[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:The objective of this study was to develop approaches to expressing resting energy expenditure (REE) and lean body mass (LM) phenotypes of metabolic disorders in terms of Z-scores relative to their predicted healthy values.Subjects/methods:Body composition and REE were measured in 135 healthy participants. Prediction equations for LM and REE were obtained from linear regression and the range of normality by the standard deviation of residuals. Application is demonstrated in patients from three metabolic disorder groups (lipodystrophy, n=7; thyrotoxicosis, n=16; and resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), n=46) in which altered REE and/or LM were characterised by departure from the predicted healthy values, expressed as a Z-score.Results:REE (kJ/min)=-0.010 × age (years)+0.016 × FM (kg)+0.054 × fat-free mass (kg)+1.736 (R(2)=0.732, RSD=0.36 kJ/min).LM (kg)=5.30 × bone mineral content (kg)+10.66 × height(2) (m)+6.40 (male).LM (kg)=0.20 × fat (kg)+14.08 × height(2) (m)-2.93 (female).(male R(2)=0.55, RSD=3.90 kg; female R(2)=0.59, RSD=3.85 kg).We found average Z-scores for REE and LM of 1.77 kJ/min and -0.17 kg in the RTH group, 5.82 kJ/min and -1.23 kg in the thyrotoxic group and 2.97 kJ/min and 4.20 kg in the LD group.Conclusion:This approach enables comparison of data from individuals with metabolic disorders with those of healthy individuals, describing their departure from the healthy mean by a Z-score.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 27 November 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.237.
European journal of clinical nutrition 11/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interpretation of thyroid function tests (TFTs) is generally straightforward. However, in a minority of contexts the results of thyroid hormone and thyrotropin measurements either conflict with the clinical picture or form an unusual pattern. In many such cases, reassessment of the clinical context provides an explanation for the discrepant TFTs; in other instances, interference in one or other laboratory assays can be shown to account for divergent results; uncommonly, genetic defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis are associated with anomalous TFTs. Failure to recognize these potential 'pitfalls' can lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate management. Here, focusing particularly on the combination of hyperthyroxinaemia with nonsuppressed thyrotropin, we show how a structured approach to investigation can help make sense of atypical TFTs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in forkhead box E1/thyroid transcription factor 2 (FOXE1/TTF-2) cause syndromic congenital hypothyroidism, with thyroid dysgenesis, cleft palate, spiky hair, and variable choanal atresia and bifid epiglottis in three cases reported hitherto. We have elucidated the molecular basis of the disorder in a female with a similar clinical phenotype, born to nonconsanguineous parents.
The FOXE1 gene, located on chromosome 9q22, was sequenced in the proband and family members. Microsatellite marker and multiplex ligation probe amplification analyses determined chromosomal inheritance patterns and FOXE1 copy number. Mutant FOXE1 function was predicted by structural modeling and tested in transfection assays.
The proband was homozygous for a novel missense (c.412T-->C; F137S) FOXE1 mutation, but her mother showed heterozygous and father wild-type alleles for this gene sequence. However, the proband was also homozygous for 10 microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 9 with exclusively maternal inheritance. Multiplex ligation probe amplification assays showed two copies of FOXE1 in the proband, indicating maternal isodisomy for chromosome 9. Consistent with structural modeling, the F137S mutant FOXE1 protein failed to bind DNA and showed negligible transcriptional activity.
