[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mercury (Hg) is a nonessential and toxic metal that is widely distributed in the environment. This study was performed to estimate the representative blood Hg level, to determine the contributing factors to Hg exposure, and to analyze the association of blood Hg with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.
Mercury exposure is assessed by total Hg concentration in blood. A total of 2,114 healthy adults who have not been exposed to Hg occupationally were sampled by the multistaged, sex-, and age-stratified probability method. Information was collected regarding the subjects' demographic characteristics, lifestyles, and past medical history. The participants then underwent physical examination and blood sampling.
The geometric mean concentration of Hg in whole blood was 3.90 μg/L, which was significantly influenced by sex, age, smoking, alcoholic consumption, residence area, and seafood intake after adjustment for confounders. Significant increases in body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were observed according to the blood Hg levels after adjustment for covariates. Also, Hg exposure was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and their components such as obesity and increased fasting glucose.
The blood Hg level in Korean adults is higher than that in USA and other Western countries, while it is similar to or lower than that in other Asian countries. The blood Hg level is influenced by sociodemographic factors and individual lifestyles including dietary habits. Furthermore, blood Hg is associated with metabolic syndrome, in which Hg exposure may play a role as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 07/2013; · 2.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic (As) is a well-known human carcinogen and its dietary exposure has been found to be the major route of entry into general population. This study was performed to assess the body levels of As and their associated factors in Korean adults by analyzing total As in urine. Urine and blood samples were collected from 580 adults aged 20 years and older, who had not been exposed to As occupationally. Demographic information was collected with the help of a standard questionnaire, including age, smoking, alcohol intake, job profiles, and diet consumed in the last 24 hrs of the study. Total As, sum of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), in urine was determined using atomic absorption spectrometer involving hydride generation method. The geometric mean concentration of total As in urine was 7.10 μg/L. Urine As was significantly higher in men (7.63 μg/L) than in women (6.75 μg/ L). Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and job profiles of study subjects did not significantly affect the concentration of As in urine. No significant relationship was observed between body mass index (BMI), Fe, and total cholesterol in serum and urinary As. Urine As level was positively correlated with seaweeds, fishes & shellfishes, and grain intake. A negative correlation between urinary As level and HDL-cholesterol in serum and meat intake was observed. Overall, these results suggest that urinary As concentration could be affected by seafood consumption. Therefore, people who frequently consume seafood and grain need to be monitored for chronic dietary As exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is yet known about the determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine the factors that have an impact on BMD in young men.
Questionnaires were sent out to 111 male medical students. Information on age, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle, physical activity during adolescence, school club participation, current physical activity, and dietary intake were collected by the survey. Height, weight, percent body fat and muscle mass were estimated by bioelectrical impedance, and BMD was obtained using calcaneal quantitative ultrasound. Using the Poisson regression model, prevalence ratios (PRs) were used to estimate the degree of association between risk factors and osteopenia.
The height and current physical activity showed a correlation to the Osteoporosis Index. Among the categorized variables, past physical activity during adolescence (p=0.002) showed a positive effect on the bone mineral content. In the multivariate model, past physical activity (≥1 time/wk) had a protective effect on osteopenia (PR, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.75) and present physical activity (1000 metabolic equivalent of task-min/wk) decreased the risk of osteopenia (PR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.91).
Past physical activity during adolescence is as important as physical activity in the present for BMD in young men.
Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Ŭihakhoe chi. 03/2013; 46(2):89-95.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the common phthalate plasticizers used primarily in soft polyvinyl chloride, which is a plastic polymer that makes up the total weight of goods from 1% up to 40% in many consumer products. The aims of this study were to examine the urinary DEHP metabolites in South Korean children and to investigate the correlation between mother and child DEHP urine excretion. Three kinds of urinary DEHP metabolites: mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5-oxo-MEHP), were analyzed. The total of 954 samples (n(Children)=392, n(Mothers)=265, n(Aadults)=297), including 258 mother and child pairs, were analyzed using isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Many studies present higher concentration of DEHP metabolites detected from adults in reproductive age than adults in other ages. Therefore, adults who are age-matched to mothers were evaluated to serve as a standard of comparison against mothers. All statistical analysis was made by adjusting detected volume concentrations (μg/L) with respect to creatinine concentrations (mg/dL) since urinary DEHP metabolites were studied using human reference. The difference in median levels of sum of urinary DEHP metabolites was only significant when children were analyzed in relation to region (p-value≤0.005). Among the three DEHP metabolites, only MEHP of children was significantly correlated to that of paired mothers (p-value≤0.01). The present paper defines the relative metabolic rate (RMR) of DEHP metabolism for the first time in study on phthalates. Children had faster RMR than mothers and adults, specifically in the first step of DEHP metabolism (RMR(1): MEHP hydroxylation to 5-OH-MEHP), and RMR(1) of children between 1 and 24months was the fastest. The above results may be used to study and assess human health risk from DEHP exposures, especially among mothers and children in Korea.
Environment international 02/2013; 54C:65-73. · 4.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catalase protects cells from reactive oxygen species-induced damage by catalyzing the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Arsenite decreases catalase activity; it activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its key downstream effector Akt in a variety of cells. The PI3K pathway is known to inhibit catalase expression. c-Met, an upstream regulator of PI3K and Akt, is also involved in the regulation of catalase expression. To examine the involvement of c-Met and PI3K pathways in the arsenite-induced downregulation of catalase, catalase mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 treated with arsenite and either an inhibitor of c-Met (PHA665752 (PHA)) or of PI3K (LY294002 (LY)). Arsenite treatment markedly activated Akt and decreased the levels of both catalase mRNA and protein. Both PHA and LY attenuated arsenite-induced activation of Akt. PHA and LY treatment also prevented the inhibitory effect of arsenite on catalase protein expression but did not affect the level of catalase mRNA. These findings suggest that arsenite-induced inhibition of catalase expression is regulated at the mRNA and post-transcriptional levels in HepG2 cells, and that the post-transcriptional regulation is mediated via c-Met- and PI3K-dependent mechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic (As) is a known human carcinogen and widely distributed in the environment. The main route of As exposure in the general population is through food and drinking water. Seafood harvested in Korea contains high-level organoarsenics such as arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and arsenosugars, which are much less harmful than inorganic arsenics. However, for those who eat large amounts of seafood it is important to understand whether seafood consumption affects urinary levels of inorganic As metabolites such as arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In this study we investigated urinary As metabolites (inorganic As, MMA[V], DMA[V]) and some biological indexes such as AST, GSH, GPX, lipid peroxidation, and uric acid in volunteer study subjects (seven males and nine females). Total urinary As metabolites were analyzed by the hydride generation method, followed by arsenic speciation using HPLC with ICP-mass spectrometry. Study subjects refrained from eating seafood for 3 days prior to the first urine collection and then ingested seafood daily for 6 consecutive days. The first voided urine of the morning was collected from each subject the first day of the consecutive 6 days of seafood ingestion but prior to the first seafood meal. The first voided urine of the morning was also collected on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14 after seafood ingestion. The daily mean intake of total As was 6.98 mg, comprised of 4.71 mg of seaweed (67%), 1.74 mg of flat fish (25%), and 0.53 mg of conch (8%). We observed a substantial increase in total urinary As metabolites for subjects consuming seafood from day 1, which recovered to control level at day 10. The increase in total urinary As metabolites was attributed to the increase in DMA, which is a more harmful metabolite than organoarsenics. However, no significant changes in response biological indexes were observed. These results suggest that it is necessary to evaluate As metabolism when assessing the exposure to inorganic As and potential chronic health effects of seafood consumption in Korea.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 06/2009; 58(1):222-9. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism of the adverse health effects of ambient particulate matter on humans has not been well-investigated despite many epidemiologic association studies. Measurement of personal exposure to particulate pollutants and relevant biological effect markers are necessary in order to investigate the mechanism of adverse health effects, particularly in fragile populations considered to be more susceptible to the effects of pollutants.
We measured personal exposure to PM(2.5) and examined oxidative stress using urinary malondialdehyde three times in 51 preschoolers and 38 elderly subjects. A linear mixed-effects model was used to estimate PM(2.5) effects on urinary MDA levels.
Average personal exposure of the children and elderly to PM(2.5) was 80.5 +/- 29.9 and 20.7 +/- 12.7 mug/m(3), respectively. Mean urinary MDA level in the children and the elderly was 3.6 +/- 1.9 and 4.0 +/- 1.6 mumol/g creatinine. For elderly subjects the PM(2.5) level was significantly associated with urinary MDA after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, passive smoking, day-care facility site, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and medical history (heart disease, hypertension and bronchial asthma). However, there was no significant relationship for children.
The elderly were more susceptible than young children to oxidative stress as a result of ambient exposure to PM(2.5). Identification of oxidative stress induced by PM(2.5) explains the mechanism of adverse health effects such as cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, particularly in the elderly.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 02/2009; 14(1):60-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are widely distributed in the environment and are known human carcinogens. Several studies reported that chronic exposure to Cd and As produced renal injuries in humans. As one of the mechanisms, oxidative stress was suggested to play a role in the early process of Cd- and/or As-induced tubular damage in the kidney. This study was performed to evaluate the significance of urinary biomarkers, role of oxidative stress, and effect of coexposure to environmental low-level exposure to Cd and/or As in the general population. Urine samples were collected from 290 adults (86 males and 204 females). Urinary concentrations of Cd and As were measured, and kidney biomarkers of toxicity such as beta(2)-microglobulin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity determined in urine. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were measured as oxidative stress indices. The mean concentration of Cd was 1.21 microg/L, 0.84 microg/g creatinine, and As was 5.7 microg/L, 3.95 microg/g creatinine in urine. NAG, MDA, and 8-OHdG were positively correlated with both Cd and As in urine. Positive correlations were also observed between NAG and oxidative indices. The effects of coexposure to Cd and As on biomarkers are more pronounced than for exposure to each metal alone. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to low levels of Cd and/or As might produce tubular damage in the kidney through oxidative stress in humans.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2009; 72(21-22):1493-8. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the altered iron metabolism in liver tumors, characterized by the iron-deficient phenotype, is of importance for tumor growth.
This study was performed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying iron deficiency in liver tumors by examining how the liver tumor development affects the expression of iron metabolism-related genes.
Iron metabolism reference values were analyzed in the sera of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular adenoma-bearing mice. Expression of iron metabolism-related genes was analyzed in adenomas and surrounding non-tumor tissues, and a subgroup of adenoma-bearing mice loaded with iron 72h before sacrifice.
Iron content of the adenoma tissues was 2.0-2.5-fold lower compared to surrounding and age-matched control tissues. There was no significant difference in serum iron levels between the adenoma-bearing and control mice, while the adenoma-bearing mice exhibited a 2.4-fold lower level of serum transferrin saturation. Expression of iron metabolism-related genes was dysregulated in the adenomas. Iron loading affected protein expression similarly in the adenomas and surrounding tissues suggesting that iron-responsive regulation of the proteins was not impaired. However, the mRNA expression for ceruloplasmin and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) IRE(+) in the adenomas was altered independently of iron status, and the dysregulation may contribute to diminished iron content.
These findings suggest that diethylnitrosamine-induced liver adenoma-bearing mice have abnormal iron metabolism and that dysregulation of iron metabolism-related genes contributes to iron deficiency in the adenomas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association of genetic polymorphisms of NQO1, ALDH2, CYP2E1, and the combined genotype of these genes on lung cancer risk, and also evaluated the association after stratification by cumulative smoking amounts and alcohol drinking levels.
The case-control study was performed in 387 lung cancer patients and 387 age- and sex-matched cancer-free controls. Direct interview was conducted and the genotypes of NQO1, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 were investigated using PCR-RFLP or 5'-nuclease activity assay.
The proportion of individuals with occupational history of mining was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The risk of lung cancer was significantly lower in light-drinkers (<108 g/week) than non-drinkers. The NQO1 Pro/Ser + Ser/Ser genotype showed an increased risk for lung cancer with a marginal significance (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.99-1.86) compared with NQO1 Pro/Pro genotype. In heavy-smokers, the combination of NQO1 Pro/Ser + Ser/Ser and CYP2E1 c1/c1 genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for lung cancer (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.14-4.43) compared with those of NQO1 Pro/Pro and CYP2E1 c1/c2 + c2/c2 genotype. We found a significant interaction between alcohol drinking level and the CYP2E1 genotype (P = 0.0227).
Our result suggests that the risk of lung cancer is affected by smoking, alcohol drinking, and the genetic polymorphism of NQO1. In particular, genetic polymorphisms for NQO1, CYP2E1, and ALDH2 synergistically with cumulative smoking amounts and alcohol drinking levels interact in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer in Koreans.
Cancer Causes and Control 09/2008; 20(2):137-45. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous epidemiological studies have reported the close relationship between arsenic in drinking water and cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet the exact mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. We investigated whether arsenic can affect the procoagulant activity of platelets, which are essential in blood clotting, thrombus formation, and progression of CVD. While arsenite alone did not induce procoagulant activity, it significantly enhanced thrombin-induced procoagulant activity of human platelets in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In flow cytometric analysis, arsenite potentiated phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and microparticle (MP) formation, the major mediators of procoagulant activity. Arsenite-enhanced calcium increase and subsequent calpain activation were found to be involved in these effects, as determined by confocal microscopy and gel electrophoresis. Arsenite also inhibited flippase, an enzyme that restores PS to the inner leaflet, suggesting that PS could be retained in outer membranes after exposure. Consistent with these in vitro results, ex vivo studies revealed that PS exposure in platelets was significantly increased after acute or chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Most notably, in a rodent in vivo venous thrombosis model, arsenite indeed led to increased thrombus formation. In conclusion, arsenite-enhanced procoagulant activity in platelets by PS exposure and MP generation ultimately results in accelerated thrombus formation in vivo, suggesting that this enhanced activity is a possible contributing factor in CVD associated with chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 01/2008; 20(12):1760-8. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Welders can be exposed to high levels of manganese through welding fumes. Although it has already been suggested that excessive manganese exposure causes neurotoxicity, called manganism, the pathway of manganese transport to the brain with welding-fume exposure remains unclear. Iron is an essential metal that maintains a homeostasis in the body. The divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) transports iron and other divalent metals, such as manganese, and the depletion of iron is known to upregulate DMT1 expression. Accordingly, this study investigated the tissue distribution of manganese in iron-sufficient and iron-deficient rats after welding-fume exposure. The feeding of an iron-deficient diet for 4 wk produced a depletion of body iron, such as decreased iron levels in the serum and tissues, and upregulated the DMT1 expression in the rat duodenum. The iron-sufficient and iron-deficient rats were then exposed to welding fumes generated from manual metal arc stainless steel at a concentration of 63.5 +/- 2.3 mg/m3 for 2 h per day over a 30-day period. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 15, and 30. The level of body iron in the iron-deficient rats was restored to the control level after the welding-fume exposure. However, the tissue distributions of manganese after the welding-fume exposure showed similar patterns in both the iron-sufficient and iron-deficient groups. The concentration of manganese increased in the lungs and liver on days 15 and 30, and increased in the olfactory bulb on day 30. Slight and heterogeneous increases of manganese were observed in different brain regions. Consequently, these findings suggest that the presence of Fe in the inhaled welding fumes may not have a significant effect on the uptake of Mn into the brain. Thus, the condition of iron deficiency did not seem to have any apparent effect on the transport of Mn into the brain after the inhalation of welding fumes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron (Fe) plays essential roles in biological processes, whereas cadmium (Cd) is a toxic and non-essential metal. Two metal transporters, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and metal transporter protein 1 (MTP1), are responsible for Fe transport in mammals. Here, we studied the effect of dietary Fe on the expression of these metal transporters in peripheral tissues, and the uptake by these tissues of Cd. Mice were fed an Fe-sufficient (FeS: 120 mg Fe/kg) or Fe-deficient (FeD: 2-6 mg Fe/kg) diet for 4 weeks. The total Fe levels in the body were evaluated by measuring tissue Fe concentrations. Tissue Cd concentrations were determined 24 h after the mice received a single oral dose of Cd. Animals fed a FeD diet showed depletion of body Fe levels and accumulated 2.8-fold higher levels of Cd than the FeS group. Quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed that whereas DMT1 and MTP1 were both ubiquitously expressed in all FeS peripheral tissues studied, DMT1 was highly expressed in brain, kidney, and testis, whereas MTP1 was highly expressed in liver and spleen. Depletion of the body Fe stores dramatically upregulated DMT1 and MTP1 mRNA expression in the duodenum as well as moderately upregulating their expression in several other peripheral tissues. The iron response element positive isoform of DMT1 was the most prominently upregulated isoform in the duodenum. Thus, DMT1 and MTP1 may play an important role in not only maintaining Fe levels but also facilitating the accumulation of Cd in the body of mammals.
Archive für Toxikologie 06/2007; 81(5):327-34. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a major cause of male reproductive failure. Here, we investigated whether arsenic, which impairs male reproductive functions in rodent models, acts by inducing oxidative stress. Male 8-week-old ICR mice were given drinking water containing 20 or 40 mg/l sodium arsenite with or without 0.75 or 1.5 g/l of the antioxidant ascorbic acid for 5 weeks. The arsenic-treated mice showed decreased epididymidal sperm counts and testicular weights compared to untreated mice. These effects were reversed in mice that were co-treated with ascorbic acid. Similarly, arsenic treatment lowered the activities of testicular 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17beta-HSD, which play important roles in steroidogenesis, and this was reversed by co-treatment with ascorbic acid. The testicles of arsenic-treated mice had decreased glutathione (GSH) levels (which correlate inversely with the degree of cellular oxidative stress) and elevated levels of protein carbonyl (a marker of oxidative damage to tissue proteins). Ascorbic acid co-treatment reversed both of these effects. Thus, ascorbic acid blocks both the adverse effects of arsenic on male reproductive functions and the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative changes. These observations support the notion that arsenic impairs male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 02/2007; 218(2):196-203. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to arsenic is well known as the cause of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. To investigate the effect of arsenic on blood vessels, we examined whether arsenic affected the contraction of aortic rings in an isolated organ bath system. Treatment with arsenite, a trivalent inorganic species, increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine or serotonin in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the arsenic species tested--arsenite, pentavalent inorganic species (arsenate), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV)--arsenite was the most potent. Similar effects were also observed in aortic rings without endothelium, suggesting that vascular smooth muscle plays a key role in enhancing vasoconstriction induced by arsenite. This hypercontraction by arsenite was well correlated with the extent of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation stimulated by phenylephrine. Direct Ca2+ measurement using fura-2 dye in aortic strips revealed that arsenite enhanced vasoconstriction induced by high K+ without concomitant increase in intracellular Ca2+ elevation, suggesting that, rather than direct Ca2+ elevation, Ca2+ sensitization may be a major contributor to the enhanced vasoconstriction by arsenite. Consistent with these in vitro results, 2-hr pretreatment of 1.0 mg/kg intravenous arsenite augmented phenylephrine-induced blood pressure increase in conscious rats. All these results suggest that arsenite increases agonist-induced vasoconstriction mediated by MLC phosphorylation in smooth muscles and that calcium sensitization is one of the key mechanisms for the hypercontraction induced by arsenite in blood vessels.
Environmental Health Perspectives 11/2005; 113(10):1330-5. · 7.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadmium is an environmentally widely dispersed and highly toxic heavy metal that has been classified as a human carcinogen. Using the suppression subtractive hybridization technique, we identified previously 29 cadmium-inducible genes, primarily involved in inflammation, cell survival and apoptosis. Among these genes, we are particularly interested in Nor-1, because this gene belongs to the Nur77 family, which plays a key role in the apoptotic processes of a variety of cells and tissues, including the lung. In the present study, we characterized the induction of the Nur77 family genes in the lungs after cadmium exposure. Nur77, Nor-1 and Nurr1 were all induced after cadmium treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner in WI-38 and A549 lung cell lines. Treatment with inhibitors of signaling pathways, such as PD98059 and H89, almost completely blocked the expression of Nur77, indicating that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase A signaling pathways are important in cadmium-induced Nur77 expression. When a plasmid encoding dominant-negative Nur77 was transfected into A549 cells, cadmium-induced apoptotic changes, such as chromosomal condensation and Bax expression, were significantly reduced, suggesting that the expression of Nur77 plays an important role in cadmium-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Nur77 was increased in lung tissues collected from cadmium-treated (30 micromol/kg body wt) Wistar rats. Taken together, these results demonstrate that cadmium induces the expression of Nur77 family genes, leading to apoptosis in lung cells, which may cause pulmonary toxicity in response to cadmium exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd) is influenced by body iron (Fe) status in laboratory animals and humans. In this study we investigated the role of the apical Fe transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and the basolateral Fe exporter metal transporter protein 1 (MTP1) in Cd absorption. Rats were divided into the following groups; an Fe-sufficient (FeS) control group that was fed an FeS diet for 4 weeks (FeS, 4 weeks); an Fe-deficient (FeD) group that was fed an FeD diet for 4 weeks (FeD, 4 weeks); an FeS control group that was fed an FeS diet for 8 weeks (FeS, 8 weeks); an FeD/FeS group that was fed an FeD diet for 4 weeks and then an FeS diet for the following 4 weeks (FeD/FeS, 4 weeks/4 weeks); and an FeD group that was fed an FeD diet for 8 weeks (FeD, 8 weeks). After the 4- and 8-week feeding periods, rats were given a single oral gavage of Cd and were sacrificed 24 h later. The FeD (4 weeks) group developed Fe deficient anemia, but the parameters returned to control levels in the FeD/FeS group (4 weeks/4 weeks). The Cd body burden was greater in FeD (4 weeks) rats compared to FeS control (4 weeks), but returned to control Cd levels in FeD/FeS (4 weeks/4 weeks) rats. In addition, the expression of DMT1 and MTP1 was induced by Fe deficiency in the duodenum of FeD (4 weeks) rats, but was down-regulated to control values in FeD/FeS (4 weeks/4 weeks) rats. The correlation between duodenal DMT1 and MTP1 expression and Cd body burden in rats suggests an important role of DMT1 and MTP1 in Cd absorption.