Silvana Konda

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (7)47.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Calcium signalling is important for differentiation-dependent gene expression, but is also involved in other cellular functions. Therefore, mechanisms must exist to distinguish calcium signalling relevant to differentiation. Calcineurin is a calcium-regulated phosphatase that is required for myogenic gene expression and skeletal muscle differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of calcineurin blocks chromatin remodelling and that the Brg1 ATPase of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling enzyme, which is required for the activation of myogenic gene expression, is a calcineurin substrate. Furthermore, we identify the calcium-regulated classical protein kinase C β (PKCβ) as a repressor of myogenesis and as the enzyme that opposes calcineurin function. Replacement of endogenous Brg1 with a phosphomimetic mutant in primary myoblasts inhibits myogenesis, whereas replacement with a non-phosphorylatable mutant allows myogenesis despite inhibition of calcineurin signalling, demonstrating the functionality of calcineurin/PKC-modified residues. Thus, the Brg1 chromatin remodelling enzyme integrates two antagonistic calcium-dependent signalling pathways that control myogenic differentiation.
    Nature Communications 01/2015; 6:7441. DOI:10.1038/ncomms8441 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of adipose tissue formation by adipogenic-regulatory proteins has long been a topic of interest given the ever-increasing health concerns of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the general population. Differentiation of precursor cells into adipocytes involves a complex network of cofactors that facilitate the functions of transcriptional regulators from the CCATT/enhancer binding protein, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) families. Many of these cofactors are enzymes that modulate the structure of chromatin by altering histone-DNA contacts in an ATP-dependent manner or by posttranslationally modifying the histone proteins. Here we report that inhibition of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (Prmt5) expression in multiple cell culture models for adipogenesis prevented the activation of adipogenic genes. In contrast, overexpression of Prmt5 enhanced adipogenic gene expression and differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that Prmt5 binds to and dimethylates histones at adipogenic promoters. Furthermore, the presence of Prmt5 promoted the binding of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes and was required for the binding of PPARγ2 at PPARγ2-regulated promoters. The data indicate that Prmt5 acts as a coactivator for the activation of adipogenic gene expression and promotes adipogenic differentiation.
    Molecular Endocrinology 02/2012; 26(4):583-97. DOI:10.1210/me.2011-1162 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that specifies formation of the adipocyte lineage. PPARγ also serves as a primary target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, illustrating both its medical relevance as well as the need to understand fundamental aspects of PPARγ expression and function. Here, we characterize molecular changes that occur at the PPARγ2 promoter within the first several hours of adipocyte differentiation in culture. Our results demonstrate that changes in chromatin accessibility at the PPARγ2 promoter and occupancy of the promoter by the c-Fos transcription factor occur within an hour of the onset of differentiation, followed closely by the binding of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) transcription factor. All three events show a remarkable dependency on protein kinase A (PKA) activity. These results reflect novel requirements for the PKA signaling pathway and reinforce the importance of PKA function during the onset of adipocyte differentiation.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2011; 226(1):86-93. DOI:10.1002/jcp.22308 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Storage of energy as triglyceride in large adipose-specific lipid droplets is a fundamental need in all mammals. Efficient sequestration of fat in adipocytes also prevents fatty acid overload in skeletal muscle and liver, which can impair insulin signaling. Here we report that the Cide domain-containing protein Cidea, previously thought to be a mitochondrial protein, colocalizes around lipid droplets with perilipin, a regulator of lipolysis. Cidea-GFP greatly enhances lipid droplet size when ectopically expressed in preadipocytes or COS cells. These results explain previous findings showing that depletion of Cidea with RNAi markedly elevates lipolysis in human adipocytes. Like perilipin, Cidea and the related lipid droplet protein Cidec/FSP27 are controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Treatment of lean or obese mice with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone markedly up-regulates Cidea expression in white adipose tissue (WAT), increasing lipid deposition. Strikingly, in both omental and s.c. WAT from BMI-matched obese humans, expression of Cidea, Cidec/FSP27, and perilipin correlates positively with insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR index). Thus, Cidea and other lipid droplet proteins define a novel, highly regulated pathway of triglyceride deposition in human WAT. The data support a model whereby failure of this pathway results in ectopic lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and its associated comorbidities in humans.