We have described the first case of uniparental disomy causing homozygosity for a novel, loss-of-function FOXE1/TTF-2 mutation in dysgenetic congenital hypothyroidism.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 08/2010; 95(8):4031-6. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interference in immunoassay caused by endogenous immunoglobulin is a cause of incorrect laboratory results that can drastically affect patient management. Two cases of immunoglobulin interference in serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) assays are presented. These cases illustrate two common mechanisms for false-positive interference in two-site (sandwich) immunoassays. The first case describes a circulating autoimmune FSH immunoglobulin complex ('macro'-FSH), which has not been previously described for FSH, and the second a cross-linking antibody directed against the assay reagents. Immunoglobulin interference was detected and characterized using a combination of method comparison, immunosubtraction and size exclusion chromatography.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipodystrophic syndromes are characterized by adipose tissue deficiency. Although rare, they are of considerable interest as they, like obesity, typically lead to ectopic lipid accumulation, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistant diabetes. In this paper we describe a female patient with partial lipodystrophy (affecting limb, femorogluteal and subcutaneous abdominal fat), white adipocytes with multiloculated lipid droplets and insulin-resistant diabetes, who was found to be homozygous for a premature truncation mutation in the lipid droplet protein cell death-inducing Dffa-like effector C (CIDEC) (E186X). The truncation disrupts the highly conserved CIDE-C domain and the mutant protein is mistargeted and fails to increase the lipid droplet size in transfected cells. In mice, Cidec deficiency also reduces fat mass and induces the formation of white adipocytes with multilocular lipid droplets, but in contrast to our patient, Cidec null mice are protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In addition to describing a novel autosomal recessive form of familial partial lipodystrophy, these observations also suggest that CIDEC is required for unilocular lipid droplet formation and optimal energy storage in human fat.
EMBO Molecular Medicine 08/2009; 1(5):280-7. · 7.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is associated with a varied clinical presentation. The cardiac effects of RTH have been described but vascular function has yet to be fully evaluated in this condition. We have measured the arterial function of those with RTH to assess any vascular changes.
An observational study.
Twelve RTH patients were recruited from the thyroid clinic (mean value +/- SD), age 40.8 +/- 18.7 years; BMI 27.2 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2) and compared with 12 healthy, euthyroid, age-matched controls (age 41.4 +/- 19.3; BMI 24.8 +/- 4.4 kg/m(2)) with no history of cardiovascular disease. No interventional measures were instituted.
Arterial stiffness was measured using pulse wave analysis at the radial artery. Thyroid function, fasting lipids and glucose were also measured on the same occasion in both patients and controls. Results The corrected augmentation index, a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness was significantly higher in patients compared with controls (21.0% +/- 14.1%vs. 5.4% +/- 18.2%, P < 0.03). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) levels were also significantly elevated in patients compared with controls (3.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.5 mmol/l; P < 0.002).
RTH patients show evidence in this study of increased augmentation index consistent with an increase in arterial stiffness compared with euthyroid controls. They also demonstrate elevated LDL-cholesterol levels. Both these measures may lead to increased cardiovascular risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), as well as disease manifestations.
The objective of the study was to define how endogenous/environmental factors contribute to variation in phenotype.
This was a multicenter cohort study. PATIENTS/OUTCOME MEASURES: We prospectively collected clinical/biochemical data as part of the protocol for a United Kingdom DNA collection for GD and HT. We investigated, in 2805 Caucasian subjects, whether age at diagnosis, gender, family history (FH), smoking history, and presence of goiter influenced disease manifestations.
For 2405 subjects with GD, the presence of goiter was independently associated with disease severity (serum free T4 at diagnosis) (P < 0.001). Free T4 (P < 0.05) and current smoking (P < 0.001) were both independent predictors of the presence of ophthalmopathy. Approximately half of those with GD (47.4% of females, 40.0% of males) and HT (n = 400) (56.4% of females, 51.7% of males) reported a FH of thyroid dysfunction. In GD, a FH of hyperthyroidism in any relative was more frequent than hypothyroidism (30.1 vs. 24.4% in affected females, P < 0.001). In HT, a FH of hypothyroidism was more common than hyperthyroidism (42.1 vs. 22.8% in affected females, P < 0.001). For GD (P < 0.001) and HT (P < 0.05), a FH was more common in maternal than paternal relatives. The reporting of a parent with thyroid dysfunction (hyper or hypo) was associated with lower median age at diagnosis of both GD (mother with hyperthyroidism, P < 0.001) and HT (father with hypothyroidism, P < 0.05). In GD and HT, there was an inverse relationship between the number of relatives with thyroid dysfunction and age at diagnosis (P < 0.01).
Marked associations among age at diagnosis, disease severity, goiter, ophthalmopathy, smoking, and FH provide evidence for interactions between genetic and environmental/endogenous factors; understanding these may allow preventive measures or better tailoring of therapies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. They share a high degree of structural homology with all members of the superfamily, particularly in the DNA-binding domain and ligand- and cofactor-binding domain. Many cellular and systemic roles have been attributed to these receptors, reaching far beyond the stimulation of peroxisome proliferation in rodents after which they were initially named. PPARs exhibit broad, isotype-specific tissue expression patterns. PPARalpha is expressed at high levels in organs with significant catabolism of fatty acids. PPARbeta/delta has the broadest expression pattern, and the levels of expression in certain tissues depend on the extent of cell proliferation and differentiation. PPARgamma is expressed as two isoforms, of which PPARgamma2 is found at high levels in the adipose tissues, whereas PPARgamma1 has a broader expression pattern. Transcriptional regulation by PPARs requires heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). When activated by a ligand, the dimer modulates transcription via binding to a specific DNA sequence element called a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) in the promoter region of target genes. A wide variety of natural or synthetic compounds was identified as PPAR ligands. Among the synthetic ligands, the lipid-lowering drugs, fibrates, and the insulin sensitizers, thiazolidinediones, are PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists, respectively, which underscores the important role of PPARs as therapeutic targets. Transcriptional control by PPAR/RXR heterodimers also requires interaction with coregulator complexes. Thus, selective action of PPARs in vivo results from the interplay at a given time point between expression levels of each of the three PPAR and RXR isotypes, affinity for a specific promoter PPRE, and ligand and cofactor availabilities.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is a key transcription factor facilitating fat deposition in adipose tissue through its proadipogenic and lipogenic actions. Human patients with dominant-negative mutations in PPARgamma display lipodystrophy and extreme insulin resistance. For this reason it was completely unexpected that mice harboring an equivalent mutation (P465L) in PPARgamma developed normal amounts of adipose tissue and were insulin sensitive. This finding raised important doubts about the interspecies translatability of PPARgamma-related findings, bringing into question the relevance of other PPARgamma murine models. Here, we demonstrate that when expressed on a hyperphagic ob/ob background, the P465L PPARgamma mutant grossly exacerbates the insulin resistance and metabolic disturbances associated with leptin deficiency, yet reduces whole-body adiposity and adipocyte size. In mouse, coexistence of the P465L PPARgamma mutation and the leptin-deficient state creates a mismatch between insufficient adipose tissue expandability and excessive energy availability, unmasking the deleterious effects of PPARgamma mutations on carbohydrate metabolism and replicating the characteristic clinical symptoms observed in human patients with dominant-negative PPARgamma mutations. Thus, adipose tissue expandability is identified as an important factor for the development of insulin resistance in the context of positive energy balance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (protein phosphatase and tensin homolog located on chromosome ten) predispose to heritable breast cancer. The transcription factor PPARgamma has also been implicated as a tumor suppressor pertinent to a range of neoplasias, including breast cancer. A putative PPARgamma binding site in the PTEN promoter indicates that PPARgamma may regulate PTEN expression. We show here that the PPARgamma agonist Rosiglitazone, along with Lovastatin, induce PTEN in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Lovastatin- or Rosiglitazone-induced PTEN expression was accompanied by a decrease in phosphorylated-AKT and phosphorylated-MAPK and an increase in G1 arrest. We demonstrate that the mechanism of Lovastatin- and Rosiglitazone-associated PTEN expression was a result of an increase in PTEN mRNA, suggesting that this increase was transcriptionally-mediated. Compound-66, an inactive form of Rosiglitazone, which is incapable of activating PPARgamma, was unable to elicit the same response as Rosiglitazone, signifying that the Rosiglitazone response is PPARgamma-mediated. To support this, we show, using reporter assays including dominant-negative constructs of PPARgamma, that both Lovastatin and Rosiglitazone specifically mediate PPARgamma activation. Additionally, we demonstrated that cells lacking PTEN or PPARgamma were unable to induce PTEN mediated cellular events in the presence of Lovastatin or Rosiglitazone. These data are the first to demonstrate that Lovastatin can signal through PPARgamma and directly demonstrate that PPARgamma can upregulate PTEN at the transcriptional level. Since PTEN is constitutively active, our data indicates it may be worthwhile to examine Rosiglitazone and Lovastatin stimulation as mechanisms to increase PTEN expression for therapeutic and preventative strategies including cancer, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
