 blocker Ko143. Release of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was threefold higher in CEM/SSZ cells than in CEM cells. Moreover, twofold higher concentrations of SSZ were required to inhibit TNFalpha release from CEM/SSZ cells compared with CEM cells. Collectively, ABCG2 induction, augmented TNFalpha release, and less efficient inhibition of TNFalpha production by SSZ may contribute to diminished efficacy after prolonged exposure to SSZ. These results warrant further clinical studies to verify whether drug efflux pumps, originally identified for their roles in cytostatic drug resistance, can also be induced by SSZ or other DMARDs.
    Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 03/2004; 63(2):138-43. · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1, MRP2 and MRP3 confer resistance to therapeutic antifolates by mediating their cellular extrusion. We now determined whether MRPs also play a role in controlling cellular homeostasis of natural folates. In MRP1, MRP2 and MRP3-transfected 2008 human ovarian carcinoma cells total cellular folate content was 32-38% lower than in 2008 cells (105+/-14pmolfolate/mgprotein) when grown in medium containing 2.3 microM folic acid (FA). Under these conditions cellular growth rates were not compromised. However, when cells were challenged under folate-depleted conditions with a short exposure (4 hr) to FA or leucovorin, MRP1 and MRP3 overexpressing cells were impaired in their growth. In contrast to wild-type cells, MRP1 transfected cells retained only 60% of the maximum growth when exposed to 500 nM leucovorin or 500 microM FA. For 2008/MRP1 and 2008/MRP3 cells FA growth stimulation capacity was dramatically decreased when, during a 4 hr exposure, metabolism into rapidly polyglutamatable and retainable dihydrofolate was blocked by the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor trimetrexate. To retain growth under such conditions MRP1 overexpressing cells required much higher concentrations of FA (EC(50) > 500 microM) compared to 2008 cells (EC(50): 12 microM). These results suggest that down- and up-regulation of MRP1 (and MRP3) expression can influence cellular folate homeostasis, in particular when cellular retention by polyglutamylation of folates is attenuated.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 03/2003; 65(5):765-71. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the molecular basis of the up to 46-fold increased accumulation of folates and methotrexate (MTX) in human leukemia CEM-7A cells established by gradual deprivation of leucovorin (LCV). CEM-7A cells consequently exhibited 10- and 68-fold decreased LCV and folic acid growth requirements and 23-25-fold hypersensitivity to MTX and edatrexate. Although CEM-7A cells displayed a 74-86-fold increase in the reduced folate carrier (RFC)-mediated influx of LCV and MTX, RFC overexpression per se cannot induce a prominently increased folate/MTX accumulation because RFC functions as a nonconcentrative anion exchanger. We therefore explored the possibility that folate efflux activity mediated by members of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family was impaired in CEM-7A cells. Parental CEM cells expressed substantial levels of MRP1, MRP4, poor MRP5 levels, whereas MRP2, MRP3 and breast cancer resistance protein were undetectable. In contrast, CEM-7A cells lost 95% of MRP1 levels while retaining parental expression of MRP4 and MRP5. Consequently, CEM-7A cells displayed a 5-fold decrease in the [(3)H]folic acid efflux rate constant, which was identical to that obtained with parental CEM cells, when their folic acid efflux was blocked (78%) with probenecid. Furthermore, when compared with parental CEM, CEM-7A cells accumulated 2-fold more calcein fluorescence. Treatment of parental cells with the MRP1 efflux inhibitors MK571 and probenecid resulted in a 60-100% increase in calcein fluorescence. In contrast, these inhibitors failed to alter the calcein fluorescence in CEM-7A cells, which markedly lost MRP1 expression. Replenishment of LCV in the growth medium of CEM-7A cells resulted in resumption of normal MRP1 expression. These results establish for the first time that MRP1 is the primary folate efflux route in CEM leukemia cells and that the loss of folate efflux activity is an efficient means of markedly augmenting cellular folate pools. These findings suggest a functional role for MRP1 in the maintenance of cellular folate homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2003; 278(9):6680-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the mechanisms of resistance of human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells to methotrexate (MTX) vs. those to six novel antifolates: the polyglutamatable thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors ZD1694, multitargeted antifolate, pemetrexed, ALIMTA (MTA) and GW1843U89, the non-polyglutamatable inhibitors of TS, ZD9331, and dihydrofolate reductase, PT523, as well as DDATHF, a polyglutamatable glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase inhibitor. CEM cells were made resistant to these drugs by clinically relevant intermittent 24 hr exposures to 5-10 microM of MTX, ZD1694, GW1843U89, MTA and DDATHF, by intermittent 72 hr exposures to 5 microM of ZD9331 and by continuous exposure to stepwise increasing concentrations of ZD9331, GW1843U89 and PT523. Development of resistance required only 3 cycles of intermittent drug exposure to ZD1694 and MTA, but 5 cycles for MTX, DDATHF and GW1843U89 and 8 cycles for ZD9331. The predominant mechanism of resistance to ZD1694, MTA, MTX and DDATHF was impaired polyglutamylation due to approximately 10-fold decreased folylpolyglutamate synthetase activity. Resistance to intermittent exposures to GW1843U89 and ZD9331 was associated with a 2-fold decreased transport via the reduced folate carrier (RFC). The CEM cell lines resistant to intermittent exposures to MTX, ZD1694, MTA, DDATHF, GW1843U89 and ZD9331 displayed a depletion (up to 4-fold) of total intracellular reduced folate pools. Resistance to continuous exposure to ZD9331 was caused by a 14-fold increase in TS activity. CEM/GW70, selected by continuous exposure to GW1843U89 was 50-fold resistant to GW1843U89, whereas continuous exposure to PT523 generated CEM/PT523 cells that were highly resistant (1550-fold) to PT523. Both CEM/GW70 and CEM/PT523 displayed cross-resistance to several antifolates that depend on the RFC for cellular uptake, including MTX (95- and 530-fold). CEM/GW70 cells were characterized by a 12-fold decreased transport of [3H]MTX. Interestingly, however, CEM/GW70 cells displayed an enhanced transport of folic acid, consistent with the expression of a structurally altered RFC resulting in a 2.6-fold increase of intracellular folate pools. CEM/PT523 cells displayed a markedly impaired (100-fold) transport of [3H]MTX along with 12-fold decreased total folate pools. In conclusion, multifunctional mechanisms of resistance in CEM cells have a differential impact on cellular folate homeostasis: decreased polyglutamylation and transport defects lead to folate depletion, whereas a structurally altered RFC protein can provoke expanded intracellular folate pools.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 02/2002; 63(2):105-15. · 4.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

755 Citations
163.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2011
    • University of Porto
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
  • 2002–2008
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      • Faculty of Biology
      Haifa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 1989–1990
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Hematology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands