[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that some bacteria colonization or infections in early-life increased the risk for subsequent asthma development. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which early-life bacterial infection increases this risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neonatal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection on the development of adulthood asthma, and to explore the possible mechanism. A non-lethal S. pneumoniae lung infection was established by intranasal inoculation of neonatal (1-week-old) female mice with D39. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin in adulthood to induce allergic airways disease (AAD). Twenty-four hours later, the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected to assess AAD. Neonatal S. pneumoniae infection exacerbated adulthood hallmark features of AAD, with enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness and increased neutrophil recruitment into the airways, increased Th17 cells and interleukin (IL)-17A productions. Depletion of IL-17A by i.p. injection of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduced neutrophil recruitment into the airways, alleviated airway inflammation and decreased airway hyperresponsiveness. Furthermore, IL-17A depletion partially restored levels of inteferon-γ, but had no effect on the release of IL-5 or IL-13. Our data suggest that neonatal S. pneumoniae infection may promote the development of adulthood asthma in association with increased IL-17A production.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0123010. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123010 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequently observed pathogens during infancy and childhood. However, the corresponding pathogenesis has not been determined to date. We previously demonstrated that IFN-¿ plays an important role in RSV pathogenesis, and SARM-TRIF-signaling pathway could regulate the production of IFN-¿. This study is to investigate whether T cells or innate immune cells are the predominant producers of IFN-¿, and further to explore other culprits in addition to IFN-¿ in the condition of RSV infection.Methods
Normal BALB/c mice and nude mice deficient in T cells were infected intranasally with RSV. Leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were counted, lung histopathology was examined, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured by whole-body plethysmography. IFN-¿ and MMP-12 were detected by ELISA. MMP408, a selective MMP-12 inhibitor, was given intragastrically. Resveratrol, IFN-¿ neutralizing antibody and recombinant murine IFN-¿ were administered intraperitoneally. SARM and TRIF protein were semi-quantified by Western blot. siRNA was used to knock-down SARM expression.ResultsRSV induced significant airway inflammation and AHR in both mice; IFN-¿ was significantly increased in BALB/c mice but not in nude mice. MMP-12 was dramatically increased in both mice but earlier in nude mice. When MMP-12 was inhibited by MMP408, RSV-induced respiratory symptoms were alleviated. SARM was significantly suppressed while TRIF was significantly enhanced in both mice strains. Following resveratrol administration in nude mice, 1) SARM inhibition was prevented, 2) TRIF and MMP-12 were correspondingly down-regulated and 3) airway disorders were subsequently alleviated. Moreover, when SARM was efficiently knocked down using siRNA, TRIF and MMP-12 were markedly enhanced, and the anti-RSV effects of resveratrol were remarkably abrogated. MMP-12 was significantly increased in the IFN-¿ neutralizing antibody-treated BALB/c mice but reduced in the recombinant murine IFN-¿-treated nude mice.ConclusionsMMP-12 can result in at least part of the airway inflammation and AHR independent of IFN-¿. And SARM-TRIF- signaling pathway is involved in regulating the overproduction of MMP-12. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first that has examined the effects of SARM on MMP-12 and further highlights the potential to target SARM-TRIF-MMP-12 cascades to treat RSV infection.
Respiratory Research 02/2015; 16(1):11. DOI:10.1186/s12931-015-0176-8 · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children under five years of age. The novel genotype ON1 has a 72-nucleotide duplication, which is the largest duplicated genome portion of RSV. Whether the ON1 genotype will follow the pattern of the BA genotype, which has a 60-nucleotide duplication, and become the predominant RSV-A strain is a global concern. To obtain information regarding the prevalence of the ON1 genotype in Chongqing in Southwestern China, we examined the circulation pattern of RSV-A identified over four consecutive years (June 2009 to August 2013). In this study, 312 (12%) RSV-A strains were isolated from 2601 nasopharyngeal aspirates, and partial G gene was sequenced successfully in 250 isolates. Of the sequenced Chongqing RSV-A isolates, 237 (94.8%) strains were the NA1 genotype, 4 (1.6%) strains were the NA3 genotype, 4 (1.6%) strains were the NA4 genotype, 1 (0.4%) strain was the GA1 genotype, and 4 (1.6%) strains were identified as the ON1 genotype. Analysis of the distribution, phylogeny, and evolution of the ON1 strains that were collected globally until December 2013 revealed that the ON1 genotype has rapidly disseminated across the world under positive selection pressures. Future studies will determine whether this new genotype will continue to spread and become the dominant strain of RSV-A worldwide. These findings may contribute to the understanding of RSV evolution and to the potential development of a vaccine against RSV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Human bocavirus is a newly discovered parvovirus. Multiple studies have confirmed the presence of human bocavirus1 (HBoV1) in respiratory tract samples of children. The viral load, presentation of single detection and its role as a causative agent of severe respiratory tract infections have not been thoroughly elucidated.
We investigated the presence of HBoV1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens from 1229 children hospitalized for respiratory tract infections. The samples were analyzed for 15 respiratory viruses by PCR and 7 respiratory viruses by viral culture.
At least one virus was detected in 652 (53.1%) of 1229 children, and two or more viruses were detected in 266 (21.6%) children. HBoV1 was detected in 127 children (10.3%), in which 66/127 (52%) of the cases were the only HBoV1 virus detected. Seasonal variation was observed with a high HBoV1 infection rate in summer. A cutoff value of 107 copies/mL was used to distinguish high and low HBoV1 viral loads in the nasopharyngeal aspirates. High viral loads of HBoV1 were noted predominantly in the absence of other viral agents (28/39, 71.8%) whereas there was primarily co-detection in cases of low HBoV1 viral loads (50/88, 56.8%). There were no differences in the clinical symptoms and severity between HBoV1 single detection and co-detection. In cases of HBoV1 single detection, the high viral load group was more prevalent among children with dyspnea and wheezing than was the low viral load group (42.9% vs. 23.7%, P = 0.036; 60.7% vs. 31.6%, P = 0.018). In clinical severity, a significant difference was recorded (25.0% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.003) between high viral load and low viral load groups. Of the HBoV1 positive patients associated with severe respiratory tract infections, 10/18 (55.6%) patients belonged to the HBoV1 high viral load group, and 7/10 (70%) patients had cases of HBoV1 single detection.
HBoV1 at a high viral load is not frequently found in co-detection with other respiratory viruses, and a single detection with a high viral load could be an etiological agent of severe respiratory tract infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 7-Valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) immunization in adulthood can inhibit allergic asthma in mouse model. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of infant PCV7 immunization on young adulthood CD4+T cell subsets in a murine allergic airway disease (AAD) model. Our study indicated that infant PCV7 immunization can inhibit young adulthood airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by inducing the production of Foxp3+Treg, Th1 cells and their cytokines IL-10 and IFN-γ, inhibiting the production of Th2, Th17 cells and their cytokines IL-13 and IL-17A in BALB/c mice model. These results suggested that infant PCV7 immunization may serve as an effective measure to prevent young adulthood mice AAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children, and the leading cause of infant hospitalization worldwide. Uncontrolled response to RSV is mediated by a toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune response. Resveratrol possesses anti-RSV activity and is an inhibitor of the TRIF/TBK1/IRF-3 complex. We hypothesize that resveratrol inhibits the TRIF-dependent pathway through up-regulation of SARM post-RSV infection. BALB/c mice were infected with RSV and were injected with resveratrol one hour post-inoculation. SARM siRNA was administrated to RSV-infected and resveratrol-treated mice. Lung function was measured by whole-body plethysmography, lung histopathology was examined, and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified. SARM and TRIF protein expression were detected in lung by western blot analyses. The expression of interferon-γ in BALF was evaluated by ELISA. SARM expression was reduced and TRIF expression was increased after infection with RSV. Resveratrol increased SARM expression and decreased TRIF expression after RSV infection. SARM knockdown in resveratrol-treated mice enhanced interferon-γ production, RSV-induced airway inflammation, and AHR. Resveratrol decreased TRIF expression and prevented the RSV-mediated reduction of SARM expression. Resveratrol-mediated inhibition of the TRIF-dependent pathway may be dependent on SARM expression.IMPORTANCE Our study provides insights into the regulation of innate immunity in response to RSV infection. The results suggest that resveratrol-mediated alterations in SARM may have therapeutic potential against RSV immunopathology caused by deregulation of the TLR-mediated immune response. Ultimately, improved insight into the complex interplay between TLR adaptor proteins and the occurrence of severe RSV infection might lead to novel therapeutic treatment strategies such as TLR adjuvants.
Journal of Virology 01/2014; 88(8). DOI:10.1128/JVI.03637-13 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory tract infection, particularly acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI), in early childhood. The RSV fusion protein (F protein) is an important surface protein, and it is the target of both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and neutralizing antibodies; thus, it may be useful as a candidate for vaccine research. This study investigated the genetic diversity of the RSV F protein. To this end, a total of 1800 nasopharyngeal aspirates from hospitalized children with ALRTI were collected for virus isolation between June 2009 and March 2012. There were 333 RSV-positive cases (277 cases of RSV A, 55 of RSV B, and 1 with both RSV A and RSV B), accounting for 18.5 % of the total cases. Next, 130 clinical strains (107 of RSV A, 23 of RSV B) were selected for F gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the F gene sequence is highly conserved, with significant amino acid changes at residues 16, 25, 45, 102, 122, 124, 209, and 447. Mutations in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted CTL epitopes were also observed. Variations in RSV A F protein at the palivizumab binding site 276 (N→S) increased between 2009 and 2012 and became predominant. Western blot analysis and microneutralization data showed a substitution at residue 276 (N→S) in RSV A that did not cause resistance to palivizumab. In conclusion, the RSV F gene is geographically and temporally conserved, but limited genetic variations were still observed. These data could be helpful for the development of vaccines against RSV infection.
Archives of Virology 12/2013; 159(5). DOI:10.1007/s00705-013-1870-9 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: This work aims to explore the role of Th17 and IL-17 signaling in the pathogenesis of primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) in children and podocyte injury, children with PNS were divided into minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and non-minimal change nephrotic syndrome [NMCNS, including mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)]. Methods: Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to observe the circulating frequency of Th17 cells and the apoptosis of podocytes by annexinV-FITC/PI. Serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Fas and FasL expressions in podocytes were examined by FCM analysis using a direct immunofluorescence method. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was applied to measure the mRNA expressions of RORc, IL-23p19, Nephrin, WT1, Synaptopodin, Podocalyxin, Fas, and FasL. The IL-17 and IL-1β expression in renal biopsy tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of WT1, Caspase 8, and Caspase 3 in podocyte cell culture were also measured using immunocytochemistry. Results: Circulating frequencies of Th17 cells, mRNA levels of RORc and IL-23p19, and serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1β were higher in the MCNS and NMCNS groups than in the control group (all P P P Conclusion: Th17/IL-17 may contribute to the pathogenesis of PNS by decreasing the podocalyxin level and inducing podocyte apoptosis.
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 09/2013; 37(4-5):332-345. DOI:10.1159/000350161 · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a first-line treatment for asthma for their anti-inflammatory effects, but they also hinder the repair of airway epithelial injury. The anti-inflammatory protein GC-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is reported to inhibit the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which promotes the repair of airway epithelial cells around the damaged areas. We investigated whether the inhibition of airway epithelial repair imposed by the GC dexamethasone (DEX) is mediated by GILZ.
We tested the effect of DEX on the expressions of GILZ mRNA and GILZ protein and the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells, via RT-PCR and Western blot. We further evaluated the role of GILZ in mediating the effect of DEX on the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway and in airway epithelium repair by utilizing small-interfering RNAs, MTT, CFSE labeling, wound-healing and cell migration assays.
DEX increased GILZ mRNA and GILZ protein levels in a human airway epithelial cell line. Furthermore, DEX inhibited the phosphorylation of Raf-1, Mek1/2, Erk1/2 (components of the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway), proliferation and migration. However, the inhibitory effect of DEX was mitigated in cells when the GILZ gene was silenced.
The inhibition of epithelial injury repair by DEX is mediated in part by activation of GILZ, which suppressed activation of the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway, proliferation and migration. Our study implicates the involvement of DEX in this process, and furthers our understanding of the dual role of GCs.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60705. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060705 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Treg cells), which are essential for regulation of immune response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, are promoted by pharyngeal commensal pneumococcus. The effects of pharyngeal microflora disruption by antibiotics on airway responsiveness and relative immune responses after RSV infection have not been clarified.
Female BALB/c mice (aged 3 weeks) were infected with RSV and then treated with either oral antibiotics or oral double distilled water (ddH(2)O) from 1 d post infection (pi). Changes in pharyngeal microflora were analyzed after antibiotic treatment for 7 d and 14 d. At 8 d pi and 15 d pi, the inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were investigated in combination with tests of pulmonary histopathology, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), pulmonary and splenic Treg cells responses. Pulmonary Foxp3 mRNA expression, IL-10 and TGF-β1 in BALF and lung homogenate were investigated at 15 d pi. Ovalbumin (OVA) challenge was used to induce AHR after RSV infection.
The predominant pharyngeal commensal, Streptococcus, was cleared by antibiotic treatment for 7 d. Same change also existed after antibiotic treatment for 14 d. After RSV infection, AHR was promoted by antibiotic treatment at 15 d pi. Synchronous decreases of pulmonary Treg cells, Foxp3 mRNA and TGF-β1 were detected. Similar results were observed under OVA challenge.
After RSV infection, antibiotic treatment cleared pharyngeal commensal bacteria such as Streptococcus, which consequently, might induce AHR and decrease pulmonary Treg cells.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41104. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041104 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly discovered parvovirus and increasing evidences are available to support its role as an etiologic agent in lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The objective of this study is to assess the impact of HBoV viral load on clinical characteristics in children who were HBoV positive and suffered severe LRTI.
Lower respiratory tract aspirates from 186 hospitalized children with severe LRTI were obtained by bronchoscopy. HBoVs were detected by real-time PCR and other 10 infectious agents were examined using PCR and/or direct fluorescent assay.
Thirty-one patients (24.6%) were tested positive for HBoV in the respiratory tract aspirates. Fifteen samples had a high viral load (>10(4) copies/mL) and the other sixteen samples had a low viral load (<10(4) copies/mL). The duration of presented wheezing and hospitalization was longer in children with high viral load of HBoV than that in children with low viral load. The days of wheezing showed a correlation with viral load of HBoV.
We confirmed that HBoV was frequently detected in patients with severe LRTI. Wheezing was one of the most common symptoms presented by patients with positive HBoV. A high HBoV viral load could be an etiologic agent for LRTI, which led to more severe lower respiratory tract symptom, longer duration of wheezing and hospitalization.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e34353. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034353 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The viewpoints on the control of innate immune cells by the adaptive immune system during sepsis remain controversial. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is essential to the negative control of innate immunity and suppresses the activation of macrophages by inhibiting activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The purpose of the current study was to observe inflammatory response and macrophage activation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with endotoxemia and to determine the role of MKP-1 in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system. Endotoxemia was induced in wild-type and SCID mice by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and all of the SCID mice died. SCID mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice systemically and locally. TNF-α mRNA expression was higher and MKP-1 mRNA expression was lower in peritoneal macrophages (PMa) from SCID mice compared to PMa from wild-type mice after and even before LPS injection. Thioglycollate-stimulated PMa from wild-type mice were stimulated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of pan-T cells. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the supernatants from PMa cultured alone compared to PMa co-cultured with pan-T cells, and PMa MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher when PMa were co-cultured with pan-T cells. Therefore, pan-T cells can up-regulate MKP-1 expression in macrophages and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokines secretion by macrophages. In SCID mice, lymphocyte deficiency, especially T cell deficiency, causes insufficient MKP-1 expression in macrophages, which can be responsible for the severe inflammation and bad prognosis of septic SCID mice. MKP-1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2011; 29(1):25-31. DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2011.799 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of severe, lower respiratory tract infections in infants, and RSV infections have been associated with chronic wheezing and asthma during childhood. However, the mechanism of RSV-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is poorly understood. Furthermore, there are presently neither effective vaccines nor drugs available for the prevention or treatment of RSV infections. In this study, we investigated the effect of the plant extract resveratrol as a means of preventing airway inflammation and attenuating RSV-induced AHR. Our data showed that resveratrol reduced RSV lung titers and the number of infiltrating lymphocytes present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, resveratrol attenuated airway responses to methacholine following RSV infection and significantly decreased gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in BALF of RSV-infected mice. Data presented in this report demonstrated that resveratrol controlled Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, inhibited the TRIF signaling pathway, and induced M2 receptor expression following RSV infection. These data support a role for the use of resveratrol as a means of reducing IFN-γ levels associated with RSV-mediated airway inflammation and AHR, which may be mediated via TLR3 signaling.
Journal of Virology 09/2011; 85(24):13061-8. DOI:10.1128/JVI.05869-11 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Mina gene in animals are associated with the development of Th2-mediated diseases. However, there is no information whether the association occurs in humans. This case-control study aimed at examining the potential association of the SNP of the Mina gene with the development of asthma in Chinese Han children. The DNA genotypes and serum immunoglobulin E and interleukin-4 levels of 202 asthmatic patients and 191 nonasthmatic subjects were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We found that the frequency of the T allele of rs4857304, but not rs832081, rs832078, rs9879532, and rs17374916, in the Mina gene in asthmatic patients was significantly higher than that of controls (p = 0.0199). Using a recessive model, we found that the percentage of patients with TT homozygous rs4857304 was significantly higher than that of controls (p = 0.0282, odds ratio=1.568, 95% confidence interval=1.048-2.346). Further, the mean levels of serum immunoglobulin E and interleukin-4 in the patients with TT genotype of rs4857304 were significantly higher than that of patients with the G allele (p = 0.000 and p = 0.03, respectively). Apparently, the T allele of rs4857304 of the Mina gene may be associated with increased risk for the development of asthma in Chinese Han children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine whether the protective effects of the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on allergic asthma are associated with the T helper (Th) 17/Th1 balance in a murine asthma model.
BALB/c neonates were vaccinated with BCG on the first day after birth, sensitized with ovalbumin, and then challenged with allergen. The resulting airway inflammation and responsiveness were measured. The levels of IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ in BALF and ratio of Th17/Th1 were investigated.
We found that although BCG neonatal vaccination inhibited airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation following allergen challenge in a BALB/c mouse asthma model, reduced levels of Th2 cytokines were not observed. However, BCG neonatal vaccination reduced IL-17 production and increased IFN-γ production in both the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the lung lymphocytes in asthmatic mice.
The antiasthma effects of neonatal BCG vaccination reversed the IL-17/IFN-γ imbalance in a murine asthma model but did not depend on modifying the Th17/Th1 balance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coactivator CBP (CREB-binding protein) has been implicated in the regulation of transcription for all signal transducer and activator of transcription factors (STATs); however, the mechanism remains unclear. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and immunoprecipitation techniques, we investigated the direct interaction of CBP with STAT4 and STAT6. The full-length CBP and five fragments of CBP (residues 1-436, 529-1200, 1-697, 967-1574 and 1678-2175) were constructed using pGBKT7 vectors, while STAT4, STAT6 and N-terminal deleted STAT4 were constructed using pGADT7 vectors. It was found that STAT4, but not STAT6, interacted directly with the 1678-2175 fragment of CBP containing the ZZ, TAZ2 and SID domain. The N-terminal of STAT4 plays an important role in this interaction since N-terminal deleted STAT4 failed to bind to any CBP fragment. The results were confirmed by immunoprecipitation using HA-tagged STAT4 or STAT6 and c-Myc tagged CBP. This work will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of Th cytokine imbalance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to investigate whether interleukin-1β (IL-1β) could regulate the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and the expression of lipid-metabolism-related regulators in podocytes in vitro and the potential mechanisms. Podocytes were treated with 200 μg/ml of low-density protein (LDL), 20 ng/ml of IL-1β, or 200 μg/ml of LDL plus 5-20 ng/ml of IL-1β for 24 h in vitro. The contents of intracellular cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays and Oil Red O staining. The levels of LDL receptor (LDLr), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP), and insulin-induced gene-1 (Insig-1) expression were characterized by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assays. Treatment with IL-1β or LDL alone increased the contents of intracellular cholesterol (P < 0.05 for both) and lipid droplets, and treatment with both IL-1β and LDL further increased the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol in podocytes (P < 0.05 vs. LDL alone). While loading with LDL significantly inhibited the expression of LDLr, HMG-CoA reductase, nuclear SREBP-2 (nSREBP-2), SCAP, and Insig-1 by 40-62% treatment with IL-1β enhanced the expression of LDLr, HMG-CoA reductase and nSREBP-2, but not Insig-1, in podocytes (P < 0.05 vs. control). Treatment with both LDL and IL-1β significantly increased the levels of LDLr and HMG-CoA reductase expression and the ratio of SCAP to Insig-1, as compared with that in the LDL-treated podocytes (P < 0.05 vs. LDL alone). Our data indicated that IL-1β mitigated the LDL-triggered SCAP-SREBP-2-mediated feedback inhibition on the expression of LDLr and HMG-CoA reductase, leading to the intracellular accumulation of LDL-cholesterol in podocytes in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 09/2010; 36(3):211-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.05.007 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of action of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) on lipid metabolism in the rat kidney were investigated in adult female rats and their offspring. The rats were randomized into three groups: (1) control, in which the mother and offspring received a normal diet (4000 retinol IU/kg diet) for 8 weeks; (2) VAD group, in which the mothers and offspring received a VAD diet (400 retinol IU/kg diet) for 8 weeks; (3) vitamin A-refed group, in which a group of pups on a VAD diet for 8 weeks received a complete diet (6500 retinol IU/kg diet) for 15 days. The lipid metabolism of the offsprings' kidneys and its relation to the expression of apolipoprotein B100 (Apo-B100), liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha), and retinoid X receptor-alpha/beta (RXRalpha/beta) mRNA was analyzed. VAD was found to alter renal lipid metabolism and its immune environment due to the expression of Apo-B100. Compared with the control, VAD rats had significantly higher levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and lower levels of ABCA1, a key gene involved in cholesterol efflux and tissue lipid homeostasis. The expression of LXRalpha and RXRalpha/beta mRNA also decreased in the VAD rat kidney. Vitamin A refeeding reversed all of the changes. Lipid metabolism involved in renal reverse cholesterol transport may be mediated by decreasing the signaling through the ABCA1 cholesterol efflux pathway, which is significantly modified in kidneys of vitamin A-deficient rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-17 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of IL-17 (rs2275913, IL-17 G-152A) and asthma-related traits. Its effect on IL-17 production was also attractive.
One hundred and sixty eight childhood asthmatic patients, 144 bronchiolitis patients, and 205 healthy controls were recruited in this study. SNP rs2275913 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from parts of healthy controls with different genotype were isolated and cultured with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) for detection of IL-17 in the supernatants.
SNP rs2275913 was associated with asthma (P = 0.03) in genotype frequency test. Children with homozygous A were 2.29 times more likely to have asthma than others (95% confidence interval 1.39-3.78, P = 0.001). The strength of associations was moderately higher by allergy comorbidity. Furthermore, SNP rs2275913 A allele was associated with abnormal lung function and serum total IgE in asthmatics, although the production of IL-17 by PHA-induced PBMC seemed to be not different among individuals with different genotypes. The distribution of SNP rs2275913 in bronchiolitis was marginally statistically different with controls and demonstrated a tendency close to that in asthma. Higher Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis detection rates were shown in bronchiolitis patients with homozygous A allele than those with other genotypes (20.8% vs. 3.7%, P < 0.01 and 20.8% vs. 6.2%, P = 0.03).
The preliminary results demonstrate that IL-17 SNP rs2275913 was associated with several asthma-related traits and confers genetic susceptibility to childhood asthma. It may be used to develop markers to assess the risk of asthma, especially in the bronchiolitis population. It may be a potential bridge to connect the bacterial colonization and the onset of asthma.