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2008; 105(22):7833-8. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0802063105 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fat-specific protein (FSP)27/Cidec is most highly expressed in white and brown adipose tissues and increases in abundance by over 50-fold during adipogenesis. However, its function in adipocytes has remained elusive since its discovery over 15 years ago. Here we demonstrate that FSP27/Cidec localizes to lipid droplets in cultured adipocytes and functions to promote lipid accumulation. Ectopically expressed FSP27-GFP surrounds lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and colocalizes with the known lipid droplet protein perilipin. Immunostaining of endogenous FSP27 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes also confirmed its presence on lipid droplets. FSP27-GFP expression also markedly increases lipid droplet size and enhances accumulation of total neutral lipids in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as well as other cell types such as COS cells. Conversely, RNA interference-based FSP27/Cidec depletion in mature adipocytes significantly stimulates lipolysis and reduces the size of lipid droplets. These data reveal FSP27/Cidec as a novel adipocyte lipid droplet protein that negatively regulates lipolysis and promotes triglyceride accumulation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2007; 282(47):34213-8. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M707404200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cultured adipocyte cell lines are a model system widely used to study adipose function, but they exhibit significant physiological differences compared with primary cells from adipose tissue. Here we report short interfering RNA-based methodology to selectively attenuate gene expression in mouse and human primary adipose tissues as a means of rapidly validating findings made in cultured adipocyte cell lines. The method is exemplified by depletion of the PTEN phosphatase in white adipose tissue (WAT) from mouse and humans, which increases Akt phosphorylation as expected. This technology is also shown to silence genes in mouse brown adipose tissue. Previous work revealed upregulation of the mitochondrial protein UCP1 in adipose cells from mice lacking the gene for the transcriptional corepressor RIP140, whereas in cultured adipocytes, loss of RIP140 has a little effect on UCP1 expression. Application of our method to deplete RIP140 in primary mouse WAT elicited markedly increased oxygen consumption and expression of UCP1 that exactly mimics the phenotype observed in RIP140-null mice. This ex-vivo method of gene silencing should be useful in rapid validation studies as well as in addressing the depot- and species-specific functions of genes in adipose biology.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 03/2007; 48(2):465-71. DOI:10.1194/jlr.D600033-JLR200 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The insulin-regulated glucose transporter GLUT4 is a key modulator of whole body glucose homeostasis, and its selective loss in adipose tissue or skeletal muscle causes insulin resistance and diabetes. Here we report an RNA interference-based screen of protein kinases expressed in adipocytes and identify four negative regulators of insulin-responsive glucose transport: the protein kinases PCTAIRE-1 (PCTK1), PFTAIRE-1 (PFTK1), IkappaB kinase alpha, and MAP4K4/NIK. Integrin-linked protein kinase was identified as a positive regulator of this process. We characterized one of these hits, MAP4K4/NIK, and found that it is unique among mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases expressed in cultured adipocytes in attenuating hexose transport. Remarkably, MAP4K4/NIK suppresses expression of the adipogenic transcription factors C/EBPalpha, C/EBPbeta, and PPARgamma and of GLUT4 itself in these cells. RNA interference-mediated depletion of MAP4K4/NIK early in differentiation enhances adipogenesis and triglyceride deposition, and even in fully differentiated adipocytes its loss up-regulates GLUT4. Conversely, conditions that inhibit adipogenesis such as TNF-alpha treatment or depletion of PPARgamma markedly up-regulate MAP4K4/NIK expression in cultured adipocytes. Furthermore, TNF-alpha signaling to down-regulate GLUT4 is impaired in the absence of MAP4K4/NIK, indicating that MAP4K4 expression is required for optimal TNF-alpha action. These results reveal a MAP4K4/NIK-dependent signaling pathway that potently inhibits PPARgamma-responsive gene expression, adipogenesis, and insulin-stimulated glucose transport.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2006; 103(7):2087-92. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0507660103 · 9.81 Impact Factor