International Journal of Cancer 06/2006; 118(10):2390-8. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral replacement of the near-total deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in patients with Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency) enhances mood and well-being and reduces fatigue. We studied the immunological effects of 12 wk of oral DHEA treatment in ten patients with Addison's disease receiving their normal mineralo- and glucocorticoid hormone replacement. We found that baseline circulating regulatory T cells were reduced in Addison's disease patients compared to controls, a hitherto unrecognised defect in this disorder. Oral DHEA treatment had a bimodal effect on naturally occurring regulatory (CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+) T cells and lymphocyte FoxP3 expression. Oral DHEA replacement restored normal levels of regulatory T cells and led to increased FoxP3 expression. These effects were probably responsible for a suppression of constitutive cytokine expression following DHEA withdrawal. In contrast, oral DHEA treatment led to reduced FoxP3 expression induced by TCR engagement and so augmented the cytokine response, but without a bias towards the Th1 or Th2 phenotype. NK and NKT cell numbers fell during DHEA treatment, and homeostatic lymphocyte proliferation was increased. We conclude that DHEA replacement in Addison's disease has significant immunomodulatory properties and propose that it has a greater impact on the human immune system than would be expected from its classification as a dietary supplement.
European Journal of Immunology 01/2006; 35(12):3694-703. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acid desaturases such as steaoryl-CoA desaturase (SCD) convert saturated to unsaturated fatty acids and are involved in lipogenesis. Observational and animal data suggest that SCD-1 activity is related to insulin sensitivity. However, the effects of insulin-sensitizing drugs on SCD gene expression and desaturase activities are unknown in humans. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes and one subject with partial lipodystrophy and diabetes due to dominant-negative mutation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) gene (P467L) received placebo and rosiglitazone for 3 months. SCD gene expression in adipose tissue was determined in 23 subjects, and in a representative subgroup (n = 10) we assessed fatty acid composition in fasting plasma triglycerides to estimate SCD and delta6- and delta5-desaturase activity, using product-to-precursor indexes. SCD mRNA expression increased by 48% after rosiglitazone (P < 0.01). SCD and delta5-desaturase but not delta6-desaturase activity indexes were increased after rosiglitazone versus placebo (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The change in activity index but not the expression of SCD was associated with improved insulin sensitivity (r = 0.73, P < 0.05). In the P467L PPARgamma carrier, SCD and delta5-desaturase activity indexes were exceptionally low but were restored (52- and 15-fold increases, respectively) after rosiglitazone treatment. This study shows for the first time that rosiglitazone increases SCD activity indexes and gene expression in humans. An increased SCD activity index may reflect increased lipogenesis and might contribute to insulin sensitization by rosiglitazone. The restored SCD activity index after rosiglitazone in PPARgamma mutation supports a pivotal role of PPARgamma function in SCD regulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humans respond to an acute excess of ingested energy by storing the surplus energy as triglyceride in white adipose tissue. To study the energetic response to acute overfeeding in human subjects with limited adipose tissue capacity, we recruited seven subjects with lipodystrophy and seven lean healthy controls. Total fat mass was approximately 70% lower in lipodystrophic subjects (mean, 6.1 kg) than in body mass index-matched lean controls (mean, 22.0 kg). Energy expenditure and macronutrient oxidation rates were assessed in chamber calorimeters on two separate occasions for 40 h, during which time subjects consumed either an energy-balanced diet or a diet incorporating 30% excess energy as fat. On the energy-balanced diet, total daily energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate were linearly associated with lean mass in both groups (r(2) = 0.83) and were not significantly different between groups when corrected for lean mass. In response to the fat challenge, total energy expenditure did not increase significantly in healthy controls (9,472 +/- 1,069 to 9,724 +/- 1,114 kJ/d; P = 0.189). Substrate oxidation results confirm that excess fat was predominantly stored. In contrast, lipodystrophic subjects significantly increased total daily energy expenditure (11,081 +/- 1,226 to 11,730 +/- 1,374 kJ/d; P < 0.005). This was largely attributable to a 29% increase in fat oxidation. Thus, subjects with lipodystrophy uniquely respond to an acute hypercaloric load with a higher energy expenditure increment and by increasing fat oxidation. Insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon may yield novel therapeutic approaches for obesity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations in the ligand-binding domain of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) are associated with a novel syndrome characterized by partial lipodystrophy and severe insulin resistance. Here we have further characterized the properties of natural dominant-negative PPARgamma mutants (P467L, V290M) and evaluated the efficacy of putative natural ligands and synthetic thiazolidinedione (TZD) or tyrosine-based (TA) receptor agonists in rescuing mutant receptor function. A range of natural ligands failed to activate the PPARgamma mutants and their transcriptional responses to TZDs (e.g. pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) were markedly attenuated, whereas TAs (e.g. farglitazar) corrected defects in ligand binding and coactivator recruitment by the PPARgamma mutants, restoring transcriptional function comparable with wild-type receptor. Transcriptional silencing via recruitment of corepressor contributes to dominant-negative inhibition of wild type by the P467L and V290M mutants and the introduction of an artificial mutation (L318A) disrupting corepressor interaction abrogated their dominant-negative activity. More complete ligand-dependent corepressor release and reversal of dominant-negative inhibition was achieved with TA than TZD agonists. Modeling suggests a structural basis for these observations: both mutations destabilize helix 12 to favor receptor-corepressor interaction; conversely, farglitazar makes more extensive contacts than rosiglitazone within the ligand-binding pocket, to stabilize helix 12, facilitating corepressor release and transcriptional activation. Farglitazar was a more potent inducer of PPARgamma target gene (aP2) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the P467L mutation. Having shown that rosiglitazone is of variable and limited efficacy in these subjects, we suggest that TAs may represent a more rational therapeutic approach.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor superfamily member. Liganded PPARgamma exerts diverse biological effects, promoting adipocyte differentiation, inhibiting tumor cellular proliferation, and regulating monocyte/macrophage and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. In vivo studies with PPARgamma ligands showed enhancement of tumor growth, raising the possibility that reduced immune function and tumor surveillance may outweigh the direct inhibitory effects of PPARgamma ligands on cellular proliferation. Recent findings that PPARgamma ligands convey PPARgamma-independent activities through IkappaB kinase (IKK) raises important questions about the specific mechanisms through which PPARgamma ligands inhibit cellular proliferation. We investigated the mechanisms regulating the antiproliferative effect of PPARgamma. Herein PPARgamma, liganded by either natural (15d-PGJ(2) and PGD(2)) or synthetic ligands (BRL49653 and troglitazone), selectively inhibited expression of the cyclin D1 gene. The inhibition of S-phase entry and activity of the cyclin D1-dependent serine-threonine kinase (Cdk) by 15d-PGJ(2) was not observed in PPARgamma-deficient cells. Cyclin D1 overexpression reversed the S-phase inhibition by 15d-PGJ(2). Cyclin D1 repression was independent of IKK, as prostaglandins (PGs) which bound PPARgamma but lacked the IKK interactive cyclopentone ring carbonyl group repressed cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 repression by PPARgamma involved competition for limiting abundance of p300, directed through a c-Fos binding site of the cyclin D1 promoter. 15d-PGJ(2) enhanced recruitment of p300 to PPARgamma but reduced binding to c-Fos. The identification of distinct pathways through which eicosanoids regulate anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects may improve the utility of COX2 inhibitors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/2001; 21(9):3057-70. · 5.37 Impact